Vendsyssel is the northernmost traditional district of Denmark and of Jutland. Being divided from mainland Jutland by the Limfjord, it is technically a part of the North Jutlandic Island, Vendsyssel is part of the North Denmark Region. Vendsyssel neighbours Hanherred to the southwest and Himmerland to the south, whether the island Læsø is a part of Vendsyssel, is a matter of definition. The major towns of Vendsyssel are Hjørring, Frederikshavn, Brønderslev, Sæby, Hirtshals, Løkken, Nørresundby and, on its northern tip, Skagen. The dominating city is, Aalborg which is situated outside Vendsyssel on the southern shore of the Limfjord with Nørresundby as a secondary. Adam of Bremen calls Vendsyssel Wendila, Ælnoth calls it Wendel, derived from this is the ethnic name wændlar, Danish vendelboer, which is part of the name of the syssel. In the Danish Census Book Wændlesysæl, Wendelsysel, Wændil, presumably originally the name of the Limfjord, name of the region north of it. According to historians and linguists, the name Vendsyssel may be derived from the Germanic tribe of the Vandals, syssel is an ancient form of administrative region.
Vendel was the ancient name of the Limfjord itself, Vendsyssel is an important gatehead for transport from the European continent to Norway and Western Sweden. The European routes E39 and E45 cross the area as motorways, national route 11 connects Vendsyssel with Hanherred and Thy before crossing the Limfjord to western Jutland on the Oddesund Bridge. Danish national road 40 passes through Vendsyssel, Vendsyssel is linked to mainland Jutland by bridges and a tunnel, Limfjord Railroad Bridge Limfjord Bridge Limfjord Tunnel A further bridge crossing the Limfjord west of Aalborg has been proposed
Free imperial city
The evolution of some German cities into self-ruling constitutional entities of the Empire was slower than that of the secular and ecclesiastical princes. In the course of the 13th and 14th centuries, some cities were promoted by the emperor to the status of Imperial Cities, essentially for fiscal reasons. The Free Cities were those, such as Basel, Cologne or Strasbourg, like the other Imperial Estates, they could wage war, make peace, and control their own trade, and they permitted little interference from outside. In the Middle Ages, a number of Free Cities formed City Leagues, such as the Hanseatic League or the Alsatian Décapole, to promote and defend their interests. In the course of the Middle Ages, cities gained, and sometimes — if rarely — lost, some favored cities gained a charter by gift. Others purchased one from a prince in need of funds, some won it by force of arms during the troubled 13th and 14th centuries and other lost their privileges during the same period by the same way.
Some cities became free through the created by the extinction of dominant families. Some voluntarily placed themselves under the protection of a territorial ruler, a few, like Protestant Donauwörth, which in 1607 was annexed to the Catholic Duchy of Bavaria, were stripped by the Emperor of their status as a Free City — for genuine or trumped-up reasons. There were approximately four thousand towns and cities in the Empire, during the late Middle Ages, fewer than two hundred of these places ever enjoyed the status of Free Imperial Cities, and some of those did so only for a few decades. The military tax register of 1521 listed eighty-five such cities, from the Peace of Westphalia of 1648 to 1803, their number oscillated at around fifty. These cities were located in small territories where the ruler was weak. They were nevertheless the exception among the multitude of territorial towns, Cities of both latter categories normally had representation in territorial diets, but not in the Imperial Diet.
The cities divided themselves into two groups, or benches, in the Imperial Diet, the Rhenish and the Swabian Bench. To avoid the possibility that they would have the vote in case of a tie between the Electors and the Princes, it was decided that these should decide first and consult the cities afterward. Constitutionally, if in no way, the diminutive Free Imperial City of Isny was the equal of the Margraviate of Brandenburg. Instead, many found it more profitable to maintain agents at the Aulic Council in Vienna. At the opposite end, the authority of Cologne, Worms, Goslar and they were the most economically significant burgher families who had asserted themselves politically over time. The burgher status was usually a privilege renewed pro-forma in each generation of the family concerned
An electoral district is a territorial subdivision for electing members to a legislative body. Generally, only voters who reside within the district are permitted to vote in an election held there, from a single district, a single member or multiple members might be chosen. Members might be chosen by a first-past-the-post system or a representative system. Members might be chosen through an election under universal suffrage. The names for electoral districts vary across countries and, the term constituency is commonly used to refer to an electoral district, it can refer to the body of eligible voters within the represented area. Similarly, in Australia and New Zealand, electoral districts are called electorates, the term Chûnāô-Kshetra is used while referring to an electoral district in general irrespective of the legislature. When referring to a particular constituency, it is simply referred to as Kshetra along with the name of the legislature. Electoral districts for municipal or other bodies are called wards.
In Canada, districts are colloquially called ridings, in French, circonscription or comté, local electoral districts are sometimes called wards, a term which designates administrative subdivisions of a municipality. In local government in the Republic of Ireland voting districts are called electoral areas, district magnitude is the number of representatives elected from a given district to the same legislative body. A single-member district has one representative, while a district has more than one. Under proportional representation systems, district magnitude is an important determinant of the makeup of the elected body, the geographic distribution of minorities affects their representation - an unpopular nationwide minority can still secure a seat if they are concentrated in a particular district. District magnitude can vary within the same system during an election. In the Republic of Ireland, for instance, national elections to Dáil Éireann are held using a combination of 3,4, main articles and Redistricting Apportionment is the process of allocating a number of representatives to different regions, such as states or provinces.
Apportionment changes are accompanied by redistricting, the redrawing of electoral district boundaries to accommodate the new number of representatives. This redrawing is necessary under single-member district systems, as each new representative requires their own district, multi-member systems, vary depending on other rules. Apportionment is generally done on the basis of population, the United States Senate, by contrast, is apportioned without regard to population, every state gets exactly two senators. Malapportionment occurs when voters are under- or over-represented due to variation in district population, given the complexity of this process, software is increasingly used to simplify the task, while better supporting reproducible and more justifiable results
A district is a type of administrative division that, in some countries, is managed by local government. Across the world, areas known as districts vary greatly in size, spanning entire regions or counties, several municipalities, subdivisions of municipalities, school district, in Afghanistan, a district is a subdivision of a province. There are almost 400 districts in the country, electoral districts are used in state elections. Districts were used in several states as cadastral units for land titles, some were used as squatting districts. New South Wales had several different types of districts used in the 21st century, in Austria, a district is an administrative division normally encompassing several municipalities, roughly equivalent to the Landkreis in Germany. The administrative office of a district, the Bezirkshauptmannschaft, is headed by a Bezirkshauptmann, while there are matters of administrative law the municipalities themselves are in charge of, or where there are special bodies, the district is the basic unit of general administration in Austria.
Officials on the level are not elected, but appointed by the state government. There are independent cities in Austria and they are called Statutarstadt in Austrian administrative law. These urban districts do have the same tasks as a normal district, the State of Vienna, which is at the same time a municipality, is subdivided in twenty-three districts, however, have a somewhat different function than in the rest of the country. Legally, the Magistratisches Bezirksamt is an office of the municipalitys administration. However, representatives on the level are elected, and they in turn elect the head of the district. Those representative bodies are supposed to serve as immediate contacts for the locals on the political, in practice, they have some power, e. g. concerning matters of traffic. Bangladeshi districts are administrative units. In all, there are 64 districts in Bangladesh, there were 21 greater districts with several subdivisions in each district. In 1984, the government made all these subdivisions into districts, each district has several sub districts called Upazila in Bengali.
In Belgian municipalities with more than 100,000 inhabitants, on initiative of the local council, as such, only Antwerp, having over 460,000 inhabitants, became subdivided into nine districts. The Belgian arrondissements, a level between province and municipality, or the lowest judicial level, are in English sometimes called districts as well. Bhutanese districts are administrative units consisting of village blocks called gewog
Protected areas or conservation areas are locations which receive protection because of their recognized natural, ecological or cultural values. There are several kinds of protected areas, which vary by level of protection depending on the laws of each country or the regulations of the international organisations involved. There are over 161,000 protected areas in the world with more added daily, by contrast, only 1. 17% of the worlds oceans is included in the worlds ~6,800 Marine Protected Areas. Protected areas are essential for biodiversity conservation, often providing habitat, Protection helps maintain ecological processes that cannot survive in most intensely managed landscapes and seascapes. Generally, protected areas are understood to be those in human occupation or at least the exploitation of resources is limited. As a result, Protected Areas can encompass a range of governance types. Indeed, governance of protected areas has emerged a critical factor in their success, the range of natural resources that any one protected area may guard is vast.
Of all global terrestrial carbon stock,15. 2% is contained within protected areas, Protected areas in South America hold 27% of the worlds carbon stock, which is the highest percentage of any country in both absolute terms and as a proportion of the total stock. Rainforests,18. 8% of the worlds forest is covered by protected areas, of the 670 ecoregions with forest cover, 54% have 10% or more of their forest cover protected under IUCN Categories I – VI. Mountain protected area coverage has increased globally by 21% since 1990, the categories provide international standards for defining protected areas and encourage conservation planning according to their management aims. Protecting places and resources is by no means a modern concept, over 2000 years ago, royal decrees in India protected certain areas. In Europe and powerful people protected hunting grounds for a thousand years, the idea of protection of special places is universal, for example, it occurs among the communities in the Pacific and in parts of Africa.
However, the protected areas movement doesnt begin until late nineteenth-century in North America, New Zealand and South Africa. While the idea of protected areas spread around the world in the twentieth century, thus, in North America, protected areas were about safeguarding dramatic and sublime scenery, in Africa, the concern was with game parks, in Europe, landscape protection was more common. The spectrum of benefits and values of protected areas is recognised not only ecologically, international programmes for the protection of representative ecosystems remain relatively progressive, with less advances in marine and freshwater biomes. There is increasing pressure to take account of human needs when setting up protected areas. Such negotiations are never easy but usually stronger and longer-lasting results for both conservation and people. In some countries, protected areas can be assigned without the infrastructure and networking needed to substitute consumable resources, one of the main concerns regarding protected areas on land and sea is their effectiveness at preventing the ongoing loss of biodiversity
Special Areas Board
The Special Areas Board is the governing body of Albertas special areas. A special area is not to be confused with a specialized municipality, the special areas are administered under the provisions of the Special Areas Act. The three special areas are located in southeast Alberta within Census Division 4. The Special Areas Act of 1938 created the six areas of Tilley East, Berry Creek, Sullivan Lake, Sounding Creek, Neutral Hills, and Bow West. In 1939, these six special areas were consolidated into the four special areas listed below, the original six special areas included 3.2 million hectares, while the current three only include 2.1 million hectares. Tilley East was still an area in 1955, but was not by 1959. This area is now part of Cypress County, formerly the Municipal District of Cypress No.1, Berry Creek-Sullivan Lake Special Area, No. 2, The eastern portion of this area was withdrawn. The northern part of Tilley East Special Area was added to this area in 1941. It was renamed Special Area No.2 in 1959, Sounding Creek-Neutral Hills Special Area, No.
3, The eastern portion of the Berry Creek-Sullivan Lake Special Area was added to this area in 1939. It was renamed Special Area No.3 in 1959, in 1969, the northern portion of Special Area No.3 became Special Area No.4. 4, This area was still an area in 1955. It is now part of Vulcan County and the Municipal District of Taber, Albertas three special areas had a combined population totalling 4,499 in 2011
Scandinavia /ˌskændᵻˈneɪviə/ is a historical and cultural region in Northern Europe characterized by a common ethnocultural North Germanic heritage and mutually intelligible North Germanic languages. The term Scandinavia always includes the three kingdoms of Denmark and Sweden, the remote Norwegian islands of Svalbard and Jan Mayen are usually not seen as a part of Scandinavia, nor is Greenland, an overseas territory of Denmark. This looser definition almost equates to that of the Nordic countries, in Nordic languages, only Denmark and Sweden are commonly included in the definition of Scandinavia. In English usage, Scandinavia sometimes refers to the geographical area, the name Scandinavia originally referred vaguely to the formerly Danish, now Swedish, region Scania. Icelanders and the Faroese are to a significant extent descended from the Norse, Finland is mainly populated by Finns, with a minority of approximately 5% of Swedish speakers. A small minority of Sami people live in the north of Scandinavia.
The Danish and Swedish languages form a continuum and are known as the Scandinavian languages—all of which are considered mutually intelligible with one another. Faroese and Icelandic, sometimes referred to as insular Scandinavian languages, are intelligible in continental Scandinavian languages only to a limited extent, Finnish and Meänkieli are closely related to each other and more distantly to the Sami languages, but are entirely unrelated to the Scandinavian languages. Apart from these, German and Romani are recognized minority languages in Scandinavia, the southern and by far most populous regions of Scandinavia have a temperate climate. Scandinavia extends north of the Arctic Circle, but has mild weather for its latitude due to the Gulf Stream. Much of the Scandinavian mountains have a tundra climate. There are many lakes and moraines, legacies of the last glacial period, Scandinavia usually refers to Denmark and Sweden. Some sources argue for the inclusion of the Faroe Islands and Iceland, though that broader region is known by the countries concerned as Norden.
Before this time, the term Scandinavia was familiar mainly to classical scholars through Pliny the Elders writings, and was used vaguely for Scania, as a political term, Scandinavia was first used by students agitating for Pan-Scandinavianism in the 1830s. After a visit to Sweden, Andersen became a supporter of early political Scandinavism, the term is often defined according to the conventions of the cultures that lay claim to the term in their own use. More precisely, and subject to no dispute, is that Finland is included in the broader term Nordic countries, various promotional agencies of the Nordic countries in the United States serve to promote market and tourism interests in the region. The official tourist boards of Scandinavia sometimes cooperate under one umbrella, Norways government entered one year later. All five Nordic governments participate in the joint promotional efforts in the United States through the Scandinavian Tourist Board of North America, Scandinavia can thus be considered a subset of the Nordic countries
County borough is a term introduced in 1889 in the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, to refer to a borough or a city independent of county council control. They were abolished by the Local Government Act 1972 in England and Wales, in the Republic of Ireland they remain in existence but have been renamed cities under the provisions of the Local Government Act 2001. The Local Government Act 1994 re-introduced the term for certain areas in Wales. Scotland did not have county boroughs but instead counties of cities and these were abolished on 16 May 1975. All four Scottish cities of the time — Aberdeen, Edinburgh, there was an additional category of large burgh in the Scottish system, which were responsible for all services apart from police and fire. Some cities and towns were already independent counties corporate, and most were to become county boroughs, the Local Government Act 1888 as eventually passed required a population of over 50,000 except in the case of existing counties corporate.
This resulted in 61 county boroughs in England and two in Wales, several exceptions were allowed, mainly for historic towns, Bath and Oxford were all under the 50,000 limit in the 1901 census. Various new county boroughs were constituted in the decades as more boroughs reached the 50,000 minimum. The granting of county status was the subject of much disagreement between the large municipal boroughs and the county councils. County boroughs to be constituted in this era were a bag, including some towns that would continue to expand such as Bournemouth. Other towns such as Burton upon Trent and Dewsbury were not to increase in population much past 50,000, the threshold was raised to 100,000 by the Local Government Act 1958. The viability of the county borough of Merthyr Tydfil came into question in the 1930s. Due to a decline in the industries of the town, by 1932 more than half the male population was unemployed. At the same time the population of the borough was lower than when it had created in 1908.
A royal commission was appointed in May 1935 to investigate whether the status of Merthyr Tydfil as a county borough should be continued. In the event county borough status was retained by the town, after the Second World War the creation of new county boroughs in England and Wales was effectively suspended, pending a local government review. The policy in the paper ruled out the creation of new county boroughs in Middlesex owing to its special problems, the Local Government Boundary Commission was appointed on 26 October 1945, under the chairmanship of Sir Malcolm Trustram Eve, delivering its report in 1947. The report envisaged the creation of 47 two-tiered new counties,21 one-tiered new counties and 63 new county boroughs, although the Commissions did not complete their work before being dissolved, a handful of new county boroughs were constituted between 1964 and 1968
An insular area is a territory of the United States of America that is neither a part of one of the fifty U. S. states nor the U. S. federal district of Washington, D. C. The term insular possession is sometimes used. The people of American Samoa are U. S. nationals by place of birth, or they are U. S. citizens by parentage, or naturalization after residing in a State for three months. Nationals are free to move around and seek employment within the United States without immigration restrictions but cannot vote or hold office outside of American Samoa. Residents of insular areas do not pay U. S. federal income taxes but are required to pay other U. S. federal taxes such as taxes, federal commodity taxes, social security taxes. Individuals working for the government pay federal income taxes while all residents are required to pay federal payroll taxes. While these nations participate in many otherwise domestic programs, they are distinct from the United States. U. S. insular areas can be incorporated territories or unincorporated territories, since the admission of Hawaii to the Union in 1959, there have been no incorporated territories other than the uninhabited Palmyra Atoll.
Several overseas unincorporated territories are now independent countries including the Philippines, the Federated States of Micronesia, unlike within the states, sovereignty over insular areas rests not with the local people, but in Congress. In most areas, Congress has granted considerable self-rule through an Organic Act which functions as a local constitution, the Northwest Ordinance grants territories the right to send a non-voting delegate to the U. S. Congress. The United States government is part of international disputes over the disposition of certain maritime. See International territorial disputes of the United States, several islands in the Caribbean and the Pacific are considered insular areas of the United States. S. Administered the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands, a United Nations Trust Territory, the U. S. entered into new political relationships with each of the four political units. One is the Northern Mariana Islands listed above, the others being the three freely associated states below.
The freely associated states are the three states with a Compact of Free Association with the United States where the U. S. provides national defense, funding. Marshall Islands Federated States of Micronesia Palau Philippines, granted to U. S. through the Treaty of Paris in 1898, panama Canal Zone, under effective joint Panama-U. S. control under provisions of the Hay–Bunau-Varilla Treaty from 1903 to 1979. In November 2008 a district judge ruled that a sequence of prior Congressional actions had had the cumulative effect of changing Puerto Ricos status to incorporated. However, as of April 2011 the issue had not yet made its way through the courts, census Bureau, Geographic Areas Reference Manual
An administrative county was an administrative division in England and Wales and Ireland from 1888 to 1974, used for the purposes of local government. They are now abolished, although in Northern Ireland their former areas are used as the basis for lieutenancy, in England and Wales the legislation was repealed in 1974, and entities called metropolitan and non-metropolitan counties in England and counties in Wales were introduced in their place. Though strictly inaccurate, these are called administrative counties to distinguish them from both the historic counties, and the ceremonial counties. In Scotland they were never established as separate entities as they were in England, for local government purposes Scottish counties were replaced in 1975 with a system of regions and island council areas. The Local Government Act 1898 created administrative counties in Ireland on the model that had been used in England. In Northern Ireland the administrative counties were replaced by a system of 26 districts on 1 October 1973, section 131 of the Local Government Act 1972 stated that every county and every county borough shall cease to be an administrative area for local government purposes.
In the Republic of Ireland the legislation that created them remained in force until the Local Government Act 2001 was passed, the administrative counties that did not share the names of previous counties, England Scotland Ross-shire and Cromartyshire Republic of Ireland Dún Laoghaire–Rathdown and South Dublin. List of articles about local government in the United Kingdom The Boundary Committee for England The Boundary Committee for Scotland The Boundary Committee for Wales