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Systems design

Systems design is the process of defining the architecture, modules and data for a system to satisfy specified requirements. Systems design could be seen as the application of systems theory to product development. There is some overlap with the disciplines of systems analysis, systems architecture and systems engineering. If the broader topic of product development "blends the perspective of marketing and manufacturing into a single approach to product development," design is the act of taking the marketing information and creating the design of the product to be manufactured. Systems design is therefore the process of defining and developing systems to satisfy specified requirements of the user; until the 1990s, systems design had a respected role in the data processing industry. In the 1990s, standardization of hardware and software resulted in the ability to build modular systems; the increasing importance of software running on generic platforms has enhanced the discipline of software engineering.

The architectural design of a system emphasizes the design of the system architecture that describes the structure and more views of that system and analysis. The logical design of a system pertains to an abstract representation of the data flows and outputs of the system; this is conducted via modelling, using an over-abstract model of the actual system. In the context of systems, designs are included. Logical design includes entity-relationship diagrams; the physical design relates to the actual output processes of the system. This is explained in terms of how data is input into a system, how it is verified/authenticated, how it is processed, how it is displayed. In physical design, the following requirements about the system are decided. Input requirement, Output requirements, Storage requirements, Processing requirements, System control and backup or recovery. Put another way, the physical portion of system design can be broken down into three sub-tasks: User Interface Design Data Design Process DesignUser Interface Design is concerned with how users add information to the system and with how the system presents information back to them.

Data Design is concerned with how the data is stored within the system. Process Design is concerned with how data moves through the system, with how and where it is validated, secured and/or transformed as it flows into and out of the system. At the end of the system design phase, documentation describing the three sub-tasks is produced and made available for use in the next phase. Physical design, in this context, does not refer to the tangible physical design of an information system. To use an analogy, a personal computer's physical design involves input via a keyboard, processing within the CPU, output via a monitor, etc, it would not concern the actual layout of the tangible hardware, which for a PC would be a monitor, CPU, hard drive, video/graphics cards, USB slots, etc. It involves a detailed design of a user and a product database structure processor and a control processor; the H/S personal specification is developed for the proposed system. Benchmarking – is an effort to evaluate how current systems perform Computer programming and debugging in the software world, or detailed design in the consumer, enterprise or commercial world - specifies the final system components.

Design – designers will produce one or more'models' of what they see a system looking like, with ideas from the analysis section either used or discarded. A document will be produced with a description of the system, but nothing is specific – they might say'touchscreen' or'GUI operating system', but not mention any specific brands. In many cases, multiple architectures are evaluated. System testing – evaluates the system's actual functionality in relation to expected or intended functionality, including all integration aspects. Rapid application development is a methodology in which a system designer produces prototypes for an end-user; the end-user reviews the prototype, offers feedback on its suitability. This process is repeated. Joint application design is a methodology which evolved from RAD, in which a system designer consults with a group consisting of the following parties: Executive sponsor System Designer Managers of the systemJAD involves a number of stages, in which the group collectively develops an agreed pattern for the design and implementation of the system.

Bentley, Lonnie D. Kevin C. Dittman, Jeffrey L. Whitten. System analysis and design methods.. C. West Churchman; the Design of Inquiring Systems: Basic Concepts of Systems and Organization. New York: Basic Books. ISBN 0-465-01608-1. William Gosling; the design of engineering systems. New York: Wiley. Hawryszkiewycz, Igor T. Introduction to system analysis and design. Prentice Hall PTR, 1994. Levin, Mark Sh. Modular system design and evaluation. Springer, 2015. Maier, Mark W. and Rechtin, Eberhardt. The Art of System Architecting. Boca Raton: CRC Press. CS1 maint: uses authors parameter Saltzer, J. H.. "End-to-End arguments in System Design". ACM Transactions on Computer Systems. 2: 277–288. Doi:10.1145/357401.357402. Ulrich, Karl T.. Product Design and Development. Boston: Irwin McGraw-Hill. Whitten, Jeffrey L..


Kilcrohane is a village in County Cork, Ireland. It is the last coastal village on the Sheep's Head Peninsula after Ahakista. Kilcrohane lies under the'Shadow of Seefin' and is close to Caher Mountain; the village overlooks Dunmanus Bay.'Cill Crochain' is Irish for the'Church of Crochan'. Little is known about Crochan except that he is reputed to have lived around the time of Saint Patrick; some believe Crochan was from County Kerry, near Caherdaniel where there are two ruined churches named after him and a village called Kilcrohane. There is a ruined church in the grounds of the cemetery in Kilcrohane, thought to be where Crohan built his cell; the seaside village of Kilcrohane increases in population in the summer months. It has a café gallery, three restaurants and a coffee shop; the local shop is a post filling station. There is a local co-operative shop selling local produce and crafts. There are a number of Bed and Breakfasts, several self-catering holiday accommodations, a garage/repair shop that rents bicycles.

The Kilcrohane pier is used for swimming, there are a number of private coves along the coast. There is mackerel in Dunmanus Bay. Kilcrohane has a church. There is daily transportation to secondary schools in Bantry and public transportation to Bantry twice a week. There is a community field and hall and a children's playground with tennis court. Kilcrohane is base for the Sheep's Head Way; the Sheep's Head Way features over 60 miles of marked maintained hill and road walking routes with views of Bantry and Dunmanus Bays. The area has marked road cycling route; the Alice West Centre, a museum focusing on the life and art of the late English-born artist Alice West, is open during the summer months and is run by the Muintir Bhaire Community Council. Alice West bequeathed her estate to the community, the museum displays local artifacts and artwork; the White House Gallery and coffee shop is a gallery space that retains a few fixtures of the White House Bar. Situated one mile west of Kilcrohane, it lays at a crossroads at which, according to its website, people would "travel across the water from Beara and the Mizen to meet, play music and dance".

Kilcrohane has a number of festivals throughout the year, including the'Craic on the Coast' traditional music festival which takes place annually on Easter weekend. A'Kilcrohane Carnival' is held every year on the third week of July; this carnival features a number of events, races, a track and field event, fishing competition. Aonghus O'Daly, bardic poet, was born in the Kilcrohane townland of Cora Patrick Joseph Sullivan, U. S. Senator for Wyoming, was born in the area J. G. Farrell, lived in Kilcrohane Denis O'Donovan, senator, is from the area Ralph Fiennes, actor lived here in the 1970s and attended Kilcrohane National School Christy Moore, folk singer, had a property here Ivor Callely, former politician and senator has a holiday residence here List of towns and villages in Ireland Frank O'Mahony; the Story of Kilcrohane. Litho Press. ASIN B000V0Y6IG. Archaeological Inventory of County Cork, Vol 1, West Cork. Office of Public Works. 1992. ISBN 0-7076-0175-4. Donal Fitzgerald. "Bantry Historical and Archaeological Society Journal".

Townlands. 2: 106–119. ISSN 0791-6612. Donald Grant. White Goats and Black Bees. New York: Doubleday. ISBN 0-385-06522-1. Sean Sheehan. Jack's World: Farming on the Sheep's Head Peninsula, 1920-2003. Cork University Press. ISBN 9780955226113

River ecosystem

River ecosystems are flowing waters that drain the landscape, include the biotic interactions amongst plants and micro-organisms, as well as abiotic physical and chemical interactions of its many parts. River ecosystems are part of larger watershed networks or catchments, where smaller headwater streams drain into mid-size streams, which progressively drain into larger river networks. River ecosystems are prime examples of lotic ecosystems. Lotic refers from the Latin lotus, meaning washed. Lotic waters range from springs only a few centimeters wide to major rivers kilometers in width. Much of this article applies to lotic ecosystems in general, including related lotic systems such as streams and springs. Lotic ecosystems can be contrasted with lentic ecosystems, which involve still terrestrial waters such as lakes and wetlands. Together, these two ecosystems form the more general study area of freshwater or aquatic ecology; the following unifying characteristics make the ecology of running waters unique among aquatic habitats.

Flow is unidirectional. There is a state of continuous physical change. There is a high degree of temporal heterogeneity at all scales. Variability between lotic systems is quite high; the biota is specialized to live with flow conditions. The non living components of an ecosystem are called abiotic components. E.g. stone,air,soil,etc. Unidirectional water flow is the key factor in lotic systems influencing their ecology. Stream flow can be intermittent, though. Stream flow is the result of the summative inputs from groundwater and overland flow. Water flow can vary between systems, ranging from torrential rapids to slow backwaters that seem like lentic systems; the speed or velocity of the water flow of the water column can vary within a system and is subject to chaotic turbulence, though water velocity tends to be highest in the middle part of the stream channel. This turbulence results in divergences of flow from the mean downslope flow vector as typified by eddy currents; the mean flow rate vector is based on variability of friction with the bottom or sides of the channel, sinuosity and the incline gradient.

In addition, the amount of water input into the system from direct precipitation, and/or groundwater can affect flow rate. The amount of water in a stream is measured as discharge; as water flows downstream and rivers most gain water volume, so at base flow, smaller headwater streams have low discharge, while larger rivers have much higher discharge. The "flow regime" of a river or stream includes the general patterns of discharge over annual or decadal time scales, may capture seasonal changes in flow. While water flow is determined by slope, flowing waters can alter the general shape or direction of the stream bed, a characteristic known as geomorphology; the profile of the river water column is made up of three primary actions: erosion and deposition. Rivers have been described as "the gutters down which run the ruins of continents". Rivers are continuously eroding and depositing substrate and organic material; the continuous movement of water and entrained material creates a variety of habitats, including riffles and pools.

Light is important to lotic systems, because it provides the energy necessary to drive primary production via photosynthesis, can provide refuge for prey species in shadows it casts. The amount of light that a system receives can be related to a combination of internal and external stream variables; the area surrounding a small stream, for example, might be shaded by surrounding forests or by valley walls. Larger river systems tend to be wide so the influence of external variables is minimized, the sun reaches the surface; these rivers tend to be more turbulent and particles in the water attenuate light as depth increases. Seasonal and diurnal factors might play a role in light availability because the angle of incidence, the angle at which light strikes water can lead to light lost from reflection. Known as Beer's Law, the shallower the angle, the more light is reflected and the amount of solar radiation received declines logarithmically with depth. Additional influences on light availability include cloud cover and geographic position.

Most lotic species are poikilotherms whose internal temperature varies with their environment, thus temperature is a key abiotic factor for them. Water can be heated or cooled through radiation at the surface and conduction to or from the air and surrounding substrate. Shallow streams are well mixed and maintain a uniform temperature within an area. In deeper, slower moving water systems, however, a strong difference between the bottom and surface temperatures may develop. Spring fed systems have little variation as springs are from groundwater sources, which are very close to ambient temperature. Many systems show strong diurnal fluctuations and seasonal variations are most extreme in arctic and temperate systems; the amount of shading and elevation can influence the temperature of lotic systems. Water chemistry in river ecosystems varies depending on which dissolved solutes and gases are present in the water column of the stream. River water can include, apart from the water itself, dissolved inorganic matter and major ions dissolved inorganic nutrients suspended and dissolved organic matter gases (nitrogen, nitrous oxide, carbon dioxide, oxyge

San Sombrèro

San Sombrèro is a parody travel guide book examining the eponymous fictional country, described as the birthplace of tinted sunglasses and sequins. This country is set in Central America, was created by Australian comedic writers Tom Gleisner, Santo Cilauro and Rob Sitch. In Spanish, San Sombrèro would be translated into English as "Saint Hat", "San" being the shortened word for the Spanish word "santo" meaning saint, "sombrero" meaning hat. According to the book the "full and technically correct" name of San Sombrèro is the "Democratic Free People's United Republic of San Sombrèro", citizens may be arrested, without a warrant, if the title is not used; the "Democratic Free People’s United Republic of San Sombrèro" is a composite of many stereotypes and clichés about Central America and South America. It would be difficult to position the fictional San Sombèro on a map of Central America. Although it is presented as a thin country between the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, it runs diagonally from northeast to southwest, in comparison to the other states on the Central American strip of land that run more from the northwest to southeast, or west to east.

If San Sombrèro were to be geographically placed it would fit best between Panama and Costa Rica. The book says the nation has "362 separate public holidays". San Sombrèro appears to be a stereotypically corrupt and unstable banana republic with endless revolutions and counter-revolutions; the country is said to have had 17 different presidents over 10 years. San Sombrèro is described as having a high literacy rate because of an anti-illiteracy campaign in which "over 53,000 citizens who were unable to read jailed or deported to Haiti". Before the arrival of the Spanish, San Sombrèro was said to inhabited by several "Amer-Indian" ethnic groups, called the "Ciboney", "Taino", "Puorcina" and the most dominant "Guanajaxo", but there was a tribe that existed before called the "Bollivquar", fierce warriors who regarded themselves as a complex and advanced society, said to be odd because they "never quite" mastered fire, irrigation or star jumps. But they learnt how to farm tobacco, which to this day still remains a part of the Bollivquar diet, explaining their stunted growth.

Note that their inability to light a fire made it harder to take up smoking. San Sombrèro is a Spanish-speaking country, but a dialect has developed known as San Sombrèran, which combines Castilian grammar, Portuguese pronunciation, indigenous shouting. San Sombrèran Spanish is spoken a lot faster than normal Spanish, because it is considered impolite for people to take a breath during a sentence. San Sombrèran Spanish has many English loanwords, some of which are "beisbol" - baseball, "hamburgesa" - hamburger, "beeras" - beers, "dryvebyshooting" - drive by shooting; the San Sombrèran national anthem is "O Patria Gloriosa", written in 1853 by independence leader Juan Robirro, famous for uttering "He who loves his country, lives forever" shortly before falling off a ladder and dying. The national anthem is set to a bossa nova beat, loyal citizens of San Sombrèro will stand respectfully, place a hand on each hip and start to gyrate while the anthem is played. A verseMy baby melts my heart My baby drives me nuts The way she swings her hips The way her hair hangs down Give me a kiss, O gorgeous woman Cover my lips In passionate bliss Long live San Sombrèro O glorious fatherland.

The flag of San Sombrèro is the "Camouflagio", which resembles military camouflage, with a narrow vertical white stripe on the left side. When the nation first became independent from Spain a dirty red and white chequered tablecloth made an impromptu flag; the capital city of San Sombrèro is Cucaracha City in Polluçión. There are five provinces in San Sombrèro including Polluçión, the other provinces are: Maracca Guacomala Lambarda San Abandonio The book advertises guides on the following places: Unaudited Arab Emirates, Costa Lottsa, the Barbituros Islands, Tyranistan, Nuku'la Atoll, frozen Norgborg, the miserable Isle of Fogg, it advertises its website's forum, as well as world tours for botanists and golfers, an opportunity to spend a year in an untouched part of Europe. The book ends with The Jetlag Story. Fictional country Phaic Tăn Molvanîa San Escobar

Spatial view cells

Spatial view cells are neurons in primates' hippocampus. They are related to place cells and head direction cells. Spatial view cells differ from place cells, they differ from head direction cells since they don't represent a global orientation, but the direction towards a specific object. Spatial view cells are the cells that respond in the hippocampus when a particular location is being recalled; these cells are identified in the hippocampus of test subjects by monitoring individual neurons while the test subject is moved around in a cue controlled spatial environment. The spatial view cells are the cells that fire when the monkey is looking at a certain direction in the environment; these cells are confirmed to be spatial view cells by observing that there is minimal randomized firing of the cells without the appropriate stimulus present. Spatial view cells can be characterized by the following features: respond to a region of visual space being looked at independently of where the monkey is located respond to a small number of visual cues within a 30° receptive field activated when doing spatial tasks which include active walking in a spatial environment fire independent of the place where the monkey is located represent the place at which the monkey is looking stimulated by at least 3 cues present in optimal view fire uniformly all over different areas in space as long as monkey is looking at the same area ability to maintain their spatial properties for periods of up to several minutes in the dark responses depend on where the monkey is looking, by measuring eye position spatial representation is allocentric responses still occur in some cases if view details are obscured with curtainsThe spatial view cells that respond in the absence of visual cues are found in the Cornu Ammonis area 1, the parahippocampal gyrus, the presubiculum, while the ones that do not respond are found in the Cornu Ammonis region 3.

The cells found in the CA1, parahippocampal gyrus, presubiculum regions provide a longer response after the stimulus is removed for up to several minutes in complete darkness. Spatial view cells update their representations by the use of idiothetic inputs in the dark and these cells are found in the CA1, parahippocampal gyrus, presubiculum regions. Spatial view cells are used by primates for storing an episodic memory that helps with remembering where a particular object was in the environment. Imaging studies have shown that the hippocampus plays an important role in spatial navigation and episodic memories. Spatial view cells enable them to recall locations of objects if they are not physically present in the environment; the neurons associated with remembering the location and object are found in the primate hippocampus. These spatial view cells do not only recall specific locations, but they remember distances between other landmarks around the place in order to gain a better understanding of where the places are spatially.

In real world applications, monkeys remember where they saw ripe fruit with the aid of spatial view cells. Humans use spatial view cells when they try to recall where they may have seen a person or where they left their keys. Primates' developed visual and eye movement control systems enables them to explore and remember information about what's present at places in the environment without having to physically visit those places; these sorts of memories would be useful for spatial navigation in which the primates visualize everything in an allocentric, or worldly manner that allows them to convey directions to others without physically going through the entire route. These cells are used by primates in regular day-to-day lives. Diseases and illnesses that harm the brain and the hippocampus can damage spatial view cells, which are located in the hippocampus. Strokes and encephalitis are only a few of the various illnesses that can cause harm to the spatial view cells; some clinical symptoms present in patients with damage to the central nervous system include: fever, altered mental status, neck stiffness.

Lesion studies have shown that damage to the hippocampus or to some of its connections, such as the fornix, in monkeys produces deficits in learning about the places of objects and about the places where responses should be made. This sort of damage to the brain results in impaired object-place memory. Object-place memory tasks require the monkey to not only remember the object seen, but they must remember where the object was seen in the environment, it has been shown that posterior para-hippocampal lesions in macaques impair a simple type of object-place learning in which only one pair of unique stimuli are needed for memory. Patients with damage to spatial view cells will show similar symptoms from other diseases such as: Vascular Dementia, Alzheimer's Disease, Amnesia Fugue, Macular degeneration, optic nerve damage. Another illness that reflects signs of spatial view damage is fornix lesions that impair conditional left-right discrimination learning. Patients with damage to the temporal lobe which includes the hippocampus can sometimes have Amnesia.

Patients with amnesia have memory impairments in which they have difficulty remembering both what they saw and where they saw the object or event take place. These signs point to the possible damage to spatial view cells found in the hippocampus. Current Research shows that the maximum firing rate of spatial view cells is obtained when the test agent is allowed to explore the environment freely. T


The Seferberlik was the mobilization effected by the late Ottoman Empire during the Second Balkan War of 1913 and World War I from 1914 to 1918, which involved the forced conscription of Syrian men to fight on its behalf and deportation of "numerous Syrian families" to Anatolia under Djemal Pasha's orders. Syrians accused of desertion were executed, some 300,000 of the Syrians who had stayed behind had died of famine by 1916, as Syria lost 75 to 90 percent of its crop production. Prostitution or cannibalism were mentioned in memoirs written after the end of the war; the Ottoman Turkish word سفربرلك is a compound of the Arabic noun سفر, the Persian suffix -بر, the Ottoman suffix -لق, refers to'mobilization.'" The Modern Turkish expression umumî seferberlik has been translated into Arabic as النفير العام. As explained by Najwa al-Qattan, Originally an Ottoman Turkish term, seferberlik was part of official state discourse referring to wartime mobilization either during the second Balkan war or World War I which followed it.

Announcements calling for mobilization were posted in public areas in Ottoman towns and distributed to local leaders, the word seferberlik was prominently printed on top. Ahmen Amin Saleh Murshid, a historian of Al-Medina, Zakarya Muhammad al-Kenisi, a historian who specialized in old Ottoman Turkish, disagree over the general meaning of the term Seferberlik. Saleh Murshid believes the term connotes the meaning of a collective deportation in the context of the inhabitants of the city of Medina under the leadership of Fakhri Pasha. In addition, Saleh Murshid argues that historians should not rely on dictionaries and documents to translate Ottoman Turkish terms into Arabic. Lived experiences and popular understandings of these terms are crucial in explaining these terms. Zakarya Muhammad al-Kenisi argues that the term Seferberlik means preparation of the armies for war or a military campaign, he argues that Ottoman Turkish translations regarding the history of Medina contains substantial errors that resulted in different meanings and understandings of Medina's history.

Although both scholars disagree over the meaning of Seferberlik, they are in agreement about the events that the term Seferberlik describes. The Seferberlik went on with resistance; when the Seferberlik was announced they sometimes fled during battles. As a countermeasure to the escaping from conscription or desertion from war fronts, the government sent bounty hunters to roam city streets and catch young men and deserters, it has been said that officials carried ropes with them to encircle, tie up and carry off boys and men on the run. The Syrian journalist Abd al-Ghani al-Utri in his book I’tirafat Shami ‘atiq; the diary of a Palestinian Ottoman soldier, Ihsan Turjman, during WWI describes the scarcity of foodstuffs and the overpricing sugar and grains. In al-Ghazzi’s book Shirwal Barhum, during Seferberlik people were depicted as fighting over lemon and orange rinds while children pick watermelon rinds from the mud. Siham Turjman tells the account of her mother, 14 years old and tells that during the Seferberlik everything was expensive, people would line up in front of the bakery at midnight to buy the following morning coal-like and overpriced bread.

Seferberlik is associated with cannibalism during the war’s famine. Memoirs and reports published shortly after the end of the Great War gave an account of the horrific scenes of famine that filled Lebanon’s streets. In Antun Yamin’s Lubnan fi al-Harb--a two-volume history published in 1919— a section entitled "Stories that Would Shake Rocks" gives a detailed report of moments when people attacked corpses of dead animals and children and ate them. Hanna Mina in Fragments of Memory tells the childhood memories of his father: What are they supposed to do during this famine? Bide your time...people will eat each other when winter comes. They aren't to be blamed. During the Safar Barrlik, mothers ate their children, they became like cats and ate their children... What good will sticks or guns do? They'll only hasten death and bring people relief... Let's be patient... A way out may come from some unknown source. In his diary entry for April 29, 1915, a common soldier in the Ottoman military headquarters in Jerusalem, Ihsan Turjman, mentioned his encounter with a prostitute in the streets of the city, the sight of whom filled him with concern for all the women who "found that they could not survive without prostituting themselves."

Yusuf Shalhub, the famous Zajal poet, lamented the deterioration of living conditions during the War, which led many women to sell their bodies in exchange for bread. In Medina's memory of the war, Seferberlik refers to the collective deportation of the city's inhabitants by the famous Hijaz train. According to current research on the topic in Medina, Seferberlik for the original inhabitants of the city invokes memories of humiliation and the destruction of social and familial structure. Families and children were dragged to the train and randomly abandoned in Greater Syria and Turkey. According to the same source, only 140 people remained in the city and they suffered from food shortages c