Mezőkövesd is a district in south-western part of Borsod-Abaúj-Zemplén County. Mezőkövesd is the name of the town where the district seat is found; the district is located in the Northern Hungary Statistical Region. Mezőkövesd District borders with Miskolc District to the northeast, Mezőcsát District to the east, Tiszafüred District to the south, Füzesabony District and Eger District to the west; the number of the inhabited places in Mezőkövesd District is 23. The district has 2 towns, 1 large village and 20 villages; the bolded municipalities are cities, italics municipality is large village. In 2011, it had a population of 42,432 and the population density was 59/km². Besides the Hungarian majority, the main minorities are the German. Total population: 42,432 Ethnic groups: Identified themselves: 40,091 persons: Hungarians: 37,326 Gypsies: 2,202 Others and indefinable: 563 Approx. 2,500 persons in Mezőkövesd District did not declare their ethnic group at the 2011 census. Religious adherence in the county according to 2011 census: Catholic – 22,530.
List of cities and towns of Hungary Mezőkövesd Subregion Postal codes of the Mezőkövesd District
Matthias Corvinus called Matthias I, was King of Hungary and Croatia from 1458 to 1490. After conducting several military campaigns, he was elected King of Bohemia in 1469 and adopted the title Duke of Austria in 1487, he was the son of John Hunyadi, Regent of Hungary, who died in 1456. In 1457, Matthias was imprisoned along with his older brother, Ladislaus Hunyadi, on the orders of King Ladislaus the Posthumous. Ladislaus Hunyadi was executed. After the King died unexpectedly, Matthias's uncle Michael Szilágyi persuaded the Estates to unanimously proclaim Matthias king on 24 January 1458, he began his rule under his uncle's guardianship, but he took effective control of government within two weeks. As king, Matthias waged wars against the Czech mercenaries who dominated Upper Hungary and against Frederick III, Holy Roman Emperor, who claimed Hungary for himself. In this period, the Ottoman Empire conquered Serbia and Bosnia, terminating the zone of buffer states along the southern frontiers of the Kingdom of Hungary.
Matthias signed a peace treaty with Frederick III in 1463, acknowledging the Emperor's right to style himself King of Hungary. The Emperor returned the Holy Crown of Hungary with which Matthias was crowned on 29 April 1464. In this year, Matthias invaded the territories, occupied by the Ottomans and seized fortresses in Bosnia, he soon realized he could expect no substantial aid from the Christian powers and gave up his anti-Ottoman policy. Matthias introduced new taxes and collected extraordinary taxes; these measures caused a rebellion in Transylvania in 1467. The next year, Matthias declared war on George of Poděbrady, the Hussite King of Bohemia, conquered Moravia and Lausitz, but he could not occupy Bohemia proper; the Catholic Estates proclaimed him King of Bohemia on 3 May 1469, but the Hussite lords refused to yield to him after the death of their leader George of Poděbrady in 1471. Instead, they elected the eldest son of Casimir IV of Poland. A group of Hungarian prelates and lords offered the throne to Vladislaus's younger brother Casimir, but Matthias overcame their rebellion.
Having routed the united troops of Casimir IV and Vladislaus at Breslau in Silesia in late 1474, Matthias turned against the Ottomans, who had devastated the eastern parts of Hungary. He sent reinforcements to Stephen the Great, Prince of Moldavia, enabling Stephen to repel a series of Ottoman invasions in the late 1470s. In 1476, Matthias seized Šabac, an important Ottoman border fort, he concluded a peace treaty with Vladislaus Jagiellon in 1478, confirming the division of the Lands of the Bohemian Crown between them. Matthias waged a war against Emperor Frederick and occupied Lower Austria between 1482 and 1487. Matthias established a professional army, reformed the administration of justice, reduced the power of the barons, promoted the careers of talented individuals chosen for their abilities rather than their social statuses. Matthias patronized science. With his patronage, Hungary became the first country to embrace the Renaissance from Italy; as Matthias the Just, the monarch who wandered among his subjects in disguise, he remains a popular hero of Hungarian folk tales.
Matthias was born in Kolozsvár on 23 February 1443. He was his wife, Elizabeth Szilágyi. Matthias' education was managed by his mother due to his father's absence. Many of the most learned men of Central Europe—including Gregory of Sanok and John Vitéz—frequented John Hunyadi's court when Matthias was a child. Gregory of Sanok, a former tutor of King Vladislaus III of Poland, was Matthias's only teacher whose name is known. Under these scholars' influences, Matthias became an enthusiastic supporter of Renaissance humanism; as a child, Matthias learnt many languages and read classical literature military treatises. According to Antonio Bonfini, Matthias "was versed in all the tongues of Europe", with the exceptions of Turkish and Greek. Although this was an exaggeration, it is without doubt that Matthias spoke Hungarian, Italian, Polish and German; the late 16th-century Polish historian Krzystoff Warszewiecki wrote that Matthias had been able to understand the Romanian language of the envoys of Stephen the Great, Prince of Moldavia.
According to a treaty between John Hunyadi and Đorđe Branković, Despot of Serbia and the Despot's granddaughter Elizabeth of Celje were engaged on 7 August 1451. Elizabeth was the daughter of Ulrich II, Count of Celje, related to King Ladislaus the Posthumous and an opponent of Matthias's father; because of new conflicts between Hunyadi and Ulrich of Celje, the marriage of their children only took place in 1455. Elizabeth settled in the Hunyadis' estates but Matthias was soon sent to the royal court, implying that their marriage was a hidden exchange of hostages between their families. Elizabeth died before the end of 1455. John Hunyadi died on 11 August 1456, less than three weeks after his greatest victory over the Ottomans in Belgrade. John's elder son—Matthias's brother—Ladislaus became the head of the family. Ladislaus's conflict with Ulrich of Celje ended with Ulrich's capture and assassination on 9 November. Under duress, the King promised he would never take his revenge against the Hunyadis for Ulrich's killing.
However, the murd
Kács is a village in Borsod-Abaúj-Zemplén County in northeastern Hungary
Francis II Rákóczi
Francis II Rákóczi was a Hungarian nobleman and leader of the Hungarian uprising against the Habsburgs in 1703-11 as the prince of the Estates Confederated for Liberty of the Kingdom of Hungary. He was Prince of Transylvania, an Imperial Prince, a member of the Order of the Golden Fleece. Today he is considered a national hero in Hungary, his full title was: Franciscus II. Dei Gratia Sacri Romani Imperii & Transylvaniae princeps Rakoczi. Particum Regni Hungariae Dominus & Siculorum Comes, Regni Hungariae Pro Libertate Confoederatorum Statuum necnon Munkacsiensis & Makoviczensis Dux, Perpetuus Comes de Saros, his name is also spelled Rákóczy, in Hungarian: II. Rákóczi Ferenc, in Slovak: František II. Rákoci, in German: Franz II. Rákóczi, in Croatian: Franjo II. Rákóczy, in Romanian: Francisc Rákóczi al II-lea, in Serbian Ференц II Ракоци, he was the richest landlord in the Kingdom of Hungary and was the count of the Comitatus Sarossiensis from 1694 on. He was the third of three children born to Francis I Rákóczi, elected ruling prince of Transylvania, Zrínyi Ilona, the daughter of Zrínyi Péter, Ban of Croatia, niece of the poet Zrínyi Miklós.
His grandfather and great-grandfather, both called George, were Princes of Transylvania. He had a brother, who died as a baby before Francis was born, a sister, four years older than Francis, his father died. Upon Ferenc I's death, his widow requested guardianship of her children. Despite further difficulties, Zrínyi Ilona was able to raise her children, while the Emperor retained legal guardianship; the family lived in the castle of Munkács, Sárospatak and Regéc until 1680, when Ferenc's paternal grandmother, Sofia Báthory, died. They moved permanently into the castle of Munkács. Rákóczi retained strong affection for this place throughout his life. Aside from his mother, Rákóczi's key educators were György Kőrössy, castellan to the family, János Badinyi. Zrínyi Ilona's second husband, Imre Thököly took little interest in Rákóczi's education, as he was by heavily involved in politics. However, the failure of the Turks to capture the Habsburg capital in the Battle of Vienna in 1683 frustrated Thököly's plans to become King of Upper Hungary.
When the Turks began to grow suspicious of his intentions, Thököly proposed sending the young Rákóczi to Constantinople as a guarantee of his goodwill. But Rákóczi's mother opposed this plan. In 1686 Antonio Caraffa besieged the castle of Munkács. Zrínyi Ilona led the defence of the castle for three years, but capitulated in 1688; the two Rákóczi children fell again under the guardianship of Leopold I, moved to Vienna with their mother. They could not leave the city without the Emperor's permission. At the age of 17, the Emperor emancipated Rákóczi from his mother, thereby allowing him to own property, his sister Julianna had interceded for him after marrying a powerful General Aspremont. Rákóczi lived with the Aspremonts until his marriage in September 1694, to 15-year-old Princess Amelia, a daughter of Charles, Landgrave of Hesse-Wanfried and a descendant of Saint Elizabeth of Hungary; the couple moved to the Rákóczi castle at Sárospatak. The Treaty of Karlowitz on 26 January 1699, forced Zrínyi Ilona into exile.
Rákóczi remained in Vienna under the Emperor's supervision. Relying on the prevalent anti-Habsburg sentiment, remnants of Thököly's peasant army started a new uprising in the Hegyalja region of Northeastern present-day Hungary, part of the property of the Rákóczi family, they captured the castles of Tokaj, Sárospatak and Sátoraljaújhely, asked Rákóczi to become their leader, but he was not eager to head what appeared to be a minor peasant rebellion. He returned to Vienna, where he tried his best to clear his name. Rákóczi befriended Count Miklós Bercsényi, whose property at Ungvár, lay next to his own. Bercsényi was a educated man, the third richest man in the kingdom, was related to most of the Hungarian aristocracy; as the House of Habsburg was on the verge of dying out in Spain, France was looking for allies in its fight against Austrian hegemony. They established contact with Rákóczi and promised support if he took up the cause of Hungarian independence. An Austrian spy brought it to the attention of the Emperor.
As a direct result of this, Rákóczi was arrested on 18 April 1700, imprisoned in the fortress of Wiener Neustadt. It became obvious during the preliminary hearings that, just as in the case of his grandfather Péter Zrínyi, the only possible sentence for Ferenc was death. With the aid of his pregnant wife Amelia and the prison commander, Rákóczi managed to escape and flee to Poland. Here he met with Bercsényi again, together they resumed contact with the French court. Three years the War of the Spanish Succession caused a large part of the Austrian forces in the Kingdom of Hungary to temporarily leave the country. Taking advantage of the situation, Kuruc forces began a new uprising in Munkács, Rákóczi was asked to head it, he decided to invest his energies in a war of national libe
Borsod-Abaúj-Zemplén is an administrative county in north-eastern Hungary, on the border with Slovakia. It shares borders with the Hungarian counties Nógrád, Hajdú-Bihar and Szabolcs-Szatmár-Bereg; the capital of Borsod-Abaúj-Zemplén county is Miskolc. Of the seven statistical regions of Hungary it belongs to the region Northern Hungary. Borsod-Abaúj-Zemplén is the second largest county of Hungary both by population; the county bears the name of three historic counties of Hungary, each of them was centered around a castle. Borsod is named after the castle; the castle was named after its first steward, Bors The name Bors itself is of Hungarian origin, derived from the Turkish loan word bors, which means'black pepper / peppercorn' or a Slavic personal name Borš, Borša. The castle itself was a motte castle, stood near modern-day Edelény. Abaúj is a shortened form of the name of Abaújvár; the Aba portion refers to the Aba clan which ruled the area in the Middle Ages, while új vár means'new castle.' The castle stood near the village of Abaújvár.
Zemplén is named after its castle as well. The name is derived from the Slovak word zem or the Slavic zemlja, meaning'earth, ground' or'country.' The castle, like its name indicates, was a motte with earthen walls. Note that besides these three castles, there were other castles in the old counties which became the modern Borsod-Abaúj-Zemplén, such as the well-known Füzérvár; the county's coat of arms was created in 1991 from the coats of arms of the former counties now forming parts of Borsod-Abaúj-Zemplén. From left to right: Coat of arms of Abaúj-Torna county. – Coat of arms of Zemplén county. – Coat of arms of Borsod county. – Coat of arms of Gömör / Gömör-Kishont county. The flag is vertically divided into two equal sections, with the coat of arms on it, the county's name embroidered with gold thread under the coat of arms, its ratio is 2:1. The use of both coat of arms and flag is regulated by the county council. Borsod-Abaúj-Zemplén is one of the most geographically diverse areas of Hungary.
It lies where the Northern Mountains meet the Great Hungarian Plain, thus the northern parts of the county are mountainous – with some of the highest peaks and deepest caves in the country –, the southern parts are flat. The average temperature is lower than that of the country, the average humidity is higher The region holds the country's record for lowest temperature: −35 °C, February 16, 1940, the town of Görömböly-Tapolca Tisza, which forms a natural border between Borsod-Abaúj-Zemplén and Szabolcs-Szatmár-Bereg countries Sajó, a tributary to Tisza Bodrog, a tributary to Tisza Hernád, a tributary to Sajó Istállós-kő, Bükk Mountains Nagy-Milic, Zemplén Mountains Borsod-Abaúj-Zemplén county was created after World War II from the pre-1938 counties Borsod-Gömör-Kishont, Abaúj-Torna and Zemplén; the historical comitatus came into existence during the Middle Ages. Borsod county belonged to the Castle of Borsod, Abaúj belonged to the Castle of Újvár and Zemplén belonged to the Castle of Zemplén At this time the area of Borsod included the county Torna, Abaúj included the counties Sáros and Heves.
In the 12th century the former Abaúj comitatus was split into Abaúj, Heves and Sáros counties, while Torna was separated from Borsod. For the next hundreds of years the borders remained unchanged. About two third of the areas of these counties were royal property, the others were ruled by clans, for example the Miskóc clan The area was inhabited by castle serfs and foreign settlers By the 12th century more and more areas were owned by noble families and the Church. Most of Borsod was ruled by the Bors-Miskóc clan. By the 14th century most of the area was owned by oligarchs. To straighten his rule Charles Robert waged war against them. Palatine Amadé Aba was "de facto" ruler of Northern Hungary. Charles Robert betrayed and defeated Amadé in the Battle of Rozgony in 1312, gained power over Northern Hungary; the differences between towns and villages became important during the Anjou age of Hungary. In Borsod and Abaúj the Free Royal Town of Kassa and Miskolc emerged as the most important towns; the Castle of Diósgyőr had its prime under Louis the Great, it was one of the favourite residences of the royal family.
In the 16th century wine growing gained more importance. Today Tokaj-Hegyalja in Zemplén is one of the most important and famous wine districts of Hungary, home of the famous Tokay wine After the battle of Mohács, as the Turks occupied more and more of the Southern territories of Hungary, the area of Borsod-Abaúj-Zemplén, as the northernmost part of the country, became an important area. After the Turkish occupation ended, Hungary became part of the Habsburg empire, the area – because of its distance from Austria – was the main base of the res
Tard is a village in Borsod-Abaúj-Zemplén county, Hungary. Street map
Ottoman wars in Europe
The Ottoman wars in Europe were a series of military conflicts between the Ottoman Empire and various European states dating from the Late Middle Ages up through the early 20th century. The earliest conflicts began during the Byzantine–Ottoman wars, waged in Anatolia in the late 13th century before entering Europe in the mid 14th century, followed by the Bulgarian–Ottoman wars and the Serbian–Ottoman wars waged beginning in the mid 14th century. Much of this period was characterized by Ottoman expansion into the Balkans; the Ottoman Empire made further inroads into Central Europe in the 15th and 16th centuries, culminating in the peak of Ottoman territorial claims in Europe. The Ottoman–Venetian Wars spanned four centuries, starting in 1423 and lasting until 1718; this period witnessed the fall of Negroponte in 1470, the fall of Famagusta in 1571, the defeat of the Ottoman fleet at the Battle of Lepanto in 1571, the fall of Candia in 1669, the Venetian reconquest of Morea in the 1680s and its loss again in 1715.
The island of Corfu under Venetian rule remained the only Greek island not conquered by the Ottomans. In the late seventeenth century, European powers began to consolidate against the Ottomans and formed the Holy League, reversing a number of Ottoman land gains during the Great Turkish War of 1683–99. Ottoman armies were able to hold their own against their European rivals until the second half of the eighteenth century. In the nineteenth century the Ottomans were confronted with insurrection from their Serbian and Greek subjects; this occurred in tandem with the Russo-Turkish wars. The final retreat of Ottoman rule came with the First Balkan War, followed by the signing of the Treaty of Sèvres at the close of World War I. After striking a blow to the weakened Byzantine Empire in 1356, which provided it with Gallipoli as a basis for operations in Europe, the Ottoman Empire started its westward expansion into the European continent in the middle of the 14th century. Constantinople fell in 1453 after the Second Battle of Kosovo.
The remaining Greek states fell in 1461. In the latter half of the 14th century, the Ottoman Empire proceeded to advance north and west in the Balkans subordinating Thrace and much of Macedonia after the Battle of Maritsa in 1371. Sofia fell in 1382, followed by the capital of the Second Bulgarian Empire Tarnovgrad in 1393, the northwest remnants of the state after the Battle of Nicopolis in 1396. A significant opponent of the Ottomans, the young Serbian Empire, was worn down by a series of campaigns, notably in the Battle of Kosovo in 1389, in which the leaders of both armies were killed, which gained a central role in Serbian folklore as an epic battle and as the beginning of the end for medieval Serbia. Much of Serbia fell to the Ottomans by 1459, the Kingdom of Hungary made a partial reconquest in 1480, but it fell again by 1499. Territories of Serbian Empire were divided between Ottoman Empire, the Republic of Venice and Royal Hungary, with remaining territories being in some sort of a vassal status towards Hungary, until its own conquest.
The defeat in 1456 at the Siege of Nándorfehérvár held up Ottoman expansion into Catholic Europe for 70 years, though for one year the Italian port of Otranto was taken, in 1493 the Ottoman army raided Croatia and Styria. The Ottomans took much of Albania in the 1385 Battle of Savra; the 1444 League of Lezhë restored one part of Albania, until Ottomans captured complete territory of Albania after capture of Shkodër in 1479 and Durrës in 1501. The Ottomans faced the fiercest resistance from Albanians who gathered around their leader, George Castriot, son of a feudal nobleman, managed to fend off Ottoman attacks for more than 25 years, culminating at the siege of Shkodra in 1478–79, it has been argued that Albanian resilience halted the Ottoman advance along the Eastern flank of the Western Civilization, saving the Italian peninsula from Ottoman conquest. Sultan Mehmet II died in 1481 two years after the collapse of the Albanian resistance and one year after he launched an Italian campaign; the Ottoman Empire first reached Bosnia in 1388 where they were defeated by Bosnian forces in the Battle of Bileća and was forced to retreat.
After the fall of Serbia in 1389 Battle of Kosovo, where the Bosnians participated through Vlatko Vuković, the Turks began various offensives against the Kingdom of Bosnia. The Bosnians defended themselves but without much success; the Bosnians resisted in the Bosnian Royal castle of Jajce, where the last Bosnian king Stjepan Tomašević tried to repel the Turks. The Ottoman army conquered Jajce after a few months in 1463 and executed the last King of Bosnia, ending Medieval Bosnia; the House of Kosača held Herzegovina until 1482. After the fall of the Kingdom of Bosnia into Ottoman hands in 1463, the southern and central parts of the Kingdom of Croatia remained unprotected, the defense of, left to Croatian gentry who kept smaller troops in the fortified border areas at their own expense; the Ottomans meanwhile reached the river Neretva and, having conquered Herzegovina in 1482, they encroached upon Croatia, skillfully avoiding the fortified border towns. A decisive Ottoman victory at the Battle of Krbava Field shook all of Croatia.
However, it did not dissuade the Croats from making persistent attempts at defending themselves against the attacks of the superior Ottoman forces. After two hundred yea