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Syringomyelia

Syringomyelia is a generic term referring to a disorder in which a cyst or cavity forms within the spinal cord. This cyst, called a syrinx, can elongate over time, destroying the spinal cord; the damage may result in loss of feeling, paralysis and stiffness in the back and extremities. Syringomyelia may cause a loss of the ability to feel extremes of hot or cold in the hands, it may lead to a cape-like bilateral loss of pain and temperature sensation along the upper chest and arms. Each patient experiences a different combination of symptoms; these symptoms vary depending on the extent and more critically, on the location of the syrinx within the spinal cord. Syringomyelia has a prevalence estimated at 8.4 cases per 100,000 people, with symptoms beginning in young adulthood. Signs of the disorder tend to develop although sudden onset may occur with coughing, straining, or myelopathy. Syringomyelia causes a wide variety of neuropathic symptoms. Patients may experience severe chronic pain, abnormal sensations and loss of sensation in the hands.

Some patients experience paralysis or paresis, permanently. A syrinx may cause disruptions in the parasympathetic and sympathetic nervous systems, leading to abnormal body temperature or sweating, bowel control issues, or other problems. If the syrinx is higher up in the spinal cord or affecting the brainstem, as in syringobulbia, vocal cord paralysis, ipsilateral tongue wasting, trigeminal nerve sensory loss, other signs may be present. Bladder stones can occur at the onset of weakness in the lower extremities. Classically, syringomyelia spares the dorsal column/medial lemniscus of the spinal cord, leaving pressure, vibration and proprioception intact in the upper extremities. Neuropathic arthropathy known as a Charcot joint, can occur in the shoulders, in patients with syringomyelia; the loss of sensory fibers to the joint is theorized to lead to degeneration of the joint over time. There are two forms of syringomyelia: congenital and acquired. Syringomyelia is a chronic disorder that occurs over time, resulting in muscular atrophy.

Acquired Syringomyelia can be caused by a serious physical trauma to the body such as in a road traffic accident. Syringomyelia can be classified into communicating and noncommunicating forms. Communicating occurs due to lesions on the foramen magnum and noncommunicating occurring due to other spinal cord diseases; the first major form relates to an abnormality of the brain called an Arnold–Chiari malformation or Chiari malformation. This is the most common cause of syringomyelia, where the anatomic abnormality, which may be due to a small posterior fossa, causes the lower part of the cerebellum to protrude from its normal location in the back of the head into the cervical or neck portion of the spinal canal. A syrinx may develop in the cervical region of the spinal cord. Here, symptoms begin between the ages of 25 and 40 and may worsen with straining, called a valsalva maneuver, or any activity that causes cerebrospinal fluid pressure to fluctuate suddenly; some patients, may have long periods of stability.

Some patients with this form of the disorder have hydrocephalus, in which cerebrospinal fluid accumulates in the skull, or a condition called arachnoiditis, in which a covering of the spinal cord—the arachnoid membrane—is inflamed. Some cases of syringomyelia are familial; the second major form of syringomyelia occurs as a complication of trauma, hemorrhage, a tumor, or arachnoiditis. Here, the syrinx or cyst develops in a segment of the spinal cord damaged by one of these conditions; the syrinx starts to expand. This is sometimes referred to as noncommunicating syringomyelia. Symptoms may appear months or years after the initial injury, starting with pain and sensory impairment originating at the site of trauma; the primary symptom of post-traumatic syringomyelia is pain, which may spread upward from the site of injury. Symptoms, such as pain, numbness and disruption in temperature sensation, may be limited to one side of the body. Syringomyelia can adversely affect sweating, sexual function, bladder and bowel control.

A typical cause of PTS would be a car accident or similar trauma involving a whiplash injury. What can make PTS difficult to diagnose is the fact that symptoms can first appear long after the actual cause of the syrinx occurred; the pathogenesis of syringomyelia is debated. The cerebrospinal fluid serves to cushion the brain. Excess cerebrospinal fluid in the central canal of the spinal cord is called hydromyelia; this term refers to increased cerebrospinal fluid, contained within the ependyma of the central canal. When fluid dissects into the surrounding white matter forming a cystic cavity or syrinx, the term syringomyelia is applied; as these conditions coexist in the majority of cases, the term syringohydromyelia is applied. The terms are used interchangeably, it has been observed that obstruction of the cerebrospinal fluid spaces in the subarachnoid space can result in syrinx formation, alleviation of the obstruction may improve symptoms. A number of pathological conditions can cause an obstruction of the normal cerebrospinal fluid spaces.

These include Chiari malformation, spinal arachnoiditis, spinal vertebrae misalignment, spinal tumors, spin

2008–09 in Swiss football

Statistics of Swiss Super League in the 2008/2009 football season. Statistics of Swiss Challenge League in the 2008/2009 football season. Statistics of Swiss 1. Liga in the 2008/2009 football season. Statistics of 2. Liga Interregional in the 2008/2009 football season. Promotion to 2. Liga interregional: Aargauischer Fussballverband: FC Muri Fussballverband Bern / Jura: FC Lerchenfeld & FC Köniz Innerschweizerischer Fussballverband:FC Aegeri Fussballverband Nordwestschweiz: FC Black Stars Ostschweizer Fussballverband: FC Widnau & FC Amriswil Solothurner Kantonal-Fussballverband: FC Härkingen Fussballverband Region Zürich: FC Zürich-Affoltern & FC Kosova Federazione ticinese di calcio: AC Sementina Freiburger Fussballverband: FC Kerzers Association cantonale genevoise de football: FC Geneva Association neuchâteloise de football: Le Locle Sports Association valaisanne de football: FC Sierre Association cantonale vaudoise de football: Lausanne-Sport U-21 Swiss Football Federation

Kim Renee Dunbar

Kim R. Dunbar received her B. S. in chemistry at Westminster College in 1980, followed by her Ph. D. in inorganic chemistry in 1984 at Purdue University studying with professor Richard Walton. Dunbar became a postdoctoral research associate in inorganic chemistry with F. Albert Cotton in 1985–1986 at Texas A&M University, before going on to spend the next twelve years conducting research and teaching at Michigan State University, where she moved through the ranks becoming a distinguished professor in 1998, she was recruited back to Texas A&M University in 1999, where she holds a Davidson Chair of Science and the Distinguished Professorship of Chemistry. Notably, Dunbar is the first female chair holder of the College of Science at TAMU. In 2015, Dunbar received the American Chemical Society’s Award for Distinguished Service in the Advancement of Inorganic Chemistry, the second female recipient of the ACS’s top award for inorganic chemistry in its 52-year history. A leader in both chemical research and education, Dunbar is the first female Texas A&M Former Students’ Network Eminent Scholar Award winner.

Dunbar was awarded an honorary doctorate degree from her undergraduate alma mater at Westminster College in New Wilmington in 2012. For years Dunbar has served as an Associate editor of the ACS inorganic Chemistry journal. Over the course of her career, she has contributed broadly to the development of inorganic coordination chemistry and materials science which has resulted in over 280 publications to date. Dunbar's research focuses on many areas including organocyanide based functional materials, featured in an editorial celebrating Women in Chemistry in 2011 published in celebration of the International Year of Chemistry alongside luminaries such as Marie Skłodowska, her research, based on her major interest in magnets and conductors, interactions with DNA in metal bonded system and conciliation by interactions in anions and aromatic ligands in supramolecular structures and properties allowed her to focus on interfaced problems of metal-based drugs in medicine, alongside synthetic challenges in biological chemistry such as supramolecular anion- interactions.

Dunbar has extensively studied anion- interactions, which describe the special relationship between aromatic molecules and anions. Aromatic systems have a high level of electron density and would repel negatively charged particles, however electron deficient ring systems are able to accept the electron density of anions to form a non-covalent interaction; some important applications of the anion- interactions are to purify drinking water by removing nitrate and phosphate ions and biological purposes such as pores and fabricated ion routes. Trigonal-bipyramidal cyanide cluster with single-molecule magnets can provide magnetic bistability, they have unique physical properties and can be applicable in quantum computing. Dunbar's research group focused on introducing magnetically anisotropic metal ions into clusters such as MnIII ions which plays an important role in trigonal-bipyramidal molecular geometry for determining magnetic phenomenon. 1. “A Trigonal-Bipyramidal Cyanide Cluster with Single Molecule-Magnet Behavior: Synthesis and Magnetic Properties of ”: C. P. Berlinguette, D. Vaughn, C.

Caada-Vilalta, J. R. Galn-Mascars, K. R. Dunbar, Angew. Chem. 2003, 115, 1561 – 1564. Chem. Int. Ed. 2003, 42, 1523 – 1526.2. “Novel Binding Interactions of the DNA Fragment d Cross-Linked by the Antitumor Active Compound Tetrakis dirhodium”: H. T. Chifotides, K. M. Koshlap, L. M. Prez, K. R. Dunbar, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2003, 125, 10714 – 10724.3. “Anion-p Interactions”: B. L. Schottel, H. T. Chifotides, K. R. Dunbar, Chem. Soc. Rev. 2008, 37, 68 – 83.4. “Unprecedented Binary Semiconductors Based on TCNQ: Single-Crystal X-ray Studies and Physical Properties of Cu X = Cl, Br”: N. Lopez, H. Zhao, A. Ota, A. V. Prosvirin, E. Reinheimer, K. R. Dunbar, Adv. Mater. 2010, 22, 986 – 989.5. “A Remarkable Family of Rhodium Acetonitrile Compounds Spanning Three Oxidation States and with Nuclearities Ranging from Mononuclear and Dinuclear to One-Dimensional Chains”: M. E. Prater, L. E. Pence, R. Clrac, G. M. Finniss, C. Campana, P. Auban-Senzier, D. Jrome, E. Canadell, K. R. Dunbar, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 1999, 121, 8005 – 8016.6.

Heptacyanotungstate Anion: A New 5d Transition-Metal Member of the Rare Heptacyanometallate Family of Anions. Francisco J. Birk, Dawid Pinkowicz, Kim R. Dunbar, Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 2016, 55, 11368-11371. Frontispiece for Communications7. A Cobalt-TCNQ Spin-Crossover Bifunctional Material with an Anomalous Conducting Behavior. Xuan Zhang, Zhao-Xi Wang, Haomiao Xie, Ming-Xing Li, Toby J. Woods and Kim R. Dunbar, Chemical Science, 2016, 7, 1569-1574.8. Cyanide Single Molecule Magnets Exhibiting Reversible, Solvent Dependent "On" and "Off" Exchange Bias Behavior. Dawid Pinkowicz, Heather I. Southerland, Carolina Avendaño, Andrey Prosvirin, Wolfgang Wernsdorfer, Kasper S. Pedersen, Jan Dreiser, Rodolphe Clérac and Kim R. Dunbar, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2015, 137, 14406-14422.9. Metal-organic frameworks as platforms for isolating individual single-molecule magnets in pores. Joshua B. Pyser, Darpandeep Aulakh, Xuan Zhang, Andrey A. Yakovenko, Kim R. Dunbar and Mario Wriedt, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2015, 37, 9254–9257.10. Optimizing the Electronic Properties of Photoactive Anticancer Oxypyridine Bridged Dirhodium Complexes, Zhanyong Li, Amanda David, Bryan A. Albani, Jean-Philippe Pellois, Claudia Turro, Kim R. Dunbar, J. Am.

Chem. Soc. 2014, 36, 17058–17070. She is the second female recipient of the ACS's top award for inorganic chemistry in its 52-year history and got the first Texas A&M Women Former Students' Network

Sayaka Yamamoto

Sayaka Yamamoto is Japanese singer and songwriter most known for her work as a former member of the Japanese idol girl group NMB48, where she served as the leader of the group and as the captain of Team N. She is a former member of AKB48's Team K. Yamamoto participated in auditions for the first generation of NMB48, was selected to debut in the group along with 25 other girls. On March 10, 2011 Yamamoto was selected as one of 16 members which would debut as Team N, of which she was selected to serve as captain. Team N made their debut at the NMB48 theater on March 21, 2011. In May of the same year and fellow Team N member Miyuki Watanabe were the first NMB48 members to be selected for an A-side senbatsu with the release of AKB48's 21st single "Everyday, Katyusha". On June 9, Yamamoto was the only member of NMB48 to rank in AKB48's 3rd general election, she placed 28th with 8,697 votes and as a result sang on the B-side "Dakishimecha Ikenai", on AKB48's 22nd single "Flying Get". On July 20, NMB48 made their major single debut with "Zetsumetsu Kurokami Shoujo", for which Yamamoto was selected as a senbatsu member.

Despite not being the center for the A-side, Yamamoto served as the center for both B-sides "Seishun no Lap Time" and "Boku ga Maketa Natsu". On October 19, NMB48 released their second single entitled "Oh My God!", for which Yamamoto served as center with fellow Team N member Nana Yamada. This marked, she served as a center on the B-sides "Boku wa Matteru", "Kesshou" and "Uso no Tenbin" on the same single. On October 26, Yamamoto participated in her second A-side senbatsu with AKB48 on their 23rd single "Kaze wa Fuiteiru". Yamamoto was given her first solo A-side center on NMB48's third single "Junjou U-19", released on March 8, 2012; this was the first NMB48 single to include a solo song, entitled "Jungle Gym", sang by Yamamoto. On March 15, Yamamoto was a part of the lineup for AKB48's 25th single "GIVE ME FIVE!", in which the senbatsu members played as a band called "Baby Blossom", for which Yamamoto sang as part of the chorus. On May 9, NMB48 released fourth single "Nagiichi" for which Yamamoto served as center with Miyuki Watanabe.

On May 23, with fellow NMB48 members Miyuki Watanabe and Eriko Jo, was included as a part of the media senbatsu for AKB48's 26th single "Manatsu no Sounds Good!". On June 6, Yamamoto ranked 18th in AKB48's 4th general election with a total of 23,020 votes and as a result sang on the B-side "Nante Bohemian" as a member of "Undergirls" on AKB48's 27th single "Gingham Check". On August 8, NMB48 released their fifth single "Virginity" for which Yamamoto once again served as the sole center, she served as the center for B-side "Bokura no Regatta" on the same single. On October 31, Yamamoto participated as a senbatsu member for AKB48's 28th single "UZA". On November 7, NMB48 released their 6th single "Kitagawa Kenji", for which Yamamoto served as center with Miyuki Watanabe. On November 21, Yamamoto released her first photobook entitled "Sayagami", which sold over 55,000 units; the photobook was released on the same day as Miyuki Watanabe's photobook, was marketed as a battle between the two members, "won" by Watanabe.

On December 5, AKB48 released their 29th single "Eien Pressure", for which Yamamoto sang on the B-side "HA!" and served as center for along with Miyuki Watanabe. This marked. On February 20, 2013 Yamamoto participated in AKB48's 30th single "So long!" as a senbatsu member. On May 22, Yamamoto participated in AKB48's 31st single "Sayonara Crawl" as a media senbatsu member. On June 8, Yamamoto ranked 14th in AKB48's 5th general election with 51,793 votes; the release of AKB48's 32nd single "Koisuru Fortune Cookie" on August 21 marked the first time Yamamoto entered an AKB48 senbatsu through the election. On June 19th, NMB48 released their 7th single "Bokura no Eureka" for which Yamamoto served as the sole center for. On October 2, NMB48 released their 7th single "Kamonegix" for which Yamamoto served as center for alongside Miyuki Watanabe. On October 30, Yamamoto participated in AKB48's 33rd single "Heart Ereki"; the senbatsu members for this single performed as a band called "THE G. FINGERS" and were given English aliases.

Yamamoto once again acted as a member of the chorus and assumed the English name "Rosanna". On December 11, Yamamoto participated on the B-sides on "Mosh & Dive" and "Kimi to Deatte Boku wa Kawatta" on AKB48's 34th single "Kimi no Hohoemi wo Yume ni Miru". On February 24, 2014, it was announced that Yamamoto would hold a concurrent position in AKB48's Team K. On February 26, Yamamoto participated in AKB48's 35th single "Mae Shika Mukanee" as a senbatsu member. On March 26, NMB48 released their 8th single "Takane no Ringo" for which Yamamoto served as the sole center. On May 21, Yamamoto participated as a media senbatsu member for AKB48's 36th single "Labrador Retriever" and served as the center for B-side "Itoshiki Rival" with Jurina Matsui as a member of Team K; this marked Yamamoto's first participation in an AKB48 single as an AKB48 member. On June 7, Yamamoto ranked 6th in AKB48's 6th general election with 67,916 votes, marking her first entry into the "Kami 7"; as a result, Yamamoto participated as a senbatsu member on AKB48's 37th single "Kokoro no Placard".

Yamamoto was the only NMB48 member to rank in senbatsu for this year. On November 5, NMB48 released their 9th single entitled "Rashikunai", for which Yamamoto participated in as a senbatsu member; this was the first single since "Zetsumetsu Kurokami Shoujo". However, she centered the B-side "Kyusen Kyotei

Weltons Brewery

Welton's Brewery is an independent brewery founded by Ray Welton in 1995 in Capel, before it was moved to Dorking. Welton now brews in West Sussex. On average, Welton's brew in excess of 40 different beers every year as well as the seven core beers range and the Horsham Old. Ranging from low abv's to high abv porters. Nothing is rebadged. Using the money he made from selling his drinks distribution business to Beer Seller, Ray Welton built Welton's Brewery using equipment he found in a field; the tax situation in the 1990s in Britain was not helpful to small brewers and he had to brew on Arundel's equipment in order to save costs. When Andy Hepworth started up the Beer Station, Welton was able to move his own equipment and yeast onto the site and that was, for two years, a shared operation, but in August 2003, a year after the sliding scale for brewers was introduced, Welton set up independently. He is still using the equipment he built himself, like Fuller's Brewery, he is now using a bottom fermenting ale yeast which he feels gives him more beer per fermentation as a result of less foam in the tank.

Since April 2017, Welton's have held a brewery tap night, on the first Friday of every month where new monthly specials can be tried. Welton's produce a wide range of cask ales, which are distributed in the Horsham area and nationally through Wetherspoons and freehouses across the South East. Distributed in bottles throughout Sussex by Hartleys Wines. In 1998 Ray decided he wanted to brew a beer he could drink all night after playing, without becoming too inebriated. Pridenjoy 2.8% ABV was brewed and was included by Roger Protz and described in his book "300 Beer To Try Before You Die" 2005, “as a most remarkable beer, a beer, 2.8% but tastes like 4%”. In 2001, Fred Martin the retired head brewer of King & Barnes, handed on the Old Ale recipe which Weltons have been brewing since 2001 and continue to brew to this day. In 2016 Ray aged them in Tomintoul malt whisky casks. A rye beer Dr French's Whisky Rye 8.3% ABV & a porter Dr French's Old Remedy 8.3% ABV. Official website

1993 British Touring Car Championship

The 1993 Auto Trader RAC British Touring Car Championship season was 36th British Touring Car Championship season. At the end of 1992 BMW GB withdrew from the championship after the rules had been changed in a direction which BMW felt disadvantaged them. Prodrive, which had run the works operation for BMW, picked up their now famous Subaru contract to build rally cars. Prodrive had been expected to be entering a works Mercedes Benz team in cooperation with AMG, running the C-class. Prodrive stalwart Tim Sugden and Bernd Schneider were due to drive for the team; the plans were for a late season appearance leading to a full challenge in 1994, but this came to nothing. Vic Lee Motorsport was liquidated after owner Vic Lee’s drug scandal; the assets of the team were taken over by Steve Neal and Ray Bellm, who picked up personnel from Euroracing’s discontinued sports car effort and merged it into Neal’s Rimstock Racing outfit, creating Team Dynamics. Bellm would sell his share in the team in the year, leaving Steve Neal as the only owner.

The team started the 1993 season with three 1992-spec 318iS cars piloted by Matt Neal, Ray Bellm and Alex Portman dropping down to two. Only weeks after BMW GB withdrew from the BTCC, BMW withdrew their Schnitzer Motorsport-run works operation from the German DTM championship there because of their disagreement with new rules. With few other series to contest in Schnitzer Motorsport were sent over by BMW to the British championship along with works drivers Steve Soper and Joachim Winkelhock. Andy Rouse had lost his Toyota contract to famous Toyota tuners TOM'S Norfolk-based European arm known as Tom’s GB, who had run Group A Toyotas in BTCC in the eighties. Andy Rouse’s seat was taken over by Julian Bailey, the new shape Carina E GTi replaced the older model. Toyota supported a junior team run by Park Lane Racing, who would run two older shape Carinas for James Kaye and Bobby Verdon-Roe. Rouse himself had landed a Ford works deal, but the new Mondeo would not appear until after the season had started.

Vauxhall retained their John Cleland / Jeff Allam line-up in the Vauxhall Cavalier and their Ecurie Ecosse semi-works team. Peugeot added Eugene O’Brien and Ian Flux to Robb Gravett for a three-car line-up in the Peugeot 405 Mi16. Renault was the new manufacturer to join the championship with Alain Menu and reigning champion Tim Harvey as their drivers in the Renault 19 16v The season started at Silverstone, where Steve Soper led team-mate Joachim Winkelhock home for a dominating BMW one-two; the second round at Donington Park was the support race for the European Grand Prix. The race was hit by torrential rain, thanks to Michelin Renault was able to claim a one-two finish, Tim Harvey winning the race ahead of Alain Menu, it soon became apparent that Renault’s pace was tied to conditions, as they struggled to match the championship’s privateers in the dry. A start line crash at the next round at Snetterton forced a red flag, five cars failed to make the restart; the race would be won with Julian Bailey in second and David Leslie in third.

Winkelhock took the victory at Round 4 at Donington Park ahead of Jeff Allam and Steve Soper. Winkelhock took a commanding victory at Oulton Park, as Steve Soper had gone off into a tyre wall and forced into retirement Winkelhock now took the championship lead by two points. Brands Hatch hosted the first double header of the season. Winkelhock was at the centre of controversy when he shunted David Leslie out of the lead to take the win. Keith O'Dor finished Will Hoy third. Leslie was not amused, commenting that Winkelhock had not had any opportunity whatsoever to pull the pass off. Winkelhock apologized, saying he was a lot faster than Leslie in that corner but that there had been a bit of a misunderstanding when he tried his move. Winkelhock led the second race when he made a mistake going into Clearways and went off into the Armco barrier and retirement. Will Hoy went off at the same place, but ended up a bit further to the right and into the tires that covered some of the barriers at that corner.

With both of his major contenders out Soper could take an easy win ahead of Jeff Allam. The BTCC headed to Wales for Round 8 at Pembrey, where Ford made its debut. Winkelhock won the race with Hoy in second and Soper in third. At the next round at Silverstone Toyota appeared to be heading home a one-two finish for Will Hoy and Julian Bailey. An over-ambitious move from Bailey however put Hoy on his roof and forced Bailey himself into retirement, it was instead Nissan's first BTCC victory. To make it a perfect day for Nissan his teammate Win Percy finished second in a drag race over the line with Paul Radisich, who took the returning Ford team’s first podium. Knockhill held the next double header of the season. A race long battle between Vauxhall driver John Cleland and Toyota driver Julian Bailey saw Cleland come out on top, with Will Hoy finishing in third. Further back, Soper lost valuable points. Luckily for him Winkelhock was not able to start the second race due to clutch problems, it was now Bailey's turn to win a race, finishing ahead of Hoy.

The Renault team decided to focus on developing their car. Oulton Park hosted Round 12, the Gold Cup, Renault’s car updates appeared to have paid off