Kyle Eugene Gann is an American professor of music, critic and composer who has worked in the New York City area. As a music critic for The Village Voice and other publications, he has supported progressive music, including such "downtown" movements as postminimalism and totalism. Gann's work as a composer can be classified into three categories: microtonal works in just intonation, involving electronics. Most of his music has expressed the concept of repeating loops, ostinati, or isorhythms of different lengths going out of phase with each other; this concept can be traced back to suggestions in the rhythmic chapter of Henry Cowell's book New Musical Resources. Gann has said that he found inspiration in his studies of astrology, into which he was drawn by the writings of composer/astrologer Dane Rudhyar. Another thread in his work has been the influence, both rhythmic and melodic, of Native American music that of the Hopi and other Southwest Pueblo tribes. Gann first learned about this music from reading a musical analysis of a Zuni buffalo dance published in the book Sonic Design by Robert Cogan and Pozzi Escot.
According to Gann, "It was going back and forth between different tempos: triplet, dotted quarter, quarters. So I started collecting American Indian music. Solved a rhythmic problem for me, because I was interested in music with different tempos."Starting in 1984 with his political piece The Black Hills Belong to the Sioux, Gann adopted a method of switching between different tempos as a more performable alternative to the simultaneous layers at contrasting tempos that he had sought earlier under the influence of Charles Ives. Other composers had arrived at a similar technique via other routes, coalescing into a New York style of the 1980s and'90s called Totalism. A common Gann strategy is to set a rhythmic process in motion and use harmony to inflect the form and focus the listener's attention. Gann's microtonal music proceeds according to Harry Partch's technique of tonality flux, linking chords through tiny increments of voice-leading. In 2000, Gann studied jazz harmony with John Esposito, began using bebop harmony as a basis for his non-microtonal music in contexts not reminiscent of jazz.
Kyle Gann was raised in a musical family. He began composing at the age of 13. After graduating in 1973 from Dallas' Skyline High School, he attended Oberlin Conservatory of Music where he obtained a B. Mus. in 1977 and Northwestern University, where he received his M. Mus. and D. Mus. in 1981 and 1983, respectively. As well as studying composition with Randolph Coleman at Oberlin, he studied Renaissance counterpoint with Greg Proctor at the University of Texas at Austin, he studied composition with Ben Johnston and Peter Gena, with Morton Feldman. In 1981-82 he worked for the New Music America festival. Afterward Gann worked as a journalist at the Chicago Reader, Sun-Times, New York Times, he was hired as music critic at The Village Voice in 1986, where he wrote a weekly column until 1997, less until December 2005. Gann taught part-time at Bucknell University from 1989 to 1997. Since 1997, he has taught music theory and composition at Bard College in upstate New York. Gann is the father of Bernard Gann, guitarist of the New York "transcendental black metal" band Liturgy.
Gann's books include: American Music in the 20th Century, ISBN 0-02-864655-X The Music of Conlon Nancarrow, ISBN 0-521-46534-6 Music Downtown: Writings from the Village Voice, ISBN 0-520-22982-7 No Such Thing As Silence: John Cage's 4'33", ISBN 0-300-13699-4 Robert Ashley, ISBN 9780252094569 The Planets for Relâche: flute, alto saxophone, viola, contrabass and percussion Composure for four electric guitars Olana for vibraphone Kierkegaard, Walking for flute, violin, cello Sunken City for solo piano with flute, alto sax, tenor sax, baritone sax, three trumpets, three trombones, electric bass Fugitive Objects for keyboard sampler On Reading Emerson for piano Implausible Sketches for piano four hands my father moved through dooms of love for chorus and piano The Day Revisited for flute, keyboard sampler and fretless bass Unquiet Night for Disklavier Scenario for female voice and soundfile/orchestra Private Dances for piano The Watermelon Cargo, microtonal chamber opera for six singers, three synthesizers, fretless bass, drummer Love Scene for string quartet Petty Larceny for Disklavier Tango da Chiesa for Disklavier Cinderella's Bad Magic, microtonal chamber opera for six singers, three synthesizers and fretless bass Transcendental
Stephen Michael Reich is an American composer who, along with La Monte Young, Terry Riley, Philip Glass, pioneered minimal music in the mid to late 1960s. Reich's style of composition influenced many groups, his innovations include using tape loops to create phasing patterns, the use of simple, audible processes to explore musical concepts. These compositions, marked by their use of repetitive figures, slow harmonic rhythm and canons, have influenced contemporary music in the US. Reich's work took on a darker character in the 1980s with the introduction of historical themes as well as themes from his Jewish heritage, notably Different Trains. Writing in The Guardian, music critic Andrew Clements suggested that Reich is one of "a handful of living composers who can legitimately claim to have altered the direction of musical history"; the American composer and critic Kyle Gann has said that Reich "may... be considered, by general acclamation, America's greatest living composer". Reich was born in New York City to the Broadway lyricist June Leonard Reich.
When he was one year old, his parents divorced, Reich divided his time between New York and California. He is the half-brother of writer Jonathan Carroll, he was given piano lessons as a child and describes growing up with the "middle-class favorites", having no exposure to music written before 1750 or after 1900. At the age of 14 he began to study music in earnest, after hearing music from the Baroque period and earlier, as well as music of the 20th century. Reich studied drums with Roland Kohloff. While attending Cornell University, he minored in music and graduated in 1957 with a B. A. in Philosophy. Reich's B. A. thesis was on Ludwig Wittgenstein. For a year following graduation, Reich studied composition with Hall Overton before he enrolled at Juilliard to work with William Bergsma and Vincent Persichetti. Subsequently, he attended Mills College in Oakland, where he studied with Luciano Berio and Darius Milhaud and earned a master's degree in composition. At Mills, Reich composed Melodica for melodica and tape, which appeared in 1986 on the three-LP release Music from Mills.
Reich worked with the San Francisco Tape Music Center along with Pauline Oliveros, Ramon Sender, Morton Subotnick, Phil Lesh and Terry Riley. He was involved with the premiere of Riley's In C and suggested the use of the eighth note pulse, now standard in performance of the piece. Reich's early forays into composition involved experimentation with twelve-tone composition, but he found the rhythmic aspects of the number twelve more interesting than the pitch aspects. Reich composed film soundtracks for Plastic Haircut, Oh Dem Watermelons, Thick Pucker, three films by Robert Nelson; the soundtrack of Plastic Haircut, composed in 1963, was a short tape collage Reich's first. The Watermelons soundtrack used two 19th-century minstrel tunes as its basis, used repeated phrasing together in a large five-part canon; the music for Thick Pucker arose from street recordings Reich made walking around San Francisco with Nelson, who filmed in black and white 16mm. This film no longer survives. A fourth film from 1965, about 25 minutes long and tentatively entitled "Thick Pucker II", was assembled by Nelson from outtakes of that shoot and more of the raw audio Reich had recorded.
Nelson never showed it. Reich was influenced by fellow minimalist Terry Riley, whose work In C combines simple musical patterns, offset in time, to create a shifting, cohesive whole. Reich adopted this approach to compose his first major work, It's Gonna Rain. Composed in 1965, the piece used a fragment of a sermon about the end of the world given by a black Pentecostal street-preacher known as Brother Walter. Reich built on his early tape work, transferring the last three words of the fragment, "it's gonna rain!", to multiple tape loops which move out of phase with one another. The 13-minute Come Out uses manipulated recordings of a single spoken line given by Daniel Hamm, one of the falsely accused Harlem Six, injured by police; the survivor, beaten, punctured a bruise on his own body to convince police about his beating. The spoken line includes the phrase "to let the bruise’s blood come out to show them." Reich rerecorded the fragment "come out to show them" on two channels, which are played in unison.
They slip out of sync. The two voices split into four, looped continuously eight, continues splitting until the actual words are unintelligible, leaving the listener with only the speech's rhythmic and tonal patterns. In 1999, Rolling Stone magazine dubbed Reich "The Father of Sampling" and compared his work with the parallel evolution of hip-hop culture by DJs such as Kool Herc and Grandmaster Flash. Melodica applies it to instrumental music. Steve Reich took a simple melody, which he played on a melodica recorded it, he sets the melody to two separate channels, moves them out of phase, creating an intricate interlocking melody. This piece is similar to Come Out in rhythmic structure, are an example of how one rhythmic process can be realized in different sounds to create two different pieces of music. Reich was inspired to compose this piece from a dream he had on May 22, 1966, put the piece
In mathematics, a fractal is a subset of a Euclidean space for which the Hausdorff dimension exceeds the topological dimension. Fractals tend to appear nearly the same at different levels, as is illustrated here in the successively small magnifications of the Mandelbrot set. Fractals exhibit similar patterns at small scales called self similarity known as expanding symmetry or unfolding symmetry. One way that fractals are different from finite geometric figures is the way. Doubling the edge lengths of a polygon multiplies its area by four, two raised to the power of two. If the radius of a sphere is doubled, its volume scales by eight, two to the power of three. However, if a fractal's one-dimensional lengths are all doubled, the spatial content of the fractal scales by a power, not an integer; this power is called the fractal dimension of the fractal, it exceeds the fractal's topological dimension. Analytically, fractals are nowhere differentiable. An infinite fractal curve can be conceived of as winding through space differently from an ordinary line – although it is still 1-dimensional, its fractal dimension indicates that it resembles a surface.
Starting in the 17th century with notions of recursion, fractals have moved through rigorous mathematical treatment of the concept to the study of continuous but not differentiable functions in the 19th century by the seminal work of Bernard Bolzano, Bernhard Riemann, Karl Weierstrass, on to the coining of the word fractal in the 20th century with a subsequent burgeoning of interest in fractals and computer-based modelling in the 20th century. The term "fractal" was first used by mathematician Benoit Mandelbrot in 1975. Mandelbrot based it on the Latin frāctus, meaning "broken" or "fractured", used it to extend the concept of theoretical fractional dimensions to geometric patterns in nature. There is some disagreement among mathematicians about how the concept of a fractal should be formally defined. Mandelbrot himself summarized it as "beautiful, damn hard useful. That's fractals." More formally, in 1982 Mandelbrot stated that "A fractal is by definition a set for which the Hausdorff–Besicovitch dimension exceeds the topological dimension."
Seeing this as too restrictive, he simplified and expanded the definition to: "A fractal is a shape made of parts similar to the whole in some way." Still Mandelbrot settled on this use of the language: "...to use fractal without a pedantic definition, to use fractal dimension as a generic term applicable to all the variants". The consensus is that theoretical fractals are infinitely self-similar and detailed mathematical constructs having fractal dimensions, of which many examples have been formulated and studied in great depth. Fractals are not limited to geometric patterns, but can describe processes in time. Fractal patterns with various degrees of self-similarity have been rendered or studied in images and sounds and found in nature, art and law. Fractals are of particular relevance in the field of chaos theory, since the graphs of most chaotic processes are fractals; the word "fractal" has different connotations for laymen as opposed to mathematicians, where the layman is more to be familiar with fractal art than the mathematical concept.
The mathematical concept is difficult to define formally for mathematicians, but key features can be understood with little mathematical background. The feature of "self-similarity", for instance, is understood by analogy to zooming in with a lens or other device that zooms in on digital images to uncover finer invisible, new structure. If this is done on fractals, however, no new detail appears. Self-similarity itself is not counter-intuitive; the difference for fractals is. This idea of being detailed relates to another feature that can be understood without mathematical background: Having a fractal dimension greater than its topological dimension, for instance, refers to how a fractal scales compared to how geometric shapes are perceived. A regular line, for instance, is conventionally understood to be one-dimensional. A solid square is understood to be two-dimensional. We see that for ordinary self-similar objects, being n-dimensional means that when it is rep-tiled into pieces each scaled down by a scale-factor of 1/r, there are a total of rn pieces.
Now, consider the Koch curve. It can be rep-tiled into four sub-copies, each scaled down by a scale-factor of 1/3. So by analogy, we can consider the "dimension" of the Koch curve as being the unique real number D that satisfies 3D = 4, which by no means is an integer! This number is; the fact th
John White (composer)
John White is an English experimental composer and musical performer. He invented the early British form of minimalism known with his early Machines. White was born in Berlin to German mother; the family moved to London at the outbreak of war. A sculptor, White decided on a composition career when he heard Messiaen's Turangalîla-Symphonie, he studied composition at the London Royal College of Music from 1955–58 with Bernard Stevens and analysis with Elisabeth Lutyens. Upon graduation, White became the musical director of the Western Theatre Ballet, professor of composition at the Royal College of Music from 1961–67, he has written extensively for both instruments. In the 1960s and 1970s he was associated with English experimental composers such as Cornelius Cardew and Gavin Bryars, his Royal College of Music pupils have included Brian Dennis and William York. White's association with younger composers, including Christopher Hobbs, Dave Smith, Benedict Mason, John Lely has led to many British ensembles, including the Promenade Theatre Orchestra, Hobbs-White Duo, Garden Furniture Music, the Farewell Symphony Orchestra and other groups.
John White is the long–standing and inspiring Head of Music at Drama Centre London. White's style is informed by what Dave Smith called an'apparently disparate collection of composers from the world of "alternative" musical history', including Satie, Schumann, Szymanowski and Medtner; these composers have influenced his piano sonatas, which White has been writing since 1956, but other influences on his wider work include Messiaen and the electronic pop ensembles Kraftwerk, The Residents. Although it is so eclectic as to cover a wide range of styles, White's work has been called ironic,'experimental', even'avant postmodern'. Although White had worked in what could be called an'experimental' style since 1962, he composed music using indeterminate means after 1966, his work today includes music having other systems processes. As of 2010, White has written 172 piano sonatas, 25 symphonies, 30 ballets, much incidental music for the stage, all in a eclectic style, his stage music includes commissions by the Royal Shakespeare Company and the Royal National Theatre.
His recent projects include a set of song cycles, one of which consists of settings of friends' addresses. Promenade Theatre Orchestra Systems music White's Piano sonata no. 95 on YouTube, played by Jonathan Powell at the'Indian Summer in Levoca' festival, 2008. Anderson, Virginia. 1991.'White, John'. In Contemporary Composers. London: St. James Press. Anderson, Virginia. 1983. "British Experimental Music: Cornelius Cardew and his Contemporaries". M. A. thesis, California: University of Redlands Smith, Dave, “Albus Liber: Exploits and Opinions of John White, Composer Volume I”, Atlas Press, 2014. ISBN 9781900565240
Philip Glass is an American composer. He is regarded as one of the most influential musicians of the late 20th century. Glass's work has been described as minimal music, having similar qualities to other "minimalist" composers such as La Monte Young, Steve Reich, Terry Riley. Glass describes himself as a composer of "music with repetitive structures", which he has helped evolve stylistically. Glass founded the Philip Glass Ensemble, he has written numerous operas and musical theatre works, twelve symphonies, eleven concertos, eight string quartets and various other chamber music, film scores. Three of his film scores have been nominated for Academy Awards. Glass was born in Baltimore, the son of Ida and Benjamin Charles Glass, his family were Jewish emigrants from Lithuania. His father owned his mother was a librarian. In his memoir, Glass recalls that at the end of World War II his mother aided Jewish Holocaust survivors, inviting recent arrivals to America to stay at their home until they could find a job and a place to live.
She developed a plan to help them develop skills so they could find work. His sister, would do similar work as an active member of the International Rescue Committee. Glass developed his appreciation of music from his father, discovering his father's side of the family had many musicians, his cousin Cevia was a classical pianist. He learned his family was related to Al Jolson. Glass's father received promotional copies of new recordings at his music store, he spent many hours listening to them, developing his taste in music. This openness to modern sounds affected Glass at an early age: My father was self-taught, but he ended up having a refined and rich knowledge of classical and contemporary music, he would come home and have dinner, sit in his armchair and listen to music until midnight. I caught on to this early, I would go and listen with him; the elder Glass promoted both new recordings and a wide selection of composers to his customers, sometimes convincing them to try something new by allowing them to return records they didn't like.
His store soon developed a reputation as Baltimore's leading source of modern music. Glass built a sizable record collection from the unsold records in his father's store, including modern classical music such as Hindemith, Bartók, Schoenberg and Western classical music including Beethoven's string quartets and Schubert's B♭ Piano Trio. Glass cites Schubert's work as a "big influence" growing up, he studied the flute as a child at the university-preparatory school of the Peabody Institute. At the age of 15, he entered an accelerated college program at the University of Chicago where he studied mathematics and philosophy. In Chicago he composed a twelve-tone string trio. In 1954 Glass traveled to Paris, where he encountered the films of Jean Cocteau, which made a lasting impression on him, he saw their work. His composition teachers included William Bergsma. Fellow students included Peter Schickele. In 1959, he was a winner in the BMI Foundation's BMI Student Composer Awards, an international prize for young composers.
In the summer of 1960, he studied with Darius Milhaud at the summer school of the Aspen Music Festival and composed a violin concerto for a fellow student, Dorothy Pixley-Rothschild. After leaving Juilliard in 1962, Glass moved to Pittsburgh and worked as a school-based composer-in-residence in the public school system, composing various choral and orchestral music. In 1964, Glass received a Fulbright Scholarship, his move away from modernist composers such as Boulez and Stockhausen was nuanced, rather than outright rejection: "That generation wanted disciples and as we didn't join up it was taken to mean that we hated the music, which wasn't true. We knew their music. How on earth can you reject Berio? Those early works of Stockhausen are still beautiful, but there was just no point in attempting to do their music better than they did and so we started somewhere else." He encountered revolutionary films of the French New Wave, such as those of Jean-Luc Godard and François Truffaut, which upended the rules set by an older generation of artists, Glass made friends with American visual artists and directors.
Together with Akalaitis, Glass in turn attended performances by theatre groups including Jean-Louis Barrault's Odéon theatre, The Living Theatre and the Berliner Ensemble in 1964 to 1965. These significant encounters resulted in a collaborati
In mathematics, stability theory addresses the stability of solutions of differential equations and of trajectories of dynamical systems under small perturbations of initial conditions. The heat equation, for example, is a stable partial differential equation because small perturbations of initial data lead to small variations in temperature at a time as a result of the maximum principle. In partial differential equations one may measure the distances between functions using Lp norms or the sup norm, while in differential geometry one may measure the distance between spaces using the Gromov–Hausdorff distance. In dynamical systems, an orbit is called Lyapunov stable if the forward orbit of any point is in a small enough neighborhood or it stays in a small neighborhood. Various criteria have been developed to prove instability of an orbit. Under favorable circumstances, the question may be reduced to a well-studied problem involving eigenvalues of matrices. A more general method involves Lyapunov functions.
In practice, any one of a number of different stability criteria are applied. Many parts of the qualitative theory of differential equations and dynamical systems deal with asymptotic properties of solutions and the trajectories—what happens with the system after a long period of time; the simplest kind of behavior is exhibited by equilibrium points, or fixed points, by periodic orbits. If a particular orbit is well understood, it is natural to ask next whether a small change in the initial condition will lead to similar behavior. Stability theory addresses the following questions: Will a nearby orbit indefinitely stay close to a given orbit? Will it converge to the given orbit? In the former case, the orbit is called stable. An equilibrium solution f e to an autonomous system of first order ordinary differential equations is called: stable if for every ϵ > 0, there exists a δ > 0 such that every solution f having initial conditions within distance δ i.e. ‖ f − f e ‖ < δ of the equilibrium remains within distance ϵ i.e. ‖ f − f e ‖ < ϵ for all t ≥ t 0.
Asymptotically stable if it is stable and, in addition, there exists δ 0 > 0 such that whenever δ 0 > ‖ f − f e ‖ f → f e as t → ∞. Stability means; the opposite situation, where a nearby orbit is getting repelled from the given orbit, is of interest. In general, perturbing the initial state in some directions results in the trajectory asymptotically approaching the given one and in other directions to the trajectory getting away from it. There may be directions for which the behavior of the perturbed orbit is more complicated, stability theory does not give sufficient information about the dynamics. One of the key ideas in stability theory is that the qualitative behavior of an orbit under perturbations can be analyzed using the linearization of the system near the orbit. In particular, at each equilibrium of a smooth dynamical system with an n-dimensional phase space, there is a certain n×n matrix A whose eigenvalues characterize the behavior of the nearby points. More if all eigenvalues are negative real numbers or complex numbers with negative real parts the point is a stable attracting fixed point, the nearby points converge to it at an exponential rate, cf Lyapunov stability and exponential stability.
If none of the eigenvalues are purely imaginary the attracting and repelling directions are related to the eigenspaces of the matrix A with eigenvalues whose real part is negative and positive. Analogous statements are known for perturbations of more complicated orbits; the simplest kind of an orbit is an equilibrium. If a mechanical system is in a stable equilibrium state a small push will result in a localized motion, for example, small oscillations as in the case of a pendulum. In a system with damping, a stable equilibrium state is moreover asymptotically stable. On the other hand, for an unstable equilibrium, such as a ball resting on a top of a hill, certain small pushes will result in a motion with a large amplitude that may or may not converge to the original state. There are useful tests of stability for the case of a linear system. Stability of a nonlinear system can be inferred from the stability of its linearization. Let f: R → R be a continuously differentiable function with a fixed point a, f = a.
Consider the dynamical system obtained by iterating the function
Michael Laurence Nyman, CBE is an English composer of minimalist music, pianist and musicologist, known for numerous film scores, his multi-platinum soundtrack album to Jane Campion's The Piano. He has written a number including The Man Who Mistook His Wife for a Hat, he has written six concerti, five string quartets, many other chamber works, many for his Michael Nyman Band. He is a performing pianist. Nyman prefers to write opera rather than other forms of music. Nyman was born in London to a family of Polish secular Jewish furriers. Nyman was educated at Walthamstow, he studied at King's College London and was accepted at the Royal Academy of Music in September 1961, studying with Alan Bush and Thurston Dart, focusing on piano and seventeenth-century baroque music. He won the Howard Carr Memorial Prize for composition in July 1964. In 1965–66 Nyman secured a residency in Romania, to study folk-song, supported by a British Council bursary. Nyman says he discovered his aesthetic playing the aria, "Madamina, il catalogo è questo" from Mozart's Don Giovanni on his piano in the style of Jerry Lee Lewis, which "dictated the dynamic and texture of everything I've subsequently done."
It subsequently became the base for his 1977 piece In Re Don Giovanni. In 1969, Nyman provided the libretto of Harrison Birtwistle's opera Down by the Greenwood Side and directed the short film Love Love Love before settling into music criticism, where he is acknowledged to have been the first to apply the term "minimalism" to music, he wrote introductions for George Frideric Handel's Concerti Grossi, Op. 6 and interviewed George Brecht in 1976. One of his earliest film scores was the British sex comedy Keep It Up Downstairs, he has since scored numerous films, many of them European art films, including several of those directed by Peter Greenaway. Nyman drew on early music sources in his scores for Greenaway's films: Henry Purcell in The Draughtsman's Contract and The Cook, the Thief, His Wife & Her Lover, Heinrich Ignaz Franz Biber in A Zed & Two Noughts, Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart in Drowning by Numbers, John Dowland in Prospero's Books at the request of the director, he wrote settings to various texts by Mozart for Letters and Writs, part of Not Mozart.
He produced a soundtrack for the silent film Man with a Movie Camera. Nyman's popularity increased after he wrote the score to Jane Campion's award-winning 1993 film The Piano; the album became a classical music best-seller. He was nominated for both a Golden Globe, his few forays into Hollywood have been Gattaca and The End of the Affair. Among Nyman's other works are the opera Noises, Sounds & Sweet Airs, for soprano, alto and instrumental ensemble. In 2000, he produced a new opera on the subject of cloning on a libretto by Victoria Hardie titled Facing Goya, an expansion of their one-act opera Vital Statistics; the lead, a widowed art banker, is written for contralto and the role was first created by Hilary Summers. His newest operas are Boy: Dada and Love Counts, both on libretti by Michael Hastings, he has composed the music for the children's television series Titch, based on the books written and illustrated by Pat Hutchins. Many of Nyman's works are written for his own ensemble, the Michael Nyman Band, a group formed for a 1976 production of Carlo Goldoni's Il Campiello.
Made up of old instruments such as rebecs and shawms alongside more modern instruments like the saxophone to produce as loud a sound as possible without amplification, it switched to a amplified line-up of string quartet, three saxophones, horn, bass trombone, bass guitar and piano. This line up has been variously augmented for some works. Nyman published an influential book in 1974 on experimental music called Experimental Music: Cage and Beyond, which explored the influence of John Cage on classical composers. In the 1970s, Nyman was a member of the Portsmouth Sinfonia – the self-described World's Worst Orchestra – playing on their recordings and in their concerts, he was the featured pianist on the orchestra's recording of Bridge Over Troubled Water on the Martin Lewis-produced 20 Classic Rock Classics album on which the Sinfonia gave their unique interpretations of the pop and rock repertoire of the 1950s–1970s. Nyman created a similar group called Foster's Social Orchestra, which specialised in the work of Stephen Foster.
One of their pieces appeared in the film Ravenous and an additional work, not used in the film, appeared on the soundtrack album. He has recorded pop music with the Flying Lizards.