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A system is a group of interacting or interrelated entities that form a unified whole. A system is delineated by its spatial and temporal boundaries and influenced by its environment, described by its structure and purpose and expressed in its functioning. Systems are the subjects of study of systems theory; the term "system" comes from the Latin word systēma, in turn from Greek σύστημα systēma: "whole concept made of several parts or members, system", literary "composition". According to Marshall McLuhan, "System" means "something to look at". You must have a high visual gradient to have systematization, but in philosophy, prior to Descartes, there was no "system". Plato had no "system". Aristotle had no "system". In the 19th century the French physicist Nicolas Léonard Sadi Carnot, who studied thermodynamics, pioneered the development of the concept of a "system" in the natural sciences. In 1824 he studied the system which he called the working substance in steam engines, in regards to the system's ability to do work when heat is applied to it.

The working substance could be put in contact with a cold reservoir, or a piston. In 1850, the German physicist Rudolf Clausius generalized this picture to include the concept of the surroundings and began to use the term "working body" when referring to the system; the biologist Ludwig von Bertalanffy became one of the pioneers of the general systems theory. In 1945 he introduced models and laws that apply to generalized systems or their subclasses, irrespective of their particular kind, the nature of their component elements, the relation or'forces' between them. Norbert Wiener and Ross Ashby, who pioneered the use of mathematics to study systems, carried out significant development in the concept of a system. In the 1980s John Henry Holland, Murray Gell-Mann and others coined the term "complex adaptive system" at the interdisciplinary Santa Fe Institute. Environment and boundaries Systems theory views the world as a complex system of interconnected parts. One scopes a system by defining its boundary.

One can make simplified representations of the system in order to understand it and to predict or impact its future behavior. These models may define the behavior of the system. Natural and human-made systems There are human-made systems. Natural systems may not have an apparent objective but their behavior can be interpreted as purposeful by an observer. Human-made systems are made with variable purposes that are achieved by some action performed by or with the system; the parts of a system must be related. Theoretical framework Most systems are open systems, exchanging matter and energy with its surroundings. A closed system exchanges energy, but not matter, with its environment. An isolated system exchanges neither matter nor energy with its environment. A theoretical example of such system is the Universe. Process and transformation process An open system can be viewed as a bounded transformation process, that is, a black box, a process or collection of processes that transforms inputs into outputs.

Inputs are consumed. The concept of input and output here is broad. For example, an output of a passenger ship is the movement of people from departure to destination. System model A system comprises multiple views. Man-made systems may have such views as concept, design, deployment, behavior, input data, output data views. A system model is required to represent all these views. Systems architecture A systems architecture, using one single integrated model for the description of multiple views, is a kind of system model. A subsystem is a set of elements, a system itself, a component of a larger system; the IBM Mainframe Job Entry Subsystem family are examples. The main elements they have in common are the components that handle input, scheduling and output. A subsystem description is a system object that contains information defining the characteristics of an operating environment controlled by the system; the Data tests are performed to verify the correctness of the individual subsystem configuration data and they are related to a single subsystem in order to test its Specific Application.

There are many kinds of systems that can be analyzed both qualitatively. For example, in an analysis of urban systems dynamics, A. W. Steiss defined five intersecting systems, including behavioral system. For sociological models influenced by systems theory, Kenneth D. Bailey defined systems in terms of conceptual and abstract systems, either isolated, closed, or open. Walter F. Buckley defined systems in sociology in terms of mechanical and process models. Bela H. Banathy cautioned that for any inquiry into a system understanding its kind is crucial, defined "natural" and "designed", i. e. artificial, systems. It is important not to confuse these abstract definitions. For example, natural systems include subatomic systems, living systems, the solar system and the Universe, while artificial systems include man-made physical structures, hybrids of natural and artificial systems, conceptual knowledge

A&W Root Beer

A&W Root Beer is a root beer brand available in the United States and Canada. Founded in 1919 by Roy W. Allen, Allen partnered with Frank Wright in 1922, they combined their initials to create the brand "A&W" and inspired a restaurant chain founded in 1922. A&W root beer drinks sold for five cents. Outside Canada, the rights to the A&W brand are owned by Keurig Dr Pepper, which in turn, licenses the brand to the named U. S.-based restaurant chain. S. bottlers. A&W Food Services of Canada, independent of both Keurig Dr Pepper and the U. S. chain, is responsible for the restaurants and the marketing of root beer products in that country, with retail products bottled and distributed by The Coca-Cola Company. The U. S. variant is sold as an import drink in Southeast Asia and Italy, as well as Australia, Chile, among other countries. On June 20, 1919, Roy W. Allen opened a roadside root beer stand in Lodi, using a formula he had purchased from a pharmacist, he soon opened stands in Stockton and five stands in nearby Sacramento, home of the country's first drive-in featuring "tray-boys" for curbside service.

In 1920, Allen became partners with Frank Wright and the two combined their initials and called their product A&W Root Beer. A mistaken notion is that the initials were derived from Willard Marriott; this mistake arose owing to Marriott's first business, an A&W franchiseIn 1924, Allen bought Wright's share, obtained a trademark, began selling restaurant franchises. A&W was one of the first franchised restaurant chains in the United States. Franchise owners could use the A&W name and logo and purchased concentrated root beer syrup from Allen. By 1933, there were more than 170 A&W franchised outlets. There was no common menu, architecture, or procedures shared by the franchisees and some chose to sell food with the root beer. Franchises struggled with labor shortages and sugar rationing during World War II, but following the war, the number of A&W outlets tripled as GI loans paved the way for private enterprise. Driven by the popularity of the automobile and the new mobile society, more than 450 A&W Root Beer stands were operating by 1950.

In that same year, Allen retired and sold the business to Nebraskan Gene Hurtz, who formed the A&W Root Beer Company. The first A&W Root Beer outlet in Canada opened in 1956. By 1960, the number of A&W restaurants swelled to more than 2,000. In 1963, the A&W Root Beer Company was sold to the J. Hungerford Smith Company, which had produced Allen's concentrate since 1921. In the same year, the first overseas A&W restaurant opened its doors in Guam. In 1963, the company was sold to the United Fruit Company renamed the United Brands Company. In 1971, United Brands formed a wholly owned subsidiary, A&W Distributing Co. for the purpose of making A&W Root Beer available in bottles on the grocery shelf. After a test run in Arizona and California, the products were distributed nationally in the United States, along with sugar-free, low-sodium, caffeine-free versions. In 1974, A&W introduced "The Great Root Bear," a mascot that served as a goodwill ambassador for the brand. In the late 1970s, A&W Restaurants was formed to manage restaurant franchising.

It was bought in 1982 by A. Alfred Taubman; the bear and the tuba jingle. The famous Canadian composer and B. C. Hall of Fame winner Robert Buckley helped compose the song; the mascot was so successful that he was adopted as the mascot by the American A&W chain as well. The famous tuba jingle was played by famed Vancouver jazz and session trombonist Sharman King. King did the ads for the "Book Warehouse" chain of discount book stores, which he owned. In 1986, A&W Cream Soda and A&W Diet Cream Soda were introduced and distributed nationally, followed in 1987 by the reformulation of sugar-free A&W as Diet A&W. In October 1993, A&W Beverages was folded into Cadbury Beverages; that company would spin off its US beverages business as Keurig Dr Pepper in 2008. In March 2005, A&W began to appear in the Vintage Bottle, a 20-ounce bottle with graphics reminiscent of an old fashioned root beer barrel; the brand's current tagline is, "Classic American Refreshment Since 1919." In July 2017, A&W Canada reformulated its root beer, dropping High Fructose Corn Syrup and some flavors from the recipe, substituting cane sugar, sarsaparilla root, birch bark, anise.

They launched the new formula by declaring Free Root Beer Day, serving free A&W Root Beer at all locations across the country from open to close on Saturday July 22, 2017. A&W Sugar-free Root Beer was introduced in 1974, reformulated as Diet A&W in 1987. A&W Cream Soda and Diet Cream Soda were introduced in 1986. A&W Floats and Sunkist Floats were introduced in 2008. A&W TEN, a low calorie root beer, began appearing in American supermarkets in the spring of 2013. A&W and Jim Belushi offered a trip to Los Angeles with a VIP pass to "A&W Ultimate All-American Cookout and Concert" at the House of Blues, via eBay. In celebration of their 100th anniversary, A&W offered a free 2-liter bottle of A&W Root Beer in exchange for a pledge called "The Family Fun Pledge" which asked participants to be "technology-free for one hour every Friday night this summer." The Great Root Bear called Rooty, is the mascot for A&W Root Beer. It was first used in 1974 by Canada's A&W, was adopted by the American chain in 1976.

In a long-running television advertising campaign for the Canadian A&W chain, his theme was a tuba-driven jingle entitled "Ba-Dum, Ba-Dum" and released as a single

NGC 1272

NGC 1272 is a massive elliptical galaxy located about 230 million light-years away in the constellation Perseus. It was discovered by astronomer Heinrich d'Arrest on February 14, 1863. NGC 1272 has an active nucleus and is the second brightest member of the Perseus Cluster after NGC 1275. NGC 1272 has two radio jets; the jets have a radius of curvature of ~ 6,500 ly. The morphology of the jets indicate that the jets are affected by ram-pressure stripping caused by the motion of NGC 1272 though the ICM of the Perseus Cluster. Due to the proximity of NGC 1272 to the center of the Perseus Cluster, the galaxy experiences ram-pressure on an order of magnitude larger than any other bent-double in the cluster and experiences stronger ram-pressure than other bent-doubles outside of the cluster; the small bending radius of the jets requires NGC 1272 to have no ISM at radii of ∼2 kpc and beyond. The ISM of NGC 1272 may have been removed though ram-pressure stripping. However, ram-pressure alone cannot remove a fraction of the ISM from deep within the galaxy.

Another process, such as AGN feedback in NGC 1272 must have removed a large fraction of the ISM before ram-pressure can become effective in removing the ISM. It is estimated that around 12,000 globular clusters surround NGC 1272. On February 26, 2016 a type Ia supernova designated as SN 2016arc was discovered in NGC 1272. List of NGC objects NGC 1265 NGC 1275 Messier 87 NGC 4061 - a bent radio double galaxy in the NGC 4065 Group NGC 1272 on WikiSky: DSS2, SDSS, GALEX, IRAS, Hydrogen α, X-Ray, Sky Map and images

Jack Stauffacher

Jack Werner Stauffacher was an American printer, typographer and fine book publisher. He owned and operated Greenwood Press, a small book printing press based in the San Francisco Bay Area, he taught classes in design and printmaking at Carnegie Mellon University, Stanford University, University of California, Santa Cruz, San Francisco Art Institute. Stauffacher was born in San Francisco, California in 1920, he grew up in nearby San Mateo, California, his father Frank A. Stauffacher was a plumber, his mother was Elsa R. Stauffacher, his brother, Frank Stauffacher, was a filmmaker and ran the pioneering "Art in Cinema" cinema series at the San Francisco Museum of Modern Art from 1946 to 1954. At the age of 13, he established the Greenwood Press; the press was named after the street on which it was located, in a small building that he and his father built behind the family home in San Mateo, California. His first printed book appeared in 1941 when he was 20 years old, Washington Irving's "Three Choice Sketches By Geoffrey Crayon, Gent" based on The Sketch Book of Geoffrey Crayon, Gent..

In 1955, he received a Fulbright grant for three years of study in Florence and decided to close Greenwood Press. There he met master printers Giovanni Mardersteig and Alberto Tallone, whose work and ideas influenced him profoundly. After his return to the United States, he became assistant professor of typographic design at Carnegie Mellon University and his work led to the formation of the New Laboratory Press, he went on to become typographic director at Stanford University Press and to teach at the San Francisco Art Institute, University of California, Santa Cruz. One of his former students was artist Tom Killion. In 1966, he reopened the Greenwood Press in a building at 300 Broadway in the North Beach neighborhood of San Francisco and resumed producing books and limited editions such as Albert Camus and the Men of Stone. In 1967, he was commissioned to redesign the Journal of Typographic Research renamed Visible Language; the typographic composition he used for its cover was used for many years.

Stauffacher was added to the distinguished list of AIGA medalists in 2004. Several of his experimental compositions using wood and metal type are in the permanent collections of the San Francisco Museum of Modern Art, the Stanford University Library, the Los Angeles County Museum of Art, he was the subject of an article and his work featured on the cover of the groundbreaking Emigre magazine in 1998. Stauffacher died at home in Tiburon, California on November 2017, at the age of 96, his work was the subject of a short biographical documentary film by filmmaker Jim Faris, Jack Stauffacher, Printer. Much of his life and work is documented in the book A Typographic Journey: The History of the Greenwood Press published as a limited edition book by the Book Club of California. Stauffacher, Jack Werner. A Typographic Journey: The History of the Greenwood Press. Book Club of California. ASIN B0006R91CK. Walker, Franklin; the Seacoast of Bohemia: An Account of Early Carmel. Book Club of California. ASIN B0006BPFU8.

Phaidros: A Search for the Typographic Form of Plato’s Phaedrus. San Francisco, California: Greenwood Press. 1978. Wooden Letters from 300 Broadway. Exhibition catalog. School of Art and Design, San Jose State University. 1999. This is a list of select exhibition of Jack Stauffacher. 2019 – Between the Lines: Typography in LACMA’s Collection, Los Angeles County Museum of Art, Los Angeles, California 2013 – Stauffacher and Judd, Los Angeles County Museum of Art, Los Angeles, California 2011 – Arch: A Book Project by Holly Downing and Jack Stauffacher, Graham Foundation and Festival of the Architecture Book, Illinois 2008-2009 – 246 and Counting, Recent Architecture + Design Acquisitions, San Francisco Museum of Modern Art, San Francisco, California 2004-2005 – Belles Lettres: The Art of Typography, San Francisco Museum of Modern Art, San Francisco, California 2002 – Jack Stauffacher: Selections from the Permanent Collection of Architecture and Design, San Francisco Museum of Modern Art, San Francisco, California AIGA Medalist article documentation of Jack Stauffacher exhibitions dot font article on Stauffacher with Hermann Zapf Oral history interview with Jack Werner Stauffacher, 1993 February 8 from Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution Video: Jack Stauffacher: Typographic Experiments by Los Angeles County Museum of Art on YouTube Video: Jack Stauffacher, Printer by Jim Faris on YouTube


Gooloogongia is a genus of prehistoric lobe-finned fish which belonged to the group of Rhizodont fishes. Gooloogongia lived during the Late Devonian period. Fossils have been found in the Canowindra site, it was named by Dr. Zerina Johanson and Dr. Per Ahlberg in 1998. In general size and shape Gooloogongia is similar to the modern saratoga which lives in the tropical rivers of northern Australia. Gooloogongia loomesi named after Bruce Loomes, the foreman of the 1993 excavation of the Canowindra site, the town of Gooloogong, NSW. Gooloogongia was large in size. Like other lobe-finned fishes, Gooloogongia had two rows of teeth in the jaw, the outer row being small teeth, the inner row being larger fangs; the fangs of Gooloogongia are sharp and needle-like, but they were not strong enough to penetrate the armor plating of small placoderms. Gooloogongia loomesi Specimens of Gooloogongia loomesi Morphology of? Sauripteris, Gooloogongia and Acanthostega Reconstruction of Gooloogongia loomesi Devonian rhizodontids and tristichopterids from East Gondwana Gooloogongia page and size comparison to a person and other lobe-finned fish

LDAC (codec)

LDAC is an audio coding technology developed by Sony, which allows streaming high-resolution audio over Bluetooth connections at up to 990 kbps at 24 bit/96 kHz. It is used by various Sony products, including headphones, portable media players, active speakers and home theaters, its main competitor is Qualcomm's aptX-HD and the HWA Union/Savitech's LHDC. LDAC is a lossy codec, which employs a hybrid coding scheme based on the Modified discrete cosine transform to provide more efficient data compression. LDAC can switch between 330/660/990 kbps depending on connection strength. Starting from Android 8.0 "Oreo", LDAC is part of the Android Open Source Project, enabling every OEM to integrate this standard into their own Android devices freely. The encoder library is open source and the implementation for Linux is present in bluez-alsa and pulseaudio-modules-bt, it is available on Fedora with RPM Fusion since Fedora 30. On 17 September 2019, the Japan Audio Society certified LDAC with their Hi-Res Audio Wireless certification.

The only codecs with the Hi-Res Audio Wireless certification are LDAC and LHDC. List of codecs AptX LHDC Lossy data compression Official website LDAC codec source code in the Android Open Source Project