The Magic Mouse is a multi-touch mouse, manufactured and sold by Apple. It was first sold on October 20, 2009; the Magic Mouse is the first consumer mouse to have multi-touch capabilities. Taking after the iPhone, iPad, iPod Touch, multi-touch trackpads, the Magic Mouse allows the use of gestures such as swiping and scrolling across the top surface of the mouse to interact with desktop computers, it runs on two AA batteries. Apple includes two non-rechargeable batteries in the box; until 2016, Apple sold a battery charger which could charge two AA batteries, suited for the Magic Mouse. Like its predecessor, the Mighty Mouse, the Magic Mouse is capable of control-clicking without requiring the key combination; the mouse requires minimum Mac OS X 10.5.8. It can be configured as a two-buttoned left-handed or right-handed mouse, but the default is a single button, it uses laser tracking for increased pointer accuracy over previous generation Apple mice. Since its release, it has been included along with a wireless keyboard with the 2009 generation of iMacs, with a wired keyboard with the 2010 Mac Pro workstations.
It can be purchased separately. Initial reception to the Magic Mouse was negative, with reactions to its inability to trigger Exposé, Dashboard, or Spaces, as its predecessor could, or to middle click. Many of those features can be enabled on the Magic Mouse with the use of third-party tools. Other issues centered on the Magic Mouse's ability to maintain a stable connection to Mac Pro workstations; the following are the gestures. Not all gestures are supported on all operating systems: Click Two-button click 360°-scroll Screen zoom Screen pan Two-finger swipe One-finger swipe Two-finger double tap One-finger double tapGestures can be customized and new ones can be added via third-party software. Inertia scrolling is said to be available in Snow Leopard only after installing a software update, but it could be enabled in Leopard with a terminal command. Despite these new features, the Magic Mouse still cannot left- and control-click together. Source: Tracking method: Laser tracking Wireless: Yes Resolution: 1300dpi Mac/PC: Mac & PC Required configuration: Bluetooth-enabled Mac computer Mac OS X v10.5.8 or with Wireless Mouse Software Update 1.0 Size: 115 × 58 × 22 mm Weight: 105 g, 99 g for Magic Mouse 2 Broadcom BCM2042A4KFBGH bluetooth chip Other information: Multi-touch surface with gesture support Vertical and diagonal 360° scrolling One button ambidextrous & configurable design Laser tracking engine Bluetooth connectivity Mac OS X v10.5.8, v10.6.1 or with Wireless Mouse Software Update 1.0.
This update is essential for the Magic Mouse to work. Windows 7, Windows XP, Windows Vista using Boot Camp tools under Mac OS X. To work with Windows 7, Mac OS X Lion is required as the latest drivers are available only with a version of Boot Camp, installable on Mac OS X Lion. Extracted from Boot Camp native Windows XP, Windows 7 drivers, 32‑bit and 64‑bit. Linux as of kernel 2.6.34-rc1 Apple Keyboard Magic Trackpad Apple Mouse Magic Keyboard Magic Trackpad 2 Magic Mouse 2 "The Sad Reality of the Magic Mouse 2". Gizmodo. Retrieved 9 December 2015. Magic Mouse – Apple Store Magic Mouse Teardown on iFixit
A graphics tablet is a computer input device that enables a user to hand-draw images and graphics, with a special pen-like stylus, similar to the way a person draws images with a pencil and paper. These tablets may be used to capture data or handwritten signatures, it can be used to trace an image from a piece of paper, taped or otherwise secured to the tablet surface. Capturing data in this way, by tracing or entering the corners of linear poly-lines or shapes, is called digitizing; the device consists of a flat surface upon which the user may "draw" or trace an image using the attached stylus, a pen-like drawing apparatus. The image is displayed on the computer monitor, though some graphic tablets now incorporate an LCD screen for a more realistic or natural experience and usability; some tablets are intended as a replacement for the computer mouse as the primary pointing and navigation device for desktop computers. The first electronic handwriting device was the Telautograph, patented by Elisha Gray in 1888.
The first graphic tablet resembling contemporary tablets and used for handwriting recognition by a computer was the Stylator in 1957. Better known is the RAND Tablet known as the Grafacon, introduced in 1964; the RAND Tablet employed a grid of wires under the surface of the pad that encoded horizontal and vertical coordinates in a small magnetic signal. The stylus would receive the magnetic signal, which could be decoded back as coordinate information; the acoustic tablet, or spark tablet, used a stylus. The clicks were triangulated by a series of microphones to locate the pen in space; the system was complex and expensive, the sensors were susceptible to interference by external noise. Digitizers were popularized in the mid-1970s and early 1980s by the commercial success of the ID and BitPad manufactured by the Summagraphics Corp; the Summagraphics digitizers were sold under the company's name but were private labeled for HP, Textronix and Sutherland and several other graphic system manufacturers.
The ID model was the first graphics tablet to make use of what was at the time, the new Intel microprocessor technology. This embedded processing power allowed the ID models to have twice the accuracy of previous models while still making use of the same foundation technology. Key to this accuracy improvement were two US Patents issued to Stephen Domyan, Robert Davis, Edward Snyder; the Bit Pad model was the first attempt at a low cost graphics tablet with an initial selling price of $555 when other graphics tablets were selling in the $2,000 to $3,000 price range. This lower cost opened up the opportunities for would be entrepreneurs to be able to write graphics software for a multitude of new applications; these digitizers were used as the input device for many high-end CAD systems as well as bundled with PCs and PC-based CAD software like AutoCAD. Summagraphics made an OEM version of its BitPad, sold by Apple Computer as the Apple Graphic Tablet accessory to their Apple II; these tablets used a magnetostriction technology which used wires made of a special alloy stretched over a solid substrate to locate the tip of a stylus or the center of a digitizer cursor on the surface of the tablet.
This technology allowed Proximity or "Z" axis measurement. The first home computer graphic tablet was the KoalaPad. Though designed for the Apple II, the Koala broadened its applicability to all home computers with graphic support, examples of which include the TRS-80 Color Computer, Commodore 64, Atari 8-bit family. Competing tablets were produced. In 1981, musician Todd Rundgren created the first color graphic tablet software for personal computers, licensed to Apple as the Utopia Graphic Tablet System. In the 1980s, several vendors of graphic tablets began to include additional functions, such as handwriting recognition and on-tablet menus. Tablets are characterized by size of the device, drawing area, its resolution size, pressure sensitivity, number of buttons and types and number of interfaces: Bluetooth, USB; the actual drawing accuracy is restricted to pen's nib size. There have been many attempts to categorize the technologies that have been used for graphic tablets: Passive tablets Passive tablets, most notably those manufactured by Wacom and Parblo, for example, make use of electromagnetic induction technology, where the horizontal and vertical wires of the tablet operate as both transmitting and receiving coils.
The tablet generates an electromagnetic signal, received by the LC circuit in the stylus. The wires in the tablet change to a receiving mode and read the signal generated by the stylus. Modern arrangements provide pressure sensitivity and one or more buttons, with the electronics for this information present in the stylus. On older tablets, changing the pressure on the stylus nib or pressing a button changed the properties of the LC circuit, affecting the signal generated by the pen, which modern ones encode into the signal as a digital data stream. By using electromagnetic signals, the tablet is able to sense the stylus position without the stylus having to touch the surface, powering the pen with this signal means that devices used with the tablet never n
DVD is a digital optical disc storage format invented and developed in 1995. The medium can store any kind of digital data and is used for software and other computer files as well as video programs watched using DVD players. DVDs offer higher storage capacity than compact discs. Prerecorded DVDs are mass-produced using molding machines that physically stamp data onto the DVD; such discs are a form of DVD-ROM because data can only be not written or erased. Blank recordable DVD discs can be recorded once using a DVD recorder and function as a DVD-ROM. Rewritable DVDs can be erased many times. DVDs are used in DVD-Video consumer digital video format and in DVD-Audio consumer digital audio format as well as for authoring DVD discs written in a special AVCHD format to hold high definition material. DVDs containing other types of information may be referred to as DVD data discs; the Oxford English Dictionary comments that, "In 1995 rival manufacturers of the product named digital video disc agreed that, in order to emphasize the flexibility of the format for multimedia applications, the preferred abbreviation DVD would be understood to denote digital versatile disc."
The OED states that in 1995, "The companies said the official name of the format will be DVD. Toshiba had been using the name ‘digital video disc’, but, switched to ‘digital versatile disc’ after computer companies complained that it left out their applications.""Digital versatile disc" is the explanation provided in a DVD Forum Primer from 2000 and in the DVD Forum's mission statement. There were several formats developed for recording video on optical discs before the DVD. Optical recording technology was invented by David Paul Gregg and James Russell in 1958 and first patented in 1961. A consumer optical disc data format known as LaserDisc was developed in the United States, first came to market in Atlanta, Georgia in 1978, it used much larger discs than the formats. Due to the high cost of players and discs, consumer adoption of LaserDisc was low in both North America and Europe, was not used anywhere outside Japan and the more affluent areas of Southeast Asia, such as Hong-Kong, Singapore and Taiwan.
CD Video released in 1987 used analog video encoding on optical discs matching the established standard 120 mm size of audio CDs. Video CD became one of the first formats for distributing digitally encoded films in this format, in 1993. In the same year, two new optical disc storage formats were being developed. One was the Multimedia Compact Disc, backed by Philips and Sony, the other was the Super Density disc, supported by Toshiba, Time Warner, Matsushita Electric, Mitsubishi Electric, Thomson, JVC. By the time of the press launches for both formats in January 1995, the MMCD nomenclature had been dropped, Philips and Sony were referring to their format as Digital Video Disc. Representatives from the SD camp asked IBM for advice on the file system to use for their disc, sought support for their format for storing computer data. Alan E. Bell, a researcher from IBM's Almaden Research Center, got that request, learned of the MMCD development project. Wary of being caught in a repeat of the costly videotape format war between VHS and Betamax in the 1980s, he convened a group of computer industry experts, including representatives from Apple, Sun Microsystems and many others.
This group was referred to as the Technical Working Group, or TWG. On August 14, 1995, an ad hoc group formed from five computer companies issued a press release stating that they would only accept a single format; the TWG voted to boycott both formats unless the two camps agreed on a converged standard. They recruited president of IBM, to pressure the executives of the warring factions. In one significant compromise, the MMCD and SD groups agreed to adopt proposal SD 9, which specified that both layers of the dual-layered disc be read from the same side—instead of proposal SD 10, which would have created a two-sided disc that users would have to turn over; as a result, the DVD specification provided a storage capacity of 4.7 GB for a single-layered, single-sided disc and 8.5 GB for a dual-layered, single-sided disc. The DVD specification ended up similar to Toshiba and Matsushita's Super Density Disc, except for the dual-layer option and EFMPlus modulation designed by Kees Schouhamer Immink.
Philips and Sony decided that it was in their best interests to end the format war, agreed to unify with companies backing the Super Density Disc to release a single format, with technologies from both. After other compromises between MMCD and SD, the computer companies through TWG won the day, a single format was agreed upon; the TWG collaborated with the Optical Storage Technology Association on the use of their implementation of the ISO-13346 file system for use on the new DVDs. Movie and home entertainment distributors adopted the DVD format to replace the ubiquitous VHS tape as the primary consumer digital video distribution format, they embraced DVD as it produced higher quality video and sound, provided superior data lifespan, could be interactive. Interactivity on LaserDiscs had proven desirable to consumers collectors; when LaserDisc prices dropped from $100 per
A modem is a hardware device that converts data between transmission media so that it can be transmitted from computer to computer. The goal is to produce a signal that can be transmitted and decoded to reproduce the original digital data. Modems can be used with any means of transmitting analog signals from light-emitting diodes to radio. A common type of modem is one that turns the digital data of a computer into modulated electrical signal for transmission over telephone lines and demodulated by another modem at the receiver side to recover the digital data. Modems are classified by the maximum amount of data they can send in a given unit of time expressed in bits per second or bytes per second. Modems can be classified by their symbol rate, measured in baud; the baud unit denotes symbols per second, or the number of times per second the modem sends a new signal. For example, the ITU V.21 standard used audio frequency-shift keying with two possible frequencies, corresponding to two distinct symbols, to carry 300 bits per second using 300 baud.
By contrast, the original ITU V.22 standard, which could transmit and receive four distinct symbols, transmitted 1,200 bits by sending 600 symbols per second using phase-shift keying News wire services in the 1920s used multiplex devices that satisfied the definition of a modem. However, the modem function was incidental to the multiplexing function, so they are not included in the history of modems. Modems grew out of the need to connect teleprinters over ordinary phone lines instead of the more expensive leased lines, used for current loop–based teleprinters and automated telegraphs. In 1941, the Allies developed a voice encryption system called SIGSALY which used a vocoder to digitize speech encrypted the speech with one-time pad and encoded the digital data as tones using frequency shift keying. Mass-produced modems in the United States began as part of the SAGE air-defense system in 1958, connecting terminals at various airbases, radar sites, command-and-control centers to the SAGE director centers scattered around the United States and Canada.
SAGE modems were described by AT&T's Bell Labs as conforming to their newly published Bell 101 dataset standard. While they ran on dedicated telephone lines, the devices at each end were no different from commercial acoustically coupled Bell 101, 110 baud modems; the 201A and 201B Data-Phones were synchronous modems using two-bit-per-baud phase-shift keying. The 201A operated half-duplex at 2,000 bit/s over normal phone lines, while the 201B provided full duplex 2,400 bit/s service on four-wire leased lines, the send and receive channels each running on their own set of two wires; the famous Bell 103A dataset standard was introduced by AT&T in 1962. It provided full-duplex service at 300 bit/s over normal phone lines. Frequency-shift keying was used, with the call originator transmitting at 1,070 or 1,270 Hz and the answering modem transmitting at 2,025 or 2,225 Hz; the available 103A2 gave an important boost to the use of remote low-speed terminals such as the Teletype Model 33 ASR and KSR, the IBM 2741.
AT&T reduced modem costs by introducing the answer-only 113B/C modems. For many years, the Bell System maintained a monopoly on the use of its phone lines and what devices could be connected to them. However, the FCC's seminal Carterfone Decision of 1968, the FCC concluded that electronic devices could be connected to the telephone system as long as they used an acoustic coupler. Since most handsets were supplied by Western Electric and thus of a standard design, acoustic couplers were easy to build. Acoustically coupled Bell 103A-compatible 300 bit/s modems were common during the 1970s. Well-known models included the Novation CAT and the Anderson-Jacobson, the latter spun off from an in-house project at Stanford Research Institute. An lower-cost option was the Pennywhistle modem, designed to be built using parts from electronics scrap and surplus stores. In December 1972, Vadic introduced the VA3400, notable for full-duplex operation at 1,200 bit/s over the phone network. Like the 103A, it used different frequency bands for receive.
In November 1976, AT&T introduced the 212A modem to compete with Vadic. It used the lower frequency set for transmission. One could use the 212A with a 103A modem at 300 bit/s. According to Vadic, the change in frequency assignments made the 212 intentionally incompatible with acoustic coupling, thereby locking out many potential modem manufacturers. In 1977, Vadic responded with the VA3467 triple modem, an answer-only modem sold to computer center operators that supported Vadic's 1,200-bit/s mode, AT&T's 212A mode, 103A operation; the Hush-a-Phone decision applied only to mechanical connections, but the Carterfone decision of 1968, led to the FCC introducing a rule setting stringent AT&T-designed tests for electronically coupling a device to the phone lines. This opened the door to direct-connect modems that plugged directly into the phone line rather than via a handset. However, the cost of passing the tests was considerable, acoustically coupled modems remained common into the early 1980s.
The falling prices of electronics in the late 1970s led to an increasing number of direct-connect models around 1980. In spite of being directly connected, these modems were operated like their earlier acoustic versions – dialing and other phone-control operations were completed by hand, using an attached handset
MacOS is a series of graphical operating systems developed and marketed by Apple Inc. since 2001. It is the primary operating system for Apple's Mac family of computers. Within the market of desktop and home computers, by web usage, it is the second most used desktop OS, after Microsoft Windows.macOS is the second major series of Macintosh operating systems. The first is colloquially called the "classic" Mac OS, introduced in 1984, the final release of, Mac OS 9 in 1999; the first desktop version, Mac OS X 10.0, was released in March 2001, with its first update, 10.1, arriving that year. After this, Apple began naming its releases after big cats, which lasted until OS X 10.8 Mountain Lion. Since OS X 10.9 Mavericks, releases have been named after locations in California. Apple shortened the name to "OS X" in 2012 and changed it to "macOS" in 2016, adopting the nomenclature that they were using for their other operating systems, iOS, watchOS, tvOS; the latest version is macOS Mojave, publicly released in September 2018.
Between 1999 and 2009, Apple sold. The initial version, Mac OS X Server 1.0, was released in 1999 with a user interface similar to Mac OS 8.5. After this, new versions were introduced concurrently with the desktop version of Mac OS X. Beginning with Mac OS X 10.7 Lion, the server functions were made available as a separate package on the Mac App Store.macOS is based on technologies developed between 1985 and 1997 at NeXT, a company that Apple co-founder Steve Jobs created after leaving the company. The "X" in Mac OS X and OS X is pronounced as such; the X was a prominent part of the operating system's brand identity and marketing in its early years, but receded in prominence since the release of Snow Leopard in 2009. UNIX 03 certification was achieved for the Intel version of Mac OS X 10.5 Leopard and all releases from Mac OS X 10.6 Snow Leopard up to the current version have UNIX 03 certification. MacOS shares its Unix-based core, named Darwin, many of its frameworks with iOS, tvOS and watchOS.
A modified version of Mac OS X 10.4 Tiger was used for the first-generation Apple TV. Releases of Mac OS X from 1999 to 2005 ran on the PowerPC-based Macs of that period. After Apple announced that they were switching to Intel CPUs from 2006 onwards, versions were released for 32-bit and 64-bit Intel-based Macs. Versions from Mac OS X 10.7 Lion run on 64-bit Intel CPUs, in contrast to the ARM architecture used on iOS and watchOS devices, do not support PowerPC applications. The heritage of what would become macOS had originated at NeXT, a company founded by Steve Jobs following his departure from Apple in 1985. There, the Unix-like NeXTSTEP operating system was developed, launched in 1989; the kernel of NeXTSTEP is based upon the Mach kernel, developed at Carnegie Mellon University, with additional kernel layers and low-level user space code derived from parts of BSD. Its graphical user interface was built on top of an object-oriented GUI toolkit using the Objective-C programming language. Throughout the early 1990s, Apple had tried to create a "next-generation" OS to succeed its classic Mac OS through the Taligent and Gershwin projects, but all of them were abandoned.
This led Apple to purchase NeXT in 1996, allowing NeXTSTEP called OPENSTEP, to serve as the basis for Apple's next generation operating system. This purchase led to Steve Jobs returning to Apple as an interim, the permanent CEO, shepherding the transformation of the programmer-friendly OPENSTEP into a system that would be adopted by Apple's primary market of home users and creative professionals; the project was first code named "Rhapsody" and officially named Mac OS X. Mac OS X was presented as the tenth major version of Apple's operating system for Macintosh computers. Previous Macintosh operating systems were named using Arabic numerals, as with Mac OS 8 and Mac OS 9; the letter "X" in Mac OS X's name refers to a Roman numeral. It is therefore pronounced "ten" in this context. However, it is commonly pronounced like the letter "X"; the first version of Mac OS X, Mac OS X Server 1.0, was a transitional product, featuring an interface resembling the classic Mac OS, though it was not compatible with software designed for the older system.
Consumer releases of Mac OS X included more backward compatibility. Mac OS applications could be rewritten to run natively via the Carbon API; the consumer version of Mac OS X was launched in 2001 with Mac OS X 10.0. Reviews were variable, with extensive praise for its sophisticated, glossy Aqua interface but criticizing it for sluggish performance. With Apple's popularity at a low, the makers of several classic Mac applications such as FrameMaker and PageMaker declined to develop new versions of their software for Mac OS X. Ars Technica columnist John Siracusa, who reviewed every major OS X release up to 10.10, described the early releases in retrospect as'dog-slow, feature poor' and Aqua as'unbearably slow and a huge resource hog'. Apple developed several new releases of Mac OS X. Siracusa's review of version 10.3, noted "It's strange to have gone from years of uncertainty and vaporware to a steady annual supply of major new operating system releases." Version 10.4, Tiger shocked executives at Microsoft by offering a number of features, such as fast file s
A desk accessory in computing is a small transient or auxiliary application that can be run concurrently in a desktop environment with any other application on the system. Early examples, such as Sidekick and Macintosh desk accessories, used special programming models to provide a small degree of multitasking on a system that did not have any other multitasking ability. Early personal information managers, such as Norton Desktop and Borland's Sidekick, provided pop-up calculator, alarm and other functions for single-tasking operating systems like MS-DOS using terminate and stay resident techniques. Introduced in 1984, as part of the operating system for the Apple Macintosh computer, a Desk Accessory was a piece of software written as a device driver, conforming to a particular programming model; the purpose of this model was to permit small helper-type applications to be run concurrently with any other application on the system. This provided a small degree of multitasking on a system that did not have any other multitasking ability.
DAs were implemented as a special class of driver. It was installed in the driver queue, given time periodically and co-operatively as a result of the host application calling SystemTask within its main loop. A DA was permitted to have a user interface. A special window frame with black title bar and rounded corners was reserved for the use of DAs so that the user could distinguish it from the windows of the hosting application. Typical early DAs included the Alarm Clock; the Control panel and Scrapbook were implemented as DAs. Third-party DAs such as spelling checkers could be purchased, it was considered hard to write a DA early on when there was little in the way of developer tools. However, since on the early Mac OS drivers did not have any special privileges, writing a DA was, with practice, no more difficult than any other application. A special Font/DA Mover utility was used to change the configuration of DAs; because DAs were not installed or launched in the same way that applications were, the user could not drag and drop DAs into or out of the system.
They resided in the System file's'DRVR' resources, like actual drivers, though they could be installed in any file whose resources were loaded into the memory, were stored in "suitcases" when not installed in the system file. If installed within a separate application, such as MacWrite, their functionality would be accessible only when that application was running; that is, a desk accessory installed as a resource within an application would appear on the Apple menu as a desk accessory only when that application was active. It could be activated while the application was run and would disappear when the application was terminated through the Quit function.. As a resource numbering scheme was implemented for marking resources as belonging to another resource of some particular type and number in the same file, such as a DA, it was possible for desk accessories to have a limited "resource fork" of their own within the file they were contained in. With the advent of System 7, which included a standard co-operative multitasking feature, the need for DAs diminished and developers were encouraged to develop small applications instead.
The system continued to run DAs for backward compatibility. Under System 7 and DAs could be moved and renamed using the Finder like normal applications, removing the need for Font/DA Mover and confining suitcases to font management; when a DA was run under System 7, it always executed in the Finder's address space. The icon for a desk accessory program under System 7 and is a reversed version of the application icon, with the writing hand on the left side instead of the right. A similar mechanism to allow small utility programs to run along with regular applications was present in the operating system for the Apple IIGS and Apple IIe. GEM resembled the Macintosh in many respects, one of them was the presence of desk accessories, for the same reason: to allow multiple programs to be used in a system that only supported one full application at a time. From a programming point of view, desk accessories were implemented, like other GEM applications, as DOS. EXE files, with names ending with. ACC rather than.
APP. Each. ACC file could support multiple accessories. ACC. Installation was a matter of placing the. ACC in the correct directory - \GEMBOOT in earlier versions, \GEMAPPS\GEMSYS in GEM/3 and later. Since each desk accessory loaded reduced the amount of memory available for programs, one technique for temporarily increasing available space was to rename one or more. ACC files to have a different suffix and restart GEM. On the Amstrad PC-1512, for example, the Snapshot accessory was shipped as SNAPSHOT. ACX and had to be renamed to. ACC if required. Desk accessories continued to be supported in ViewMAX, the DR-DOS file manager, supplied with unchanged versions of Calculator and Clock. For much the same reason as desk accessories were used in Mac OS and in GEM, namely to allow more than one simultaneous program on a system which did not support multitasking, the concept of desk accessories was extended to Palm OS by third-party developers. DA are
AppleTalk is a discontinued proprietary suite of networking protocols developed by Apple Inc. for their Macintosh computers. AppleTalk includes a number of features that allow local area networks to be connected with no prior setup or the need for a centralized router or server of any sort. Connected AppleTalk-equipped systems automatically assign addresses, update the distributed namespace, configure any required inter-networking routing. AppleTalk was released in 1985, was the primary protocol used by Apple devices through the 1980s and 1990s. Versions were released for the IBM PC and compatibles and the Apple IIGS. AppleTalk support was available in most networked printers, some file servers, a number of routers; the rise of TCP/IP during the 1990s led to a reimplementation of most of these types of support on that protocol, AppleTalk became unsupported as of the release of Mac OS X v10.6 in 2009. Many of AppleTalk's more advanced autoconfiguration features have since been introduced in Bonjour, while Universal Plug and Play serves similar needs.
After the release of the Apple Lisa computer in January 1983, Apple invested considerable effort in the development of a local area networking system for the machines. Known as AppleNet, it was based on the seminal Xerox XNS protocol stack but running on a custom 1 Mbit/s coaxial cable system rather than Xerox's 2.94 Mbit/s Ethernet. AppleNet was announced early in 1983 with a fall introduction at the target price of $500 for plug-in AppleNet cards for the Lisa and the Apple II. At that time, early LAN systems were just coming to market, including Ethernet, Token Ring and ARCNET; this was a topic of major commercial effort at the time, dominating shows like the National Computer Conference in Anaheim in May 1983. All of the systems were jockeying for position in the market, but at this time Ethernet's widespread acceptance suggested it was to become a de facto standard, it was at this show that Steve Jobs asked Gursharan Sidhu a innocuous question, "Why has networking not caught on?"Four months in October, AppleNet was cancelled.
At the time, they announced that "Apple realized that it's not in the business to create a networking system. We built and used AppleNet in-house, but we realized that if we had shipped it, we would have seen new standards coming up." In January, Jobs announced that they would instead be supporting IBM's Token Ring, which he expected to come out in a "few months". Through this period, Apple was deep in development of the Macintosh computer. During development, engineers had made the decision to use the Zilog 8530 serial controller chip instead of the lower-cost and more common UART to provide serial port connections; the SCC cost about $5 more than a UART, but offered much higher speeds of up to 250 kilobits per second and internally supported a number of basic networking-like protocols like IBM's Bisync. The SCC was chosen. Peripherals equipped with similar SCCs could communicate using the built-in protocols, interleaving their data with other peripherals on the same bus; this would eliminate the need for more ports on the back of the machine, allowed for the elimination of expansion slots for supporting more complex devices.
The initial concept was known as AppleBus, envisioning a system controlled by the host Macintosh polling "dumb" devices in a fashion similar to the modern Universal Serial Bus. The Macintosh team had begun work on what would become the LaserWriter, had considered a number of other options to answer the question of how to share these expensive machines and other resources. A series of memos from Bob Belleville clarified these concepts, outlining the Mac, LaserWriter and a file server system which would become the Macintosh Office. By late 1983 it was clear that IBM's Token Ring would not be ready in time for the launch of the Mac, might miss the launch of these other products as well. In the end, Token Ring would not ship until October 1985. Jobs' earlier question to Sidhu had sparked a number of ideas; when AppleNet was cancelled in October, Sidhu led an effort to develop a new networking system based on the AppleBus hardware. This new system would not have to conform to any existing preconceptions, was designed to be worthy of the Mac – a system, user-installable, had zero-configuration, no fixed network addresses – in short, a true plug-and-play network.
Considerable effort was needed, but by the time the Mac was released, the basic concepts had been outlined, some of the low-level protocols were on their way to completion. Sidhu mentioned the work to Belleville; the "new" AppleBus was announced in early 1984, allowing direct connection from the Mac or Lisa through a small box that plugged into the serial port and connected via cables to the next computer upstream and downstream. Adaptors for Apple II and Apple III were announced. Apple announced that AppleBus networks could be attached to, would appear to be a single node within, a Token Ring system. Details of how this would work were sketchy. Just prior to its release in early 1985, AppleBus was renamed AppleTalk; the system had a number of limitations, including a speed of only 230.4 kbit/s, a maximum distance of 1000 feet from end to end, only 32 nodes per LAN. But as the basic hardware was built into the Mac, adding nodes only cost about $50 for the adaptor box. In comparison, Ethernet or Token Ring cards cost thousands of dollars.
Additionally, the entire networking stack required only about 6 kB of RAM, allowing it to run on any Mac. The slow speed of AppleTalk allowed further reductions in cost. Instead of using RS