Syzygium is a genus of flowering plants that belongs to the myrtle family, Myrtaceae. The genus comprises about 1200–1800 species, has a native range that extends from Africa and Madagascar through southern Asia east through the Pacific, its highest levels of diversity occur from Malaysia to northeastern Australia, where many species are poorly known and many more have not been described taxonomically. Most species are evergreen shrubs. Several species are grown as ornamental plants for their attractive glossy foliage, a few produce edible fruits that are eaten fresh or used in jams and jellies; the most economically important species, however, is the clove Syzygium aromaticum, of which the unopened flower buds are an important spice. Some of the edible species of Syzygium are planted throughout the tropics worldwide, several have become invasive species in some island ecosystems. Several species of Syzygium bear fruits that are edible for humans, many of which are named "roseapple". Fifty-two species are found in Australia and are known as lillipillies, brush cherries or satinash.
At times Syzygium was confused taxonomically with the genus Eugenia, but the latter genus has its highest specific diversity in the neotropics. Many species classed as Eugenia are now included in the genus Syzygium, although the former name may persist in horticulture; the Syzygium Working Group, an international group of researchers, formed in April 2016 with the aim to produce a monograph of Syzygium. Selected species include: Formerly placed in this genusWaterhousea floribunda B. Hyland Craven, Lyndley A.. "An infrageneric classification of Syzygium". Blumea - Biodiversity and Biogeography of Plants. 55: 94–99. Doi:10.3767/000651910x499303. Retrieved 3 Aug 2013. CRFG.org Unimelb.edu.au
The eudicots, Eudicotidae or eudicotyledons are a clade of flowering plants, called tricolpates or non-magnoliid dicots by previous authors. The botanical terms were introduced in 1991 by evolutionary botanist James A. Doyle and paleobotanist Carol L. Hotton to emphasize the evolutionary divergence of tricolpate dicots from earlier, less specialized, dicots; the close relationships among flowering plants with tricolpate pollen grains was seen in morphological studies of shared derived characters. These plants have a distinct trait in their pollen grains of exhibiting three colpi or grooves paralleling the polar axis. Molecular evidence confirmed the genetic basis for the evolutionary relationships among flowering plants with tricolpate pollen grains and dicotyledonous traits; the term means "true dicotyledons", as it contains the majority of plants that have been considered dicots and have characteristics of the dicots. The term "eudicots" has subsequently been adopted in botany to refer to one of the two largest clades of angiosperms, monocots being the other.
The remaining angiosperms include magnoliids and what are sometimes referred to as basal angiosperms or paleodicots, but these terms have not been or adopted, as they do not refer to a monophyletic group. The other name for the eudicots is tricolpates, a name which refers to the grooved structure of the pollen. Members of the group have tricolpate pollen; these pollens have three or more pores set in furrows called colpi. In contrast, most of the other seed plants produce monosulcate pollen, with a single pore set in a differently oriented groove called the sulcus; the name "tricolpates" is preferred by some botanists to avoid confusion with the dicots, a nonmonophyletic group. Numerous familiar plants are eudicots, including many common food plants and ornamentals; some common and familiar eudicots include members of the sunflower family such as the common dandelion, the forget-me-not and other members of its family, buttercup and macadamia. Most leafy trees of midlatitudes belong to eudicots, with notable exceptions being magnolias and tulip trees which belong to magnoliids, Ginkgo biloba, not an angiosperm.
The name "eudicots" is used in the APG system, of 1998, APG II system, of 2003, for classification of angiosperms. It is applied to a monophyletic group, which includes most of the dicots. "Tricolpate" is a synonym for the "Eudicot" monophyletic group, the "true dicotyledons". The number of pollen grain furrows or pores helps classify the flowering plants, with eudicots having three colpi, other groups having one sulcus. Pollen apertures are any modification of the wall of the pollen grain; these modifications include thinning and pores, they serve as an exit for the pollen contents and allow shrinking and swelling of the grain caused by changes in moisture content. The elongated apertures/ furrows in the pollen grain are called colpi, along with pores, are a chief criterion for identifying the pollen classes; the eudicots can be divided into two groups: the basal eudicots and the core eudicots. Basal eudicot is an informal name for a paraphyletic group; the core eudicots are a monophyletic group.
A 2010 study suggested the core eudicots can be divided into two clades, Gunnerales and a clade called "Pentapetalae", comprising all the remaining core eudicots. The Pentapetalae can be divided into three clades: Dilleniales superrosids consisting of Saxifragales and rosids superasterids consisting of Santalales, Berberidopsidales and asteridsThis division of the eudicots is shown in the following cladogram: The following is a more detailed breakdown according to APG IV, showing within each clade and orders: clade Eudicots order Ranunculales order Proteales order Trochodendrales order Buxales clade Core eudicots order Gunnerales order Dilleniales clade Superrosids order Saxifragales clade Rosids order Vitales clade Fabids order Fabales order Rosales order Fagales order Cucurbitales order Oxalidales order Malpighiales order Celastrales order Zygophyllales clade Malvids order Geraniales order Myrtales order Crossosomatales order Picramniales order Malvales order Brassicales order Huerteales order Sapindales clade Superasterids order Berberidopsidales order Santalales order Caryophyllales clade Asterids order Cornales order Ericales clade Campanulids order Aquifoliales order Asterales order Escalloniales order Bruniales order Apiales order Dipsacales order Paracryphiales clade Lamiids order Solanales order Lamiales order Vahliales order Gentianales order Boraginales order Garryales order Metteniusales order Icacinales Eudicots at the Encyclopedia of Life Eudicots, Tree of Life Web Project Dicots Plant Life Forms
George Claridge Druce
George Claridge Druce, MA, LLD, JP, FRS, FLS was an English botanist and a Mayor of Oxford. G. Claridge Druce was born at Potterspury on Watling Street in Northamptonshire, he was the illegitimate son of Jane Druce, born 1815 in Buckinghamshire. He went to school in the village of Yardley Gobion. At 16, he was apprenticed to P. Co. a pharmaceutical firm in Northampton. In 1872, he passed exams to become a pharmacist, his main interest was botany. In 1876, he was involved in the foundation of the Northampton Natural History Society. In June 1879, Druce moved to Oxford and set up his own chemist's shop, Druce & Co. at 118 High Street, which continued until his death. He featured as a shopkeeper in the Oxford novel Zuleika Dobson by Max Beerbohm. A plaque to Druce was erected on this shop by the Oxfordshire Blue Plaques Board in April 2018. In 1880, Druce helped to found the Ashmolean Natural History Society of Oxfordshire established as the Ashmolean Society in 1828, it was merged with the Oxfordshire Natural History Society by Druce in 1901.
In 1886, he published The Flora of Oxfordshire, in 1887 The Flora of Berkshire, in 1926 The Flora of Buckinghamshire and in 1929 The Flora of West Ross. He was one of few people to write a flora for more than one county. In 1889, he was awarded the degree of honorary MA by the University of Oxford and in 1895 he was appointed Fielding Curator in the Department of Botany at the University. Among his discoveries, Druce was the first to recognise as a distinct variety of Field Elm a rare narrow-leaved form, unique to the English Midlands, that he had noticed at Banbury and Fineshade, which he named'Plot's Elm' after the Oxford botanist Robert Plot. Claridge Druce served on Oxford City Council from 1892 until his death, was Chairman of the Public Health Committee, he served as Sheriff of Oxford during 1896–97. He presented the City of Oxford with the Sheriff's gold chain and badge, kept in the Town Hall, to commemorate the Diamond Jubilee of Queen Victoria in 1897. Druce served as Mayor of Oxford in 1900–01.
A stone marking the city boundary at the top of Cuckoo Lane in the east Oxford suburb Headington was erected at the time and is engraved with his name. In 1920, Druce was made an Alderman and a portrait in his robes can be seen in the Council Chamber, he was a Justice of the Peace. In 1909, Druce moved to 9 Crick Road, he named the house "Yardley Lodge", after the village. He was buried in Holywell Cemetery, his herbarium was combined with Henry Barron Fielding's herbarium to create the Fielding-Druce Herbarium of the University of Oxford. —. The Flora of Oxfordshire. Oxford and London: Parker and Company. —. The flora of Berkshire. Oxford: Clarendon Press. —. An Account of the Herbarium of the University of Oxford. Oxford: Clarendon Press. Prior, C. E.. Account of Otmoor. Banbury: W. Potts. —. The Dillenian herbaria. Oxford: Clarendon Press. —. List of British plants: containing the spermopytes and charads found either as natives or growing in a wild state in Britain and the Channel Isles. Oxford: Clarendon Press.
Hayward, W. R.. Hayward's botanists' pocket-book. London: G. Bell & sons. Vines, Sydney Howard. An account of the Morisonian Herbarium in the possession of the University of Oxford together with biographical and critical sketches of Morison and the two Bobarts and their works and the early history of the Physic Garden 1619-1720. Oxford: Clarendon Press. Hayward, Ida Margaret; the adventive flora of Tweedside. Arbroath: Buncle. —. Flora Zetlandica. Arbroath: Buncle. —. The mosses and liverworts of Oxfordshire: being a supplement to the'Flora of Oxfordshire'. Oxford: Holywell Press. —. The flora of Buckinghamshire. Arbroath: Buncle. Trower, Charlotte Georgina. —, ed. British Brambles. Arbroath: Buncle. —. The flora of West Ross. Arbroath: Buncle. —. The flora of Northamptonshire. Arbroath: Buncle. —. The comital flora of the British Isles. Arbroath: Buncle. George Claridge Druce, Mayor of Oxford Collector: George Claridge Druce Druce Herbarium, Oxford Works by or about George Claridge Druce at Internet Archive
Robert Wight MD FRS FLS was a Scottish surgeon in the East India Company, whose professional career was spent in southern India, where his greatest achievements were in botany – as an economic botanist and leading taxonomist in south India. He contributed to the introduction of American cotton; as a taxonomist he described 110 new genera and 1267 new species of flowering plants. He employed Indian botanical artists to illustrate a large number of plants collected by himself and Indian collectors he trained; some of these illustrations were published William Hooker in Britain, but from 1838 published a series of illustrated works in Madras including the uncoloured, six-volume Icones Plantarum Indiae Orientalis and two hand-coloured, two-volume works, the Illustrations of Indian Botany and Spicilegium Neilgherrense. By the time he retired from India in 1853 he had published 2464 illustrations of Indian plants. Wight was the son of a solicitor in Edinburgh, he was born at the ninth of twelve siblings.
He was educated at home until the age of eleven after which he studied at the Royal High School in Edinburgh. He obtained a surgeon's diploma in 1816 from the Royal College of Surgeons in Edinburgh, he trained at Edinburgh University, studying botany under Daniel Rutherford in 1816, graduating MD in 1818. It has been claimed that he worked as a ship's surgeon for two years and went on a few voyages, including one to the USA but this has been questioned. In 1819 Wight went to India as an Assistant Surgeon in the service of the East India Company, serving with the 21st Madras Native Infantry, his devotion to botany was clear from the start and his earliest collections were made around Samalkota and Masulipatam in the Northern Circars in the present-day state of Andhra Pradesh. After periods in the Public Cattle Depot at Mysore and with the 33rd Madras Native Infantry he was, in January 1826, appointed to succeed Dr James Shuter in the post of Madras Naturalist. In 1828 the Governor of Madras, Stephen Rumbold Lushington, scrapped the Naturalist’s post, its collections were sent to the Company headquarters in London.
Wight was redeployed to regimental duties as garrison surgeon at Nagapattinam. From here, in 1828, he began a productive correspondence with William Hooker, Professor of Botany at Glasgow University, sending him plant specimens and drawings by his Indian artist Rungiah. Earlier collections from around Madras up to Vellore and from Samalkota and Rajahmundry, sent to Professor Robert Graham in Edinburgh had been unacknowledged and, though said to have been lost at sea, are the Andhra Pradesh specimens which are in the herbarium of the Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh. In 1831, shortly after having been promoted to Surgeon, Wight took a three-year leave to Britain ‘on private affairs’, he took with him to London 100,000 plant specimens representing 3000-4000 species, weighing 2 tons. Nathaniel Wallich was in London curating the great East India Company herbarium, which contained the Madras Naturalists’ collection. Wight's additions came too late and he had to identify and distribute the collection on his own but Wight was fortunate to enlist the help of his old school and university friend George Arnott Walker-Arnott, who had given up a legal career and was working as a free-lance botanist in Scotland.
During this leave, Wight spent much time in Scotland where the two men worked on the collections and distributed up to 20 sets of duplicates to specialists in Britain, Europe and Russia. Wight & Arnott embarked on three joint publications: a Catalogue of the herbarium specimens, a Peninsular Flora arranged according to the natural system, a volume of monographs by other authors, of three significant plant families. Before Wight’s return to India in 1834 the first two parts of the herbarium catalogue, the first volume of the outstanding Prodromus Florae Peninsulae Indiae Orientalis had been published. Shortly thereafter came the Contributions to the Flora of India under Wight’s name, containing accounts of the families Asclepiadaceae and Compositae. Nees published Wight’s Acanthaceae in Wallich’s Plantae Asiaticae Rariores, but the only other botanists to intensively examine his collections were George Bentham, who published Wight’s Labiatae and Scrophulariaceae and John Lindley who described some of his orchids.
Wight returned to India in 1834 as a full surgeon in the 33rd Regiment of Native Infantry at Bellary. During this period he began working on the medicinal plants of India, maintaining native botanical artists and publishing brief notes in the Madras Journal of Literature and Science and became the editor for the botany section of that journal; the papers included one on the flora of Courtallam. The recognition of Wight's botanical skills led in 1836 to his transfer to the Madras Revenue Department; the transfer was based on references from Hooker and Robert Brown, the Governor Sir Fred Adam, advised by J. G. Malcolmson and Wight was to report on cotton. Over the next six years this work involved species such as tea, sugar cane and cotton. In 1836 he visited Ceylon for six weeks, he reported on the resources of upland areas
Gulab jamun is a milk-solid-based sweet from the Indian subcontinent, popular in India, Nepal and Bangladesh, as well as Myanmar. It is common in Mauritius, Fiji and eastern Africa, Malay Peninsula, the Caribbean countries of Trinidad and Tobago, Guyana and Jamaica, it is made from milk solids, traditionally from Khoya, milk reduced to the consistency of a soft dough. Modern recipes call for dried/powdered milk instead of Khoya, it is garnished with dried nuts such as almonds to enhance flavour. In India, milk solids are prepared by heating milk over a low flame for a long time until most of the water content has evaporated; these milk solids, known as khoya in India, Bangladesh and Sri Lanka, are kneaded into a dough, with a small amount of flour, shaped into small balls and deep-fried at a low temperature of about 148 °C. The balls are soaked in a light sugary syrup flavored with green cardamom and rose water, kewra or saffron. Gulab jamun was first prepared in medieval India, derived from a fritter that Central Asian Turkic invaders brought to India.
One theory claims that it was accidentally prepared by the Mughal emperor Shah Jahan's personal chef. The word "gulab" is derived from the Persian words gol and āb, referring to the rose water-scented syrup. "Jamun" or "jaman" is the Hindi-Urdu word for Syzygium jambolanum, an Indian fruit with a similar size and shape known as black plum. Jamun is defined as a fried delicacy in sugar syrup; the Arab dessert luqmat al-qadi is similar to gulab jamun. According to the culinary historian Michael Krondl, both luqmat al-qadi and gulab jamun may have derived from a Persian dish, with rose water syrup being a common connection between the two. Gulab jamun is a dessert eaten at festivals, birthdays or major celebrations such as marriages, the Muslim celebrations of Eid ul-Fitr and Eid al-Adha, the Hindu festival of Diwali. There are various types of gulab jamun and every variety has a distinct taste and appearance. Gulab jamun gets its brownish red colour because of the sugar content in the milk powder.
In other types of gulab jamun, sugar is added in the batter, after frying, the sugar caramelization gives it its dark black colour, called kala jam or "black jam". The sugar syrup may be replaced with diluted maple syrup for a gulab jamun. Homemade gulab jamun is made up of powdered milk, a pinch of all-purpose flour, baking powder and clarified butter. Pantua is similar to gulab jamun, could be called a Bengali variant of that dish. Ledikeni, a variation of Pantua, is another variant of gulab jamun, it is said to have been invented by Bhim Chandra Nag on the occasion of a visit by Lady Canning, the wife of Charles Canning, the Governor-General of India during 1856-62. In central India, Gulab Jamun is termed rasgulla. Katangi, a town near Jabalpur is famous for "Jhurre Ka Rasgulla", made there for the past 100 years, it is prepared in local desi ghee. In Rajasthan, instead of soaking gulab jamun balls in sugar syrup, they are cooked in gravy made from nuts and tomato to make popular Gulab Jamun ki Sabzi.
Bamiyeh Crema fritta Chè xôi nước Latte dolce fritto Leche frita Doughnut holes List of desserts Loukoumades Lyangcha Tangyuan Zha xian nai gulaabjaam,Marathi feature film, 2018
Trinidad and Tobago
Trinidad and Tobago the Republic of Trinidad and Tobago, is a twin island country, the southernmost nation of the West Indies in the Caribbean. It is situated 130 kilometres south of Grenada off the northern edge of the South American mainland, 11 kilometres off the coast of northeastern Venezuela, it shares maritime boundaries with Barbados to the northeast, Grenada to the northwest, Guyana to the southeast, Venezuela to the south and west. The island of Trinidad was a Spanish colony from the arrival of Christopher Columbus in 1498 until Spanish governor Don José María Chacón surrendered the island to a British fleet under the command of Sir Ralph Abercromby in 1797. During the same period, the island of Tobago changed hands among Spanish, French and Courlander colonisers more times than any other island in the Caribbean. Trinidad and Tobago were ceded to Britain in 1802 under the Treaty of Amiens as separate states and unified in 1889. Trinidad and Tobago obtained independence in 1962 and became a republic in 1976.
As of 2015, the sovereign state of Trinidad and Tobago had the third highest GDP per capita based on purchasing power parity in the Americas after the United States and Canada. It is recognised by the World Bank as a high-income economy. Unlike most of the English-speaking Caribbean, the economy is industrial with an emphasis on petroleum and petrochemicals. Trinidad and Tobago is known for its Carnival and Diwali celebrations and as the birthplace of steelpan, the limbo, music styles such as calypso, soca and chutney. Historian E. L. Joseph claimed that Trinidad's Amerindian name was Cairi or "Land of the Humming Bird", derived from the Arawak name for hummingbird, ierèttê or yerettê. However, other authors dispute this etymology with some claiming that cairi does not mean hummingbird and some claiming that kairi, or iere means island. Christopher Columbus renamed it "La Isla de la Trinidad", fulfilling a vow made before setting out on his third voyage of exploration. Tobago's cigar-like shape may have given it its Spanish name and some of its other Amerindian names, such as Aloubaéra and Urupaina, although the English pronunciation is /təˈbeɪɡoʊ/, rhyming with lumbago, "may go".
Trinidad and Tobago are islands situated between 10° 2' and 11° 12' N latitude and 60° 30' and 61° 56' W longitude. At the closest point, Trinidad is just 11 kilometres from Venezuelan territory. Covering an area of 5,128 km2, the country consists of the two main islands and Tobago, numerous smaller landforms, including Chacachacare, Huevos, Gaspar Grande, Little Tobago, St. Giles Island. Trinidad is 4,768 km2 in area with an average length of 80 kilometres and an average width of 59 kilometres. Tobago has an area of about 300 km2, or 5.8% of the country's area, is 41 km long and 12 km at its greatest width. Trinidad and Tobago lie on the continental shelf of South America, are thus geologically considered to lie in South America; the terrain of the islands is a mixture of plains. The highest point in the country is found on the Northern Range at El Cerro del Aripo, 940 metres above sea level; as the majority of the population lives on the island of Trinidad, this is the location of most major towns and cities.
There are four major municipalities in Trinidad: Port of Spain, the capital, San Fernando and Chaguanas. The main town in Tobago is Scarborough. Trinidad is made up of a variety of soil types, the majority being heavy clays; the alluvial valleys of the Northern Range and the soils of the East–West Corridor are the most fertile. The Northern Range consists of Upper Jurassic and Cretaceous metamorphic rocks; the Northern Lowlands consist of younger shallow marine clastic sediments. South of this, the Central Range fold and thrust belt consists of Cretaceous and Eocene sedimentary rocks, with Miocene formations along the southern and eastern flanks; the Naparima Plains and the Nariva Swamp form the southern shoulder of this uplift. The Southern Lowlands consist of Miocene and Pliocene sands and gravels; these overlie oil and natural gas deposits north of the Los Bajos Fault. The Southern Range forms the third anticlinal uplift, it consists of several chains of hills, most famous being the Trinity Hills.
The rocks consist of sandstones, shales and clays formed in the Miocene and uplifted in the Pleistocene. Oil sands and mud volcanoes are common in this area; the climate is tropical. There are two seasons annually: the dry season for the first five months of the year, the rainy season in the remaining seven of the year. Winds are dominated by the northeast trade winds. Unlike most of the other Caribbean islands, both Trinidad and Tobago have escaped the wrath of major devastating hurricanes, including Hurricane Ivan, the most powerful storm to have passed close to the islands in recent history, in September 2004. In the Northern Range, the climate is different in contrast to the sweltering heat of the plains below. With constant cloud and mist cover, heavy rains in the mountains, the temperature is much cooler. Record temperatures for Trinidad and Tobago are 39 °C for the high in Port of Spain, a low of 12 °C; because Trinidad and Tobago lies
Wine is an alcoholic drink made from fermented grapes. Yeast consumes the sugar in the grapes and converts it to ethanol, carbon dioxide, heat. Different varieties of grapes and strains of yeasts produce different styles of wine; these variations result from the complex interactions between the biochemical development of the grape, the reactions involved in fermentation, the terroir, the production process. Many countries enact legal appellations intended to define qualities of wine; these restrict the geographical origin and permitted varieties of grapes, as well as other aspects of wine production. Wines not made from grapes include rice wine and fruit wines such as plum, pomegranate and elderberry. Wine has been produced for thousands of years; the earliest known traces of wine are from Georgia and Sicily although there is evidence of a similar alcoholic drink being consumed earlier in China. The earliest known winery is the 6,100-year-old Areni-1 winery in Armenia. Wine reached the Balkans by 4500 BC and was consumed and celebrated in ancient Greece and Rome.
Throughout history, wine has been consumed for its intoxicating effects. Wine has long played an important role in religion. Red wine was associated with blood by the ancient Egyptians and was used by both the Greek cult of Dionysus and the Romans in their Bacchanalia; the earliest archaeological and archaeobotanical evidence for grape wine and viniculture, dating to 6000–5800 BC was found on the territory of modern Georgia. Both archaeological and genetic evidence suggest that the earliest production of wine elsewhere was later having taken place in the Southern Caucasus, or the West Asian region between Eastern Turkey, northern Iran; the earliest evidence of a grape-based fermented drink was found in China, Georgia from 6000 BC, Iran from 5000 BC, Sicily from 4000 BC. The earliest evidence of a wine production facility is the Areni-1 winery in Armenia and is at least 6100 years old. A 2003 report by archaeologists indicates a possibility that grapes were mixed with rice to produce mixed fermented drinks in China in the early years of the seventh millennium BC.
Pottery jars from the Neolithic site of Jiahu, contained traces of tartaric acid and other organic compounds found in wine. However, other fruits indigenous to the region, such as hawthorn, cannot be ruled out. If these drinks, which seem to be the precursors of rice wine, included grapes rather than other fruits, they would have been any of the several dozen indigenous wild species in China, rather than Vitis vinifera, introduced there 6000 years later; the spread of wine culture westwards was most due to the Phoenicians who spread outward from a base of city-states along the Mediterranean coast of what are today Syria, Lebanon and Palestine. The wines of Byblos were exported to Egypt during the Old Kingdom and throughout the Mediterranean. Evidence includes two Phoenician shipwrecks from 750 BC discovered by Robert Ballard, whose cargo of wine was still intact; as the first great traders in wine, the Phoenicians seem to have protected it from oxidation with a layer of olive oil, followed by a seal of pinewood and resin, similar to retsina.
Although the nuragic Sardinians consumed wine before the arrival of the Phoenicians The earliest remains of Apadana Palace in Persepolis dating back to 515 BC include carvings depicting soldiers from Achaemenid Empire subject nations bringing gifts to the Achaemenid king, among them Armenians bringing their famous wine. Literary references to wine are abundant in Homer and others. In ancient Egypt, six of 36 wine amphoras were found in the tomb of King Tutankhamun bearing the name "Kha'y", a royal chief vintner. Five of these amphoras were designated as originating from the king's personal estate, with the sixth from the estate of the royal house of Aten. Traces of wine have been found in central Asian Xinjiang in modern-day China, dating from the second and first millennia BC; the first known mention of grape-based wines in India is from the late 4th-century BC writings of Chanakya, the chief minister of Emperor Chandragupta Maurya. In his writings, Chanakya condemns the use of alcohol while chronicling the emperor and his court's frequent indulgence of a style of wine known as madhu.
The ancient Romans planted vineyards near garrison towns so wine could be produced locally rather than shipped over long distances. Some of these areas are now world-renowned for wine production; the Romans discovered that burning sulfur candles inside empty wine vessels kept them fresh and free from a vinegar smell. In medieval Europe, the Roman Catholic Church supported wine because the clergy required it for the Mass. Monks in France made wine for years. An old English recipe that survived in various forms until the 19th century calls for refining white wine from bastard—bad or tainted bastardo wine; the English word "wine" comes from the Proto-Germanic *winam, an early borrowing from the Latin vinum, "wine" or " vine", itself derived from the Proto-Indo-European stem *win-o-. The earliest attested terms referring to wine are the Mycenaean Greek me-tu-wo ne-wo, meaning "in" or " of the new wine", wo-no-wa-ti-si, meaning "wine garden", written in Linear B inscriptions. Linear B includes, inter alia, an ideogram for wine