The Soviet Union the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991. Nominally a union of multiple national Soviet republics, its government and economy were centralized; the country was a one-party state, governed by the Communist Party with Moscow as its capital in its largest republic, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic. Other major urban centres were Leningrad, Minsk, Alma-Ata, Novosibirsk, it spanned over 10,000 kilometres east to west across 11 time zones, over 7,200 kilometres north to south. It had five climate zones: tundra, steppes and mountains; the Soviet Union had its roots in the 1917 October Revolution, when the Bolsheviks, led by Vladimir Lenin, overthrew the Russian Provisional Government which had replaced Tsar Nicholas II during World War I. In 1922, the Soviet Union was formed by a treaty which legalized the unification of the Russian, Transcaucasian and Byelorussian republics that had occurred from 1918. Following Lenin's death in 1924 and a brief power struggle, Joseph Stalin came to power in the mid-1920s.
Stalin committed the state's ideology to Marxism–Leninism and constructed a command economy which led to a period of rapid industrialization and collectivization. During his rule, political paranoia fermented and the Great Purge removed Stalin's opponents within and outside of the party via arbitrary arrests and persecutions of many people, resulting in at least 600,000 deaths. In 1933, a major famine struck the country. Before the start of World War II in 1939, the Soviets signed the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact, agreeing to non-aggression with Nazi Germany, after which the USSR invaded Poland on 17 September 1939. In June 1941, Germany broke the pact and invaded the Soviet Union, opening the largest and bloodiest theatre of war in history. Soviet war casualties accounted for the highest proportion of the conflict in the effort of acquiring the upper hand over Axis forces at intense battles such as Stalingrad and Kursk; the territories overtaken by the Red Army became satellite states of the Soviet Union.
The post-war division of Europe into capitalist and communist halves would lead to increased tensions with the United States-led Western Bloc, known as the Cold War. Stalin died in 1953 and was succeeded by Nikita Khrushchev, who in 1956 denounced Stalin and began the de-Stalinization; the Cuban Missile Crisis occurred during Khrushchev's rule, among the many factors that led to his downfall in 1964. In the early 1970s, there was a brief détente of relations with the United States, but tensions resumed with the Soviet–Afghan War in 1979. In 1985, the last Soviet premier, Mikhail Gorbachev, sought to reform and liberalize the economy through his policies of glasnost and perestroika, which caused political instability. In 1989, Soviet satellite states in Eastern Europe overthrew their respective communist governments; as part of an attempt to prevent the country's dissolution due to rising nationalist and separatist movements, a referendum was held in March 1991, boycotted by some republics, that resulted in a majority of participating citizens voting in favor of preserving the union as a renewed federation.
Gorbachev's power was diminished after Russian President Boris Yeltsin's high-profile role in facing down a coup d'état attempted by Communist Party hardliners. In late 1991, Gorbachev resigned and the Supreme Soviet of the Soviet Union met and formally dissolved the Soviet Union; the remaining 12 constituent republics emerged as independent post-Soviet states, with the Russian Federation—formerly the Russian SFSR—assuming the Soviet Union's rights and obligations and being recognized as the successor state. The Soviet Union was a powerhouse of many significant technological achievements and innovations of the 20th century, including the world's first human-made satellite, the first humans in space and the first probe to land on another planet, Venus; the country had the largest standing military in the world. The Soviet Union was recognized as one of the five nuclear weapons states and possessed the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction, it was a founding permanent member of the United Nations Security Council as well as a member of the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe, the World Federation of Trade Unions and the leading member of the Council for Mutual Economic Assistance and the Warsaw Pact.
The word "Soviet" is derived from a Russian word сове́т meaning council, advice, harmony and all deriving from the proto-Slavic verbal stem of vět-iti, related to Slavic věst, English "wise", the root in "ad-vis-or", or the Dutch weten. The word sovietnik means "councillor". A number of organizations in Russian history were called "council". For example, in the Russian Empire the State Council, which functioned from 1810 to 1917, was referred to as a Council of Ministers after the revolt of 1905. During the Georgian Affair, Vladimir Lenin envisioned an expression of Great Russian ethnic chauvinism by Joseph Stalin and his supporters, calling for these nation-states to join Russia as semi-independent parts of a greater union, which he named as the Union of Soviet Republics of Europe and Asia. Stalin resisted the proposal, but accepted it, although with Lenin's agreement changed the name of the newly proposed sta
Operation Trio was the first large-scale joint German-Italian counter-insurgency operation of World War II conducted in the Independent State of Croatia, which included modern-day Bosnia and Herzegovina. It was carried out in two phases within eastern Bosnia from 20 April to 13 May 1942, with Ustaše militia and Croatian Home Guard forces taking part on the Axis side; the aim of the operation was to target all insurgents between Sarajevo and the Drina river in eastern Bosnia. These included the communist-led Yugoslav Serb nationalist Chetniks. Differentiating between the rank and file of the two insurgent factions was difficult, as the communist-led insurgent groups consisted of Serb peasants who had little understanding of the political aims of their leaders. Operation Trio consisted of two parts, Trio I and Trio II. Together they comprised one element of the Axis effort known as the Third Enemy Offensive in post-war Yugoslav historiography; the joint Italian-Chetnik offensive in Montenegro and eastern Herzegovina formed the other element.
The Third Enemy Offensive forms part of the Seven Enemy Offensives framework in Yugoslav historiography. The operation was of limited effectiveness due to several factors, including preemptive action by the Ustaše militia and Italian delays; the area of operations straddled the demarcation line between the German and Italian zones of occupation within the NDH, which led to mutual suspicion and lack of coordination. Both insurgent factions avoided fighting the Axis and NDH forces, instead focusing on fighting each other. After Operation Trio, the Partisan leader Josip Broz Tito, his Supreme Headquarters and the Partisan main force, consisting of the 1st and 2nd Proletarian Brigades, withdrew from their base of operations around Foča. After reorganising around Zelengora mountain south-east of Foča, they moved their operations to western Bosnia for the remainder of 1942. Operation Trio coincided with and contributed to the polarisation of the exclusively Serb rebels in eastern Bosnia into two groups: the Serb-chauvinist Chetniks and the multi-ethnic and communist-led Partisans.
Encouraged by Chetnik propaganda against Croats and Bosnian Muslims and repelled by the sectarian left-wing policies and actions of the communists, many Serb peasant fighters were swayed to the Chetnik cause. Violent coups occurred against the communist leadership of all but one of the Partisan detachments in eastern Bosnia, these detachments defected to the Chetniks. Most of the surviving communist fighters from these detachments rejoined the Partisan forces, many withdrew with Tito to western Bosnia during the Partisan Long March. Within a few weeks of the end of Operation Trio only 600 Partisan fighters were left in eastern Bosnia, comprising the Group of Shock Battalions and the Birač Partisan Detachment. All these forces sought refuge in the Birač region; the Chetnik movement in eastern Bosnia, at best a confederacy of local warlords, was strengthened by mass defections from the Partisans. For a time they ruled large parts of the region, after making accommodations with the Ustaše regime in May and June 1942.
During Operation Southeast Croatia, Josip Broz Tito, his Supreme Headquarters and the 1st Proletarian Brigade commanded by Spanish Civil War veteran Konstantin "Koča" Popović, had withdrawn south to Foča, on the boundary between eastern Bosnia and Herzegovina. With the help of Montenegrin Partisans, they established a liberated area around Goražde; this area, known as the "Foča Republic", was expanded by subsequent military operations. By late March, People's Liberation Councils had been established to govern 10 towns and 92 villages in the liberated area, but communist organisation in the area was limited and of poor quality. At the end of 1941, there were six Partisan detachments in eastern Bosnia, with about 7,300 fighters operating in the Majevica, Birač, Romanija and Kalinovik areas. In January 1942, the Romanija detachment had borne the brunt of Operation Southeast Croatia and had been destroyed. Many Partisan fighters were Serb peasants who took to the forests and mountains to defend their families and villages against the Ustaše.
The Chetnik forces in eastern Bosnia had not opposed the Axis offensive. Many had withdrawn across the Drina river into the Territory of the Military Commander in Serbia to avoid engagement with German and NDH forces. Both the Partisan Supreme Headquarters and the Partisan General Staff of Bosnia-Herzegovina were based in the area of operations, with Tito's Supreme Headquarters directly controlling the 1st Proletarian Brigade, the General Staff, commanded by Svetozar Vukmanović-Tempo, controlling the Partisan detachments in East Bosnia under the overall direction of the Supreme Headquarters. In early January 1942, the Partisan Supreme Headquarters decided to permit fighters who were not willing to formally become Partisans to fight alongside Partisan units; these "volunteer detachments" were under the control of the Supreme Headquarters of the renamed People's Liberation Partisan and Volunteer Army of Yugoslavia, were established from former Chetnik-aligned fighters as the Jahorina, Foča, Vlasenica and Krajina Volunteer Detachments.
The Krajina Volunteer Detachment consisted of refugees from that region who had fled to German-occupied Serbia to escape the Ustaše terror. Volunteer battalions and companies were placed under the staff of the original Partisan detachments, with many of them absorbed as whole units with the addition of a communist cadre; some volunteer detachments fought under their own leaders, all volunteer detachments fought under the Serbian tri-colour flag
Uprising in Serbia (1941)
The Uprising in Serbia was initiated in July 1941 by the Communist Party of Yugoslavia against the German occupation forces and their Serbian quisling auxiliaries in the Territory of the Military Commander in Serbia. At first the Yugoslav Partisans had mounted diversions and conducted sabotage and had attacked representatives of Aćimović's quisling administration. In late August some Chetniks liberated Loznica; the uprising soon reached mass proportions. Partisans and Chetniks captured towns; the armed uprising soon engulfed great parts of the occupied territory. The largest liberated territory in occupied Europe was created by the Partisans in western Serbia, was known as the Republic of Užice. Rebels shared power on the liberated territory; as the uprising progressed, the ideological rift between the two factions became more and more obvious. On one side were the Chetnik detachments who considered themselves loyal to the royal government in exile and fought for the restoration of pre-war order.
On the other side were members of the Peoples Liberation Army of Yugoslavia who favored the introduction of socialism and the post-war reorganization of Yugoslavia on federal basis. The Chetnik leader Dragoljub Mihailović abandoned the uprising in late October and entered into negotiations with the quisling government and the Germans in order to destroy the rival Partisans; the Germans soon gathered a large force and quelled the uprising using mass terror, but the remaining Partisan forces crossed into Bosnia, where they formed the 1st Proletarian Brigade. After the collapse of the uprising, Territory of the Military Commander was pacified until the return of the Partisans and the Belgrade Offensive in second half of 1944. Meanwhile, the Chetniks became more reluctant to fight against Germans, engaged in anti-Partisan operations and open collaboration. Mihailovic was able to establish itself as the sole legitimate representative of the Yugoslav government in exile, who ordered that all resistance forces should fight under his command.
Hitler believed that with occupation of Yugoslavia, the country was liquidated as an independent state. The Kingdom of Yugoslavia was divided between Germany, Italy and Bulgaria, while in the territory of present-day Croatia and Bosnia and Herzegovina, the Independent State of Croatia was proclaimed. Occupiers took some 350,000 Yugoslav soldiers into captivity; the largest part of Serbia was organized into the Territory of the Military Commander in Serbia and as such it was the only example of the military regime in occupied Europe. The Germans chose Milan Aćimović as head of the quisling Commissary Government. Preparations for the uprising by the Communist Party of Yugoslavia began after the May consultation held in Zagreb on 4 May 1941; the Military Committee of the Provincial Committee of the Communist Party for Serbia was formed in mid-May. On 13 May 1941, Josip Broz Tito sent a message to the Comintern stating that the Yugoslav communists were preparing for an uprising that would commence when Germany attacked the Soviet Union.
The Central Committee of the Communist Party of Yugoslavia arrived in Belgrade in late May, this was of great importance for the development of the resistance. After their arrival, the Central Committee held conferences with local party officials; the German invasion of the Soviet Union was launched on 22 June 1941. Before the invasion, the Germans withdrew the majority of their troops from Serbia, leaving three weak divisions in Serbia and one weak division in the Independent State of Croatia; the majority of these divisions were made up by older soldiers originating from Austria. Communist sympathisers in Srđan Budisavljević's Ministry of Interior in Dušan Simović's government, such as Janko Janković, destroyed files on communists held in prewar police archives. So, when mass arrests of communists began after the launching of Operation Barbarosa, few records were available for the Gestapo to use; the communists considered that all the requirements for the uprising were now met. The entrance of the USSR into the war strengthened the hope of the Serbian people, as well as optimism that the war would be over soon.
Dragomir Jovanović recorded that on 22 June atmosphere in the streets was similar to atmosphere of during coup on 27 March. In Mačva peasants pulled out stakes from haystacks fearing that Soviet paratroopers would impale by falling. In Belgrade, the observers were placed on a tall building to report the arrival of Soviet aircraft. In Banat, medical groups were formed to help paratroopers. Decision for preparing struggle in Serbia issued on June 23, 1941 at the meeting of the Provincial Committee for Serbia, attended by Aleksandar Ranković, Spasenija Babović, Đuro Strugar, Moma Marković, Ivo Lola Ribar, Blagoje Nešković, Vukica Mitrović, Mirko Tomić, Miloš Matijević, Ljubinka Milosavljević, Vasilije Buha and Milovan Đilas. At the meeting were determined party instructors for certain parts of Serbia. In light of upcoming struggle, communist had to hasten forming of armed groups and collecting weapons and medical supplies. After the meeting, instructors wnt into their designated areas. Moma Markovic by the end of June held meetings with district committees in Jagodina, Niš and Zaječar, Mirko Tomić was in charge for Kruševac, Vasilije Buha went to Niš, Milan Mijalković went in Užice and Čačak, Miodrag Ivković in Šabac.
Petar Stambolić operated in Pomoravlje Miloš Minić in Valjevo area. Several local detachments were formed number
Baranya or Baranja is a geographical and historical region between the Danube and the Drava rivers. Its territory is divided between Croatia. In Hungary, the region is included into Baranya county, while in Croatia, it is included into Osijek-Baranja county; the name of the region come from the Croatian word'bara', which means'marsh','bog', thus the name of Baranya means'marshland'. Today large parts of the region are swamps, such as the natural reservation Kopački Rit in its southeast. Another theory states that the name of the region come from the Croatian and Hungarian word'bárány', which means ram of'ovis'. During the history, the region of Baranya was part of the Roman Empire, the Hunnic Empire, the Kingdom of the Ostrogoths, the Kingdom of the Lombards, the Avar Kingdom, the Frankish Empire, the Balaton Principality, the Bulgarian Empire, the Kingdom of Hungary, the Ottoman Empire, the Habsburg Monarchy, the Austrian Empire and the Austria-Hungary. Since 1918/1921, the region was divided between Hungary and the Kingdom of Serbs and Slovenes.
The region of Baranya was settled by the Slavs in the 6th century, in the 9th century, it was part of the Slavic Balaton Principality. Hungarians arrived to the area in the 9th century, Baranya county arose as one of the first comitatus of the Kingdom of Hungary, in the 11th century; this county included not only present-day region of Baranya, but one part of present-day Slavonia, on the southern side of the river Drava. In the 16th century, the Ottoman Empire captured Baranya, included it into the sanjak of Mohács, an Ottoman administrative unit, with the seat in the town of Mohaç. Sanjak of Peçuy was created from northwestern part of Mohaç Sanjak. In the end of the 17th century, Baranya was captured by the Habsburg Monarchy, was included into restored Baranya County within the Habsburg Kingdom of Hungary. Croats moved from Bosnia into Slavonia and Baranja en masse after the Ottoman retreat, this population is today known as the Šokci. In 1918, the entire region was captured by Serbian troops and was administered by the newly created Kingdom of Serbs and Slovenes.
For a short time, Baranya was part of Banat, Bačka and Baranja region, governed by the People's Administration from Novi Sad. By the Treaty of Trianon in 1920, the Baranya region was formally divided between Hungary and the Yugoslavia, but de facto remained under the administration of the latter until 1921. On August 14, 1921, the Serb-Hungarian Baranya-Baja Republic was proclaimed, it included northern parts of Baranya and Bačka regions, which were assigned to Hungary by the treaty. On August 21–25, 1921, the Republic was abolished and its territory was included into Hungary, as was decided by the Treaty of Trianon; the northern part of Baranya in Hungary was included into Baranya county. The southern part of the region was part of Novi Sad county between 1918 and 1922, part of Bačka Oblast between 1922 and 1929, in 1929 it was included into the Danube Banovina, a province of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia. In 1941, the Yugoslav Baranya was occupied by Hungary, but it was returned to Yugoslavia in 1944.
In 1944-1945, Yugoslav Baranya was part of the Autonomous Province of Vojvodina, while in 1945 it was assigned to the People's Republic of Croatia. During the War in Croatia in 1991 it came under control of the SAO Eastern Slavonia and Western Srem, which became part of the Republic of Serbian Krajina. After the war ended, it was peacefully integrated into Croatia by the Erdut Agreement. According to the agreement, it was administered by the administration of the United Nations from 1996 to 1998, when it was returned to full sovereignty of Croatia. Today, it is part of that republic's Osijek-Baranja county. Baranya is divided between Croatia with the majority of the region lying in Hungary; the Hungarian portion of the region coextensive with Baranya County, while in Croatia, it comprises only part of Osijek-Baranja County. Contemporary Hungarian usage of Baranya refers only to the Hungarian section while the terms Drávaköz and Drávaszög are used for Croatian Baranja; some of the important cities and towns in Hungarian Baranya: Pécs Komló Mohács Szigetvár Siklós Szentlőrinc Pécsvárad Bóly Sásd Harkány Sellye Villány Municipalities in Croatian Baranja: Beli Manastir Darda Bilje Kneževi Vinogradi Draž Čeminac Petlovac Jagodnjak Popovac The main settlement in Croatian Baranja is Beli Manastir with a population of 8,671.
Most of the municipalities in Croatian Baranja have a Croat ethnic majority. The municipality of Jagodnjak has a Serb ethnic majority and the municipality of Kneževi Vinogradi has a Hungarian plurality. In 2001, the population of Hungarian Baranya numbered 407,448 inhabitants, including: Hungarians = 375,611 Germans = 22,720 Romani = 10,623 Croats = 7,294 others. In 2011, the population of Croatian Baranja numbered 39,420 inhabitants, including: Croats = 23,041 Serbs = 7,278 Hungarians = 5,980 others = 3,121 WorldStatesmen - Hungary Tourist organization Baranja www.baranja-turizam.com www.baranja.org
Slavonia is, with Dalmatia, Croatia proper and Istria, one of the four historical regions of Croatia. Taking up the east of the country, it corresponds with five Croatian counties: Brod-Posavina, Osijek-Baranja, Požega-Slavonia, Virovitica-Podravina and Vukovar-Srijem, although the territory of the counties includes Baranya, the definition of the western extent of Slavonia as a region varies; the counties cover 12,556 square kilometres or 22.2% of Croatia, inhabited by 806,192—18.8% of Croatia's population. The largest city in the region is Osijek, followed by Slavonski Vinkovci. Slavonia is located in the Pannonian Basin bordered by the Danube and Sava rivers. In the west, the region consists of the Sava and Drava valleys and the mountains surrounding the Požega Valley, plains in the east. Slavonia enjoys a moderate continental climate, with low precipitation. After the fall of Rome, which ruled the area of modern-day Slavonia until the 5th century and Lombards controlled the area before the arrival of Avars and Slavs, when the Principality of Lower Pannonia was established in the 7th century.
It was incorporated into the Kingdom of Croatia and, after its decline, the kingdom was ruled through a personal union with Hungary. The Ottoman conquest of Slavonia took place in 1536 to 1552. In 1699, after the Great Turkish War, Slavonia was transferred to the Habsburgs. Reform of the empire through the Compromise of 1867 assigned it to the Hungarian part of the realm, a year to the Kingdom of Croatia-Slavonia. In 1918, when Austria-Hungary dissolved, Slavonia was a part of the short-lived State of Slovenes and Serbs which in turn became a part of the kingdom renamed Yugoslavia. During the Croatian War of Independence, Slavonia saw fierce fighting, including the Battle of Vukovar; the economy of Slavonia is based on processing industry, trade and civil engineering. Agriculture is a significant component of its economy: Slavonia contains 45% of Croatia's agricultural land and accounts for a significant proportion of Croatia's livestock farming and production of permanent crops; the gross domestic product of the five counties of Slavonia is worth 6,454 million euro or 8,005 euro per capita, 27.5% below national average.
The GDP of the five counties represents 13.6% of Croatia's GDP. The cultural heritage of Slavonia is a blend of historical influences those since the end of the 17th century, when Slavonia started recovering from the Ottoman wars, its traditional culture. Slavonia contributed to the culture of Croatia, through art, writers and art patronage. In traditional music, Slavonia is a distinct region of Croatia, the traditional culture is preserved through folklore festivals, with prominence given to tamburica music and bećarac, a form of traditional song, recognized as an intangible cultural heritage by UNESCO; the cuisine of Slavonia reflects diverse influences -- a blend of foreign elements. Slavonia is one of Croatia's winemaking areas, with Ilok and Kutjevo recognized as centres of wine production; the name Slavonia originated in the Early Middle Ages. The area was named after the Slavs who called themselves * Slověne; the root *Slověn- appeared in various dialects of languages spoken by people inhabiting the area west of the Sutla river, as well as between the Sava and Drava rivers—South Slavs living in the area of the former Illyricum.
The area bounded by those rivers was called *Slověnьje in the Proto-Slavic language. The word subsequently evolved to its various present forms in the Slavic languages, other languages adopted the term. Remnants of several Neolithic and Chalcolithic cultures were found in all regions of Croatia, but most of the sites are found in the river valleys of northern Croatia, including Slavonia; the most significant cultures whose presence was found include the Starčevo culture whose finds were discovered near Slavonski Brod and dated to 6100–5200 BC, Vučedol and Baden cultures. Most finds attributed to the Baden and Vučedol cultures are discovered in the area around Vukovar, extending to Osijek and Vinkovci; the Baden culture sites in Slavonia are dated to 3600–3300 BC, Vučedol culture finds are dated to 3000–2500 BC. The Iron Age left traces of the Celtic La Tène culture. Much the region was settled by Illyrians and other tribes, including the Pannonians, who controlled much of present-day Slavonia.
Though archaeological finds of Illyrian settlements are much sparser than in areas closer to the Adriatic Sea, significant discoveries, for instance in Kaptol near Požega have been made. The Pannonians first came into contact with the Roman Republic in 35 BC, when the Romans conquered Segestica, or modern-day Sisak; the conquest was completed in 11 BC, when the Roman province of Illyricum was established, encompassing modern-day Slavonia as well as a vast territory on the right bank of Danube. The province was divided within two decades. After the collapse of the Western Roman Empire, which included the territory occupied by modern-day Slavonia, the area became a part of the Ostrogothic Kingdom by the end of the 5th century. However, control of the area proved a significant task, Lombards were given increasing control of Pannonia in the 6th century, which ended in their withdrawal in 568 and the arrival of Pannonian Avars and Slavs, who established control of Pannonia by year 582. According to the work De Administrando Imperio written by the 10th century Byzantine Emperor Constantine VII, the Croats had arrived in the early 7th century in the region of Dalmatia, although this is disputed and competing hypotheses date the event between the 6th and the 9th
Capture of Olovo (1941)
The Capture of Olovo was a battle fought between allied forces of Chetnik Detachments of the Yugoslav Army and Yugoslav Partisans against the Axis forces of Independent State of Croatia garrisoned in Olovo in the first year of the World War II in Yugoslavia. On 21 September 1941 Chetniks attacked militia guards who protected a wooden bridge on the railway between Olovo and Kladanj, they imprisoned 9 militiamen, without damaging the bridge. On 29 September Chetniks burned wooden bridge between Zavidovići. On 28 October parts of Partisan Romanija Detachment in cooperation with Chetniks captured village Knežina after three days of fighting. Croatian Home Guard and Muslim militiamen retreated to Olovo. On 14 November 1941 Captain Sreharski Janko was appointed as commander of Olovo garrison; the 4th company of Sarajevo Reserve Battalion was commanded by Lieutenant Ante Marinković. Four Chetnik companies with 400 Chetniks and parts of Partisan Romanija Detachment and Zvijezda Detachment with total of 800 Partisans organized an unsuccessful attack on Olovo on 1 November 1941.
The Axis forces in Olovo belonged to the III Domobran Corps commanded by Mihajlo Lukić. In mid-December 1941 the garrison in Olovo consisted of 2 companies of Croatian Home Guard, 180 militiamen, 40 gendarmes and a battery of mountain guns; the North-East positions around Olovo were defended by the 4th company of Sarajevo Reserve Battalion enforced by 1 machine-gun. The South-East positions were held by the 17th company of the 6th Infantry Regiment; the West positions were defended by militia consisting of 40 militiamen. A battery of two mountain-guns operated from positions west of railway station in Olovo. One platoon of the 17th company of 6th Infantry Regiment was kept as reserve while flanks were protected by 50 militiamen in village Ponjerka. According to some contemporary Croatian reports, in period 1–24 November 1941 about 240 Chetniks were killed during their attacks on Axis controlled Olovo. On 17 November in 7 a.m. insurgents attacked Olovo garrison. The attack started by Chetnik artillery which destroyed militia guard post killing and wounding 24 militiamen, while remaining 6 of them fled.
The Chetnik artillery was aimed against the most important position of Olovo garrison, so called "Stijena", defended by the 4th company of Sarajevo Reserve Battalion supported by one machine gun. The position of machine gun was destroyed by Chetnik artillery. Another machine gun was sent as an replacement, but it was quickly destroyed by Chetnik artillery. Around 10 a.m. the insurgents stopped their artillery fire and replaced it with barrages of rifle fire of the infantry insurgent units. The commander of the 4th company of Sarajevo Reserve Battalion, Ante Marinković was wounded during this attack and his company had to retreat from "Stijena" in 12:30. After being inforced by one reserve platoon this company managed to recapture "Stijena" for short time only to retreat after being attacked by more numerous Chetnik forces; when Chetniks permanently captured "Stijena" they burned straws as signal to other insurgents about their success. This boosted morale of the insurgents to attack more fiercely the positions of Olovo garrison that began retreating from their positions.
To avoid capture of his forces, garrison commander Streharski retreat to the positions west of the village Solun. On 17 December 1941 Olovo was recaptured by Partisan rebel units. On 18 December Streharski continued his retreat under fire. At the end of 1941 joint Partisan-Chetnik administration still existed in many Eastern Bosnian towns, including Olovo; the post-war Yugoslav sources emphasize that on 21 January 1942 part of German 750 regiment from 718 Infantry Division recaptured Olovo after the weak resistance of Chetniks. In 1943 Partisan 2nd Serbian brigade recaptured Olovo and burned its railway station and its wagons and equipment