Systematization (Romania)

Systematization in Romania was a program of urban planning carried out by the Socialist Republic of Romania under the leadership of Nicolae Ceaușescu. Ceaușescu was impressed by ideological mobilization and mass adulation in North Korea's Juche ideology during his East Asia visit in 1971, began the campaign shortly afterwards. Beginning in 1974, systematization consisted of the demolition and reconstruction of existing villages and cities, in whole or in part, with the stated goal of turning Romania into a "multilaterally developed socialist society". Systematisation began as a programme of rural resettlement; the original plan was to bring the advantages of the modern age to the Romanian countryside. For some years, rural Romanians had been migrating to the cities. Systematisation called for doubling the number of Romanian cities by 1990. Hundreds of villages were to become urban industrial centres via investment in schools, medical clinics and industry; as part of this plan, smaller villages were deemed "irrational" and listed for reduction of services or forced removal of the population and physical destruction.

Such measures were extended to the towns that were destined to become urbanised, by demolishing some of the older buildings and replacing them with modern multi-storey apartment blocks. Many rural Romanians were displeased with these policies. Although the systematisation plan extended, in theory, to the entire country, initial work centred in Moldavia, it affected such places as Ceaușescu's own native village of Scornicești in Olt County: there, the Ceaușescu family home was the only older building left standing. The initial phase of systematisation petered out by 1980, at which point only about 10 percent of new housing was being built in rural areas. Given the lack of budget, in many regions systematisation did not constitute an effective plan, good or bad, for development. Instead, it constituted a barrier against organic regional growth. New buildings had to be at least two storeys high, so peasants could not build small houses. Yards were restricted to 250 square metres and private agricultural plots were banned from within the villages.

Despite a perceived impact of such a scheme on subsistence agriculture, after 1981 villages were required to be agriculturally self-sufficient. In the 1980s, nearby villages surrounding Bucharest were demolished in service of large scale projects such as a canal from Bucharest to the Danube – projects which were abandoned by Romania's post-communist government. In cities, the systematisation programme consisted of demolishing existing buildings and constructing new socialist style ones. Iași, for instance, underwent major transformations in the 1980s. Although communist tower blocks and other socialist buildings are present in all big cities across Romania, the degree to which the historical buildings were destroyed varies by city. For instance old historical architecture managed to escape demolition in some cities in cities such as Cluj, where the reconstruction schemes affected the marginal, shoddily built districts surrounding the historical city centre; the mass demolitions that occurred in the 1980s, under which an overall area of 8 square kilometres of the historic centre of Bucharest was leveled in order to make way for the grandiose Centrul Civic and the House of the Republic, now renamed the Palace of Parliament, were the most extreme manifestation of the systematisation policy.

The demolition campaign erased many monuments including 3 monasteries, 20 churches, 3 synagogues, 3 hospitals, 2 theatres, a noted Art Deco sports stadium. This involved evicting 40,000 people with only a single day's notice and relocating them to new homes. Systematisation the destruction of historic churches and monasteries, was protested against by several nations Hungary and West Germany, each concerned for their national minorities in Transylvania. Despite these protests, Ceaușescu remained in the good graces of the United States and other Western powers to the last because his independent political line rendered him a useful counter to the Soviet Union in Cold War politics. Urban planning in communist countries Ceaușima Juche Hunger circus HLM Street dogs in BucharestEastern bloc housing: Panelák Panelház Plattenbau Ugsarmal bair Khrushchyovka Anania, Lidia. București 1977–1989. Editura Anastasia, Bucharest, ISBN 973-97145-4-4. In Romanian. Title means "Churches doomed by Ceaușescu"; this is much focused on churches, but along the way provides many details about systematization the demolition to make way for Centrul Civic.

Bucica, Cristina. Legitimating Power in Capital Cities: Bucharest – Continuity Through Radical Change?, 2000

Zlatomir Obradov

Zlatomir Obradov was a Croatian footballer during the 1960s and coach. He was a midfield player and, played in the forwards. In his native village of Bašaid near Kikinda, he played for the local team in Kikinda for the Odred and after three years he moved on loan to FK Proleter Zrenjanin, where he was the best player and scorer. In 1966 he was played there for three years. Overall, for Hajduk he played 86 scored 46 goals. After a playing career as a one time involved with the coaching. In 1975, he was the coach of RNK Split, coached the NK Jadran Ploče, he died in Ploče. Hajduk Split Yugoslav Cup: Winner: 1966–67 Preminuo Zlatomir Obradov at Hajduk Split's official website

John Fenn (priest)

John Fenn was an English Roman Catholic priest and writer, in exile under Elizabeth I of England. He was the elder brother of James Fenn, the Catholic martyr, Robert Fenn. After being a chorister at Wells Cathedral, he went to Winchester School in 1547, in 1550 to New College, Oxford, of which he was elected Fellow in 1552. Next year he became head master of the Bury St Edmunds Grammar School, but was deprived of this office and of his fellowship for refusing to take the oath of supremacy under Elizabeth, he went to Rome where after four years' study he was ordained priest about 1566. Having for a time been chaplain to Sir William Stanley's regiment in Flanders, he settled at Leuven, where he lived for forty years. In 1609, when the English Augustinian Canonnesses founded St. Monica's Priory in Leuven, he became their first chaplain, until in 1611 when his sight failed, he continued to live until his death. He contributed to the publication, in 1583, by John Gibbons, S. J. of various accounts of persecution of English Catholics, under the title "Concertatio Ecclesiae Catholicae in Angliâ".

This was the groundwork of the larger collection published by Bridgewater under the same name in 1588. Besides his "Vitae quorundam Martyrum in Angliâ", included in the "Concertatio", he translated into Latin John Fisher's "Treatise on the penitential Psalms" and two of his sermons, he collected from old English sources some spiritual treatises for the Brigettine nuns of Syon House. Herbermann, Charles, ed.. "John Fenn". Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company. "Fenn, John". Dictionary of National Biography. London: Smith, Elder & Co. 1885–1900. Arduino, Fabio. "Tommaso Hemerford et al, sacerdoti e martiri", Santi e BeatiAttribution This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Herbermann, Charles, ed.. "John Fenn". Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton; the entry, written by Edwin Burton, cites: De Illustribus Angliae Scriptoribus. Dict. Eng. Cath. s.v..