Finland the Republic of Finland, is a country in Northern Europe bordering the Baltic Sea, Gulf of Bothnia, Gulf of Finland, between Norway to the north, Sweden to the northwest, Russia to the east. Finland is situated in the geographical region of Fennoscandia; the capital and largest city is Helsinki. Other major cities are Espoo, Tampere and Turku. Finland's population is 5.52 million, the majority of the population is concentrated in the southern region. 88.7% of the population is Finnish and speaks Finnish, a Uralic language unrelated to the Scandinavian languages. Finland is the eighth-largest country in Europe and the most sparsely populated country in the European Union; the sovereign state is a parliamentary republic with a central government based in the capital city of Helsinki, local governments in 311 municipalities, one autonomous region, the Åland Islands. Over 1.4 million people live in the Greater Helsinki metropolitan area, which produces one third of the country's GDP. Finland was inhabited when the last ice age ended 9000 BCE.
The first settlers left behind artefacts that present characteristics shared with those found in Estonia and Norway. The earliest people were hunter-gatherers; the first pottery appeared in 5200 BCE. The arrival of the Corded Ware culture in southern coastal Finland between 3000 and 2500 BCE may have coincided with the start of agriculture; the Bronze Age and Iron Age were characterised by extensive contacts with other cultures in the Fennoscandian and Baltic regions and the sedentary farming inhabitation increased towards the end of Iron Age. At the time Finland had three main cultural areas – Southwest Finland and Karelia – as reflected in contemporary jewellery. From the late 13th century, Finland became an integral part of Sweden through the Northern Crusades and the Swedish part-colonisation of coastal Finland, a legacy reflected in the prevalence of the Swedish language and its official status. In 1809, Finland was incorporated into the Russian Empire as the autonomous Grand Duchy of Finland.
In 1906, Finland became the first European state to grant all adult citizens the right to vote, the first in the world to give all adult citizens the right to run for public office. Following the 1917 Russian Revolution, Finland declared itself independent. In 1918, the fledgling state was divided by civil war, with the Bolshevik-leaning Red Guard supported by the new Soviet Russia, fighting the White Guard, supported by the German Empire. After a brief attempt to establish a kingdom, the country became a republic. During World War II, the Soviet Union sought to occupy Finland, with Finland losing parts of Karelia, Kuusamo and some islands, but retaining their independence. Finland established an official policy of neutrality; the Finno-Soviet Treaty of 1948 gave the Soviet Union some leverage in Finnish domestic politics during the Cold War era. Finland joined the OECD in 1969, the NATO Partnership for Peace in 1994, the European Union in 1995, the Euro-Atlantic Partnership Council in 1997, the Eurozone at its inception, in 1999.
Finland was a relative latecomer to industrialisation, remaining a agrarian country until the 1950s. After World War II, the Soviet Union demanded war reparations from Finland not only in money but in material, such as ships and machinery; this forced Finland to industrialise. It developed an advanced economy while building an extensive welfare state based on the Nordic model, resulting in widespread prosperity and one of the highest per capita incomes in the world. Finland is a top performer in numerous metrics of national performance, including education, economic competitiveness, civil liberties, quality of life, human development. In 2015, Finland was ranked first in the World Human Capital and the Press Freedom Index and as the most stable country in the world during 2011–2016 in the Fragile States Index, second in the Global Gender Gap Report, it ranked first on the World Happiness Report report for 2018 and 2019. A large majority of Finns are members of the Evangelical Lutheran Church, freedom of religion is guaranteed under the Finnish Constitution.
The earliest written appearance of the name Finland is thought to be on three runestones. Two have the inscription finlonti; the third was found in Gotland. It dates back to the 13th century; the name can be assumed to be related to the tribe name Finns, mentioned at first known time AD 98. The name Suomi has uncertain origins, but a candidate for a source is the Proto-Baltic word *źemē, meaning "land". In addition to the close relatives of Finnish, this name is used in the Baltic languages Latvian and Lithuanian. Alternatively, the Indo-European word * gʰm-on "man" has been suggested; the word referred only to the province of Finland Proper, to the northern coast of Gulf of Finland, with northern regions such as Ostrobothnia still sometimes being excluded until later. Earlier theories suggested derivation from suomaa or suoniemi, but these are now considered outdated; some have suggested common etymology with saame and Häme, but that theory is uncertain
A sink — known by other names including sinker, hand basin and wash basin—is a bowl-shaped plumbing fixture used for washing hands and other purposes. Sinks have taps that supply hot and cold water and may include a spray feature to be used for faster rinsing, they include a drain to remove used water. Sinks may have an integrated soap dispenser. Many sinks in kitchens, are installed adjacent to or inside a counter; when a sink becomes clogged, a person will resort to use a chemical drain cleaner or a plunger, though most professional plumbers will remove the clog with a drain auger. The washstand was a bathroom sink made in the United States in the late 18th century; the washstands were small tables on which were placed a pitcher and a deep bowl, following the English tradition. Sometimes the table had a hole which led to the making of dry sinks. From about 1820 to 1900 the dry sink evolved by the addition of a wooden cabinet with a trough built on the top, lined with zinc or lead; this is where the buckets for water were kept.
Splashboards were sometimes added to the back wall, as well as shelves and drawers, the more elaborate designs placed in the kitchen. Sinks are made of many different materials; these include: Stainless steel is used in kitchens and commercial applications because it represents a good trade-off between cost, usability and ease of cleaning. Most stainless steel sinks are made by drawing a sheet of stainless steel over a die; some deep sinks are fabricated by welding. Stainless steel sinks will not resist damage from impacts. One disadvantage of stainless steel is that, being made of thin metal, they tend to be noisier than most other sink materials, although better sinks apply a heavy coating of vibration-damping material to the underside of the sink. Enamel over cast iron is a popular material for bathroom sinks. Heavy and durable, these sinks can be manufactured in a wide range of shapes and colors. Like stainless steel, they are resistant to hot or cold objects, but they can be damaged by sharp impacts and once the glass surface is breached, the underlying cast iron will corrode, spalling off more of the glass.
Aggressive cleaning will dull the surface. Enamel over steel is a similar-appearing less cost-effective alternative. Solid ceramic sinks have many of the same characteristics as enamel over cast iron, but without the risk of surface damage leading to corrosion. Plastic sinks come in several basic forms: Inexpensive sinks are made using injection-molded thermoplastics; these are deep, free-standing sinks used in laundry rooms. Subject to damage by hot or sharp objects, the principal virtue of these sinks is their low cost. High-end acrylic drop-in and undermount sinks are becoming more popular, although they tend to be damaged by hard objects - like scouring a cast iron frying pan in the sink. Plastic sinks may be made from the same materials used to form "solid surface" countertops; these sinks are durable and can be molded with an integrated countertop or joined to a separate countertop in a seamless fashion, leading to no sink-to-countertop joint or a smooth sink-to-countertop joint that can not trap dirt or germs.
These sinks are subject to damage by hot objects but damaged areas can sometimes be sanded down to expose undamaged material. Soapstone sinks were once common, but today tend to be used only in very-high-end applications or applications that must resist caustic chemicals that would damage more-conventional sinks. Wood sinks are from the early days of sinks and baths were made from natural teak with no additional finishing. Teak is chosen because of its natural waterproofing properties – it has been used for hundreds of years in the marine industry for this reason. Teak has natural antiseptic properties, a bonus for its use in baths and sinks. Glass sinks: A current trend in bathroom design is the handmade glass sink which has become fashionable for wealthy homeowners. Stone sinks have been used for ages; some of the more popular stones used are: marble, onyx and soap stone on high end sinks. Glass and terrazzo sinks are designed for their aesthetic appeal and can be obtained in a wide variety of unusual shapes and colors such as floral shapes.
Concrete and terrazzo are also used in very-heavy-duty applications such as janitorial sinks. Self-rimming sinks sit in appropriately shaped holes cut in the countertop using a jigsaw or other cutter appropriate to the material at hand and are suspended by their rim; the rim inherently forms a close seal with the top surface of the countertop when the sink is clamped into the hole from below. Bottom-mount or under-mount sinks are installed below the countertop surface; the edge of the countertop material is exposed at the hole created for the sink. The sink is clamped to the bottom of the material from below. For bottom-mount sinks, silicone-based sealants are used to assure a waterproof joint between the sink and the countertop material. Advantages of an undermount sink include a contemporary look. No matter how the cut out is made
Imatra is a town and municipality in eastern Finland. Imatra is dominated by the Vuoksi River and the border with Russia. On the other side of the border, 7 kilometres away from the centre of Imatra, lies the Russian town of Svetogorsk. St Petersburg is situated 210 km to the southeast, Finland's capital Helsinki is 230 km away and Lappeenranta, the nearest Finnish town, is 37 km away. Imatra belongs to the region of South Karelia; the main employers are pulp and paper manufacturer Stora Enso Oyj, the Town of Imatra, engineering steel manufacturer Ovako Bar Oy Ab, the Finnish Border Guard. As of October 2003, the total number of employees was 12,423; as of December 2004, 1,868 employees were employed by the Town of Imatra. As of 24 April 2017, the mayor of Imatra is Rami Hasu. An Art Nouveau or Jugend style castle known as Imatran Valtionhotelli, was built near the rapids in 1903 as a hotel for tourists from the Russian Imperial capital Saint Petersburg. During the Continuation War, Carl Gustaf Emil Mannerheim met with Adolf Hitler in secrecy near the town for the former's 75th birthday.
Imatra was founded in 1948 on the territory of three municipalities – Jääski and Joutseno. Finland ceded 11% of its territory to the Soviet Union after the Winter War. Jääski lost 85% of its territory and it was decided that a new municipality, should be established on the remaining 15% of Jääski and some areas of Ruokolahti and Joutseno; this is why the Imatra coat of arms has three flashes – in honour of those previous municipalities that granted areas to it. It gained its municipal charter in 1971. PaSa Bandy is a bandy club in Imatra. Imatra is the birthplace of National Hockey League players Jussi Petteri Nokelainen. In motorsport history, Imatra is best known for its road races from 1963 to 1986. From 1962 to 1982 it was the home of the Finnish motorcycle Grand Prix. Racing on the Imatra road circuit ended after fatal accident during the 1986 European Championship event. Racing resumed in 2016 as an International Road Racing Championship event. Imatra is twinned with: Ludvika, Sweden Salzgitter, Germany Zvolen, Slovakia Tikhvin, Russia Szigetvár, Hungary Narva-Jõesuu, Estonia Imatra shooting Media related to Imatra at Wikimedia Commons Town of Imatra – Official site Imatra travel guide from Wikivoyage goSaimaa.com – Travel information about Imatra
Slatina is a town in the Slavonia region of Croatia. It is located in the Virovitica-Podravina County, at the contact of the Drava valley and the foothills of Papuk mountain, in the central part of the region of Podravina, 29 km southeast of Virovitica, it was ruled by Ottoman Empire between 1687, when it was captured by Austrian troops. During Ottoman rule it was part of Sanjak of Pojega between 1542 and 1601, latterly part of Sanjak of Rahoviçe between 1601 and 1687, it was district centre at Virovitica County in Kingdom of Croatia-Slavonia between 1868 and 1918. "Slatina" means "salt lake" in Croatian. However, there is no salt lake there any more; the population of the town is 10,152, with a total of 13,609 in the municipality, composed of the following settlements: In 2001, 85.5% of the population were Croats. Slatina official web site Slatina Tourist Board Slatina Radio Station Slatina.net – Independent City Portal
Sultan is a position with several historical meanings. It was an Arabic abstract noun meaning "strength", "authority", "rulership", derived from the verbal noun سلطة sulṭah, meaning "authority" or "power", it came to be used as the title of certain rulers who claimed full sovereignty in practical terms, albeit without claiming the overall caliphate, or to refer to a powerful governor of a province within the caliphate. The adjective form of the word is "sultanic", the dynasty and lands ruled by a sultan are referred to as a sultanate; the term is distinct from king, despite both referring to a sovereign ruler. The use of "sultan" is restricted to Muslim countries, where the title carries religious significance, contrasting the more secular king, used in both Muslim and non-Muslim countries. A feminine form of sultan, used by Westerners, is Sultana or Sultanah and this title has been used for some Muslim women monarchs and sultan's mothers and chief consorts; however and Ottoman Turkish uses sultan for imperial lady, as Turkish grammar—which is influenced by Persian grammar—uses the same words for both women and men.
However, this styling misconstrues the roles of wives of sultans. In a similar usage, the wife of a German field marshal might be styled Frau Feldmarschall; the female leaders in Muslim history are known as "sultanas". However, the wife of the sultan in the Sultanate of Sulu is styled as the "panguian" while the sultan's chief wife in many sultanates of Indonesia and Malaysia are known as "permaisuri", "Tunku Ampuan", "Raja Perempuan", or "Tengku Ampuan"; the queen consort in Brunei is known as Raja Isteri with the title of Pengiran Anak suffixed, should the queen consort be a royal princess. In recent years, "sultan" has been replaced by "king" by contemporary hereditary rulers who wish to emphasize their secular authority under the rule of law. A notable example is Morocco, whose monarch changed his title from sultan to king in 1957; these are secondary titles, either lofty'poetry' or with a message, e.g.: Mani Sultan = Manney Sultan - a subsidiary title, part of the full style of the Maharaja of Travancore Sultan of Sultans - the sultanic equivalent of the style King of Kings Certain secondary titles have a devout Islamic connotation.
Sultanic Highness - a rare, hybrid western-Islamic honorific style used by the son, daughter-in-law and daughters of Sultan Hussein Kamel of Egypt, who bore it with their primary titles of Prince or Princess, after 11 October 1917. They enjoyed these titles for life after the Royal Rescript regulating the styles and titles of the Royal House following Egypt's independence in 1922, when the sons and daughters of the newly styled king were granted the title Sahib us-Sumuw al-Malaki, or Royal Highness. Ghaznavid Sultanate. Sultans of Great Seljuk Seljuk Sultanate of Rum Sultans of the Ottoman Empire, the Osmanli Elisu Sultanate and a few others. A Sultan ranked below a Khan. in Syria: Ayyubid Sultans Mamluk Sultans in present-day Yemen, various small sultanates of the former British Aden Protectorate and South Arabia: Audhali, Haushabi, Lahej, Lower Aulaqi, Lower Yafa, Mahra, Qu'aiti, Upper Aulaqi, Upper Yafa and the Wahidi sultanates in present-day Saudi Arabia: Sultans of Nejd Sultans of the Hejaz Oman – Sultan of Oman, on the southern coast of the Arabian peninsula, still an independent sultanate, since 1744 in Algeria: sultanate of Tuggurt in Egypt: Ayyubid Sultans Mamluk Sultans in Morocco, until Mohammed V changed the style to Malik on 14 August 1957, maintaining the subsidiary style Amir al-Mu´minin in Sudan: Darfur Dar al-Masalit Dar Qimr Funj Sultanate of Sinnar Kordofan in Chad: Bagirmi Wada'i, successor state to Birgu Dar Sila Ajuran Sultanate, in southern Somalia and eastern Ethiopia Adal Sultanate, in northwestern Somalia, southern Djibouti, the Somali, Oromia and Afar regions of Ethiopia Majeerteen Sultanate, in northern Somalia Isaaq Sultanate, in northern Somalia Sultanate of the Geledi, in southern Somalia Sultanate of Aussa, in northeastern Ethiopia Sultanate of Harar, in eastern Ethiopia Sultanate of Hobyo, in central Somalia Sultanate of Ifat, in northern Somalia and eastern Ethiopia Sultanate of Mogadishu, in south-central Somalia Sultanate of Showa, in central Ethiopia Warsangali Sultanate, in northern Somalia Bimaal Sultanate, in south eastern Somalia centred in Merka Angoche Sultanate, on the Mozambiquan coast various sultans on the Comoros.
Sultanate of Zanzibar: two incumbents since the de
The Baroque is a ornate and extravagant style of architecture, painting and other arts that flourished in Europe from the early 17th until the mid-18th century. It preceded the Rococo and Neoclassical styles, it was encouraged by the Catholic Church as a means to counter the simplicity and austerity of Protestant architecture and music, though Lutheran Baroque art developed in parts of Europe as well. The Baroque style used contrast, exuberant detail, deep colour and surprise to achieve a sense of awe; the style began at the start of the 17th century in Rome spread to France, northern Italy and Portugal to Austria and southern Germany. By the 1730s, it had evolved into an more flamboyant style, called rocaille or Rococo, which appeared in France and central Europe until the mid to late 18th century; the English word baroque comes directly from the French, may have been adapted from the Portuguese term barroco, a flawed pearl. Both words are related to the Spanish term berruca; the term did not describe a style of music or art.
Prior to the 18th century, the French baroque and Portuguese barroco were terms related to jewelry, An example from 1531 uses the term to describe pearls in an inventory of Charles V's treasures. The word appears in a 1694 edition of Le Dictionnaire de l'Académie Française, which describes baroque as "only used for pearls that are imperfectly round." A 1728 Portuguese dictionary describes barroco as relating to a "coarse and uneven pearl."The French term for the artistic style may have had roots in the medieval Latin word baroco, a philosophical term, invented in the 13th century by scholastics to describe a complicated type of syllogism, or logical argument. In the 16th century the philosopher Michel de Montaigne associated the term'baroco' with "Bizarre and uselessly complicated." In the 18th century, the term was used to describe music, was not flattering. In an anonymous satirical review of the première of Jean-Philippe Rameau's Hippolyte et Aricie in October 1733, printed in the Mercure de France in May 1734, the critic wrote that the novelty in this opera was "du barocque", complaining that the music lacked coherent melody, was unsparing with dissonances changed key and meter, speedily ran through every compositional device.
In 1762, Le Dictionnaire de l'Académie Française wrote that the term could be used figuratively to describe something "irregular, bizarre or unequal."Jean-Jacques Rousseau, a musician and composer as well as philosopher, wrote in 1768 in the Encyclopédie: "Baroque music is that in which the harmony is confused, loaded with modulations and dissonances. The singing is harsh and unnatural, the intonation difficult, the movement limited, it appears that term comes from the word'baroco' used by logicians."In 1788, the term was defined by Quatremère de Quincy in the Encyclopédie Méthodique as "an architectural style, adorned and tormented". The terms "style baroque" and "musique baroque" appeared in Le Dictionnaire de l'Académie Française in 1835. By the mid-19th century, art critics and historians had adopted the term as a way to ridicule post-Renaissance art; this was the sense of the word as used in 1855 by the leading art historian Jacob Burkhardt, who wrote that baroque artists "despised and abused detail" because they lacked "respect for tradition."Alternatively, a derivation from the name of the Italian painter Federico Barocci has been suggested.
In 1888, the art historian Heinrich Wölfflin published the first serious academic work on the style, Renaissance und Barock, which described the differences between the painting and architecture of the Renaissance and the Baroque. The Baroque style of architecture was a result of doctrines adopted by the Catholic Church at the Council of Trent in 1545–63, in response to the Protestant Reformation; the first phase of the Counter-Reformation had imposed a severe, academic style on religious architecture, which had appealed to intellectuals but not the mass of churchgoers. The Council of Trent decided instead to appeal to a more popular audience, declared that the arts should communicate religious themes with direct and emotional involvement. Lutheran Baroque art developed as a confessional marker of identity, in response to the Great Iconoclasm of Calvinists. Baroque churches were designed with a large central space, where the worshippers could be close to the altar, with a dome or cupola high overhead, allowing light to illuminate the church below.
The dome was one of the central symbolic features of baroque architecture illustrating the union between the heavens and the earth, The inside of the cupola was lavishly decorated with paintings of angels and saints, with stucco statuettes of angels, giving the impression to those below of looking up at heaven. Another feature of baroque churches are the quadratura. Quadratura paintings of Atlantes below the cornices appear to be supporting the ceiling of the church. Unlike the painted ceilings of Michelangelo in the Sistine Chapel, which combined different scenes, each with its own perspective, to be looked at one at a time, the Baroque ceiling paintings were created so the viewer on the floor of the church would see the entire ceiling in correct perspective, as if the figures were real; the interiors of baroque churches became more and more ornate in the High Baroque, an
Andrássy is the name of a Hungarian noble family of ancient lineage, prominent in Hungarian history. The full family name is Andrássy de Krasznahorka. Csíkszentkirály is a town in modern-day Romania, now called Sâncrăieni, while Krásna Hôrka is a castle in Slovakia; the present head of the family is Count Gyula Andrássy de Csik-Szent-Király et Kraszna-Horka, who with his family resides in Canada. He married as his first wife the former Renate Hiller in 1958, with no issue, he married secondly in 1964 the former Lesley Trist. By his second wife, he has one son and one daughter, Ilona. Count Gyula Andrássy is the son of the late Count Mihály Andrássy and his late wife, née Countess Gabrielle Károlyi de Nagy-Károly; the paternal uncle of Count Gyula Andrássy was the late Count Imre Andrássy, who married firstly Edit Payer and secondly in 1919 at Stockholm, Stella Kuylenstierna. By his second wife, Count Imre Andrássy had one son, Imre Jr married to Lois Mitchell from 1959 until her death in 1977, two daughters, Maria "Vivi", who married in 1941 Count Pál Cziraky, Erzsébet "Bonzo", who married Aladár Olgyay.
Miklós Andrássy, Obergespan of Gemer Péter Andrássy, Obergespan of Gemer, son of Miklós Andrássy Baron István Andrássy, Hungarian general and brother of Péter Andrássy Baron József Andrássy Baron Károly Andrássy, became a Count in 1779 Count József Andrássy Count Károly Andrássy, Hungarian politician Count Gyula Andrássy, Hungarian statesman who served as Prime Minister of Hungary and Foreign Minister of Austria-Hungary Count Gyula Andrássy the Younger, son of Gyula Andrassy Andrássy Avenue in Budapest Andrássy Gyula German Language University of Budapest in Budapest Marek, Miroslav. "Andrássy genealogy". Genealogy. EU. History of the Krásna Hôrka Castle, hradkrasnahorka.sk