Szymon Jerzy Ziółkowski is a retired Polish hammer thrower and an Olympic gold medal winner from Sydney 2000. He won two gold medals at the World Championships, the first in Edmonton 2001 with a career best throw of 83.38 metres, the second in Helsinki 2005 after a retroactive disqualification of two Belarusians Tsikhan and Devyatovskyi in 2013. Before winning the 2000 Olympic gold medal he had won the gold medal at the 1994 World Junior Championships, finished tenth at the 1996 Olympic Games and fifth at the 1998 European Championships and competed at the 1995 and 1999 World Championships without reaching the final. After the 2001 season three low-key seasons followed, he competed at the 2004 Olympic Games without reaching the final. After the 2005 World Championships, he finished fifth at the 2006 European Championships, seventh at the 2007 World Championships and fifth at the 2008 Olympic Games. At the World Athletics Final he finished fifth in 2005, seventh in 2006 and eighth in 2007. In 2009 World Championships in Athletics in Berlin he won silver medal with the result of 79.30m finishing 50 cm behind the Olympic champion of Beijing Primož Kozmus.
As of 2015, he is a member of the Sejm. For his sport achievements, he received: Knight's Cross of the Order of Polonia Restituta in 2000. Officer's Cross of the Order of Polonia Restituta in 2009. Szymon Ziółkowski at IAAF
Szymon Szymonowic was a Polish Renaissance poet. He was known as "the Polish Pindar." Szymonowic studied in Poland and Belgium. From 1586 he was associated with Grand Hetman and Royal Chancellor Jan Zamoyski, with whom in 1593–1605 he organized the Zamojski Academy. In 1590 he was elevated to the nobility, with Kościesza coat-of-arms. A humanist fluent in Greek and Latin, Szymonowic wrote in Polish Sielanki, a work influenced by the pastoral poems of Virgil and Theocritus, he wrote plays in Latin, e.g. Castus Joseph and Pentesilea. Szymonowic is considered the last great poet of the Polish Renaissance, he was acquainted with the Scottish Latinist Thomas Seget of Seton. List of Poles Polish poetry List of Polish-language poets
A given name is a part of a person's personal name. It identifies a person, differentiates that person from the other members of a group who have a common surname; the term given name refers to the fact that the name is bestowed upon a person to a child by their parents at or close to the time of birth. A Christian name, a first name, given at baptism, is now typically given by the parents at birth. In informal situations, given names are used in a familiar and friendly manner. In more formal situations, a person's surname is more used—unless a distinction needs to be made between people with the same surname; the idioms "on a first-name basis" and "being on first-name terms" refer to the familiarity inherent in addressing someone by their given name. By contrast, a surname, inherited, is shared with other members of one's immediate family. Regnal names and religious or monastic names are special given names bestowed upon someone receiving a crown or entering a religious order; such a person typically becomes known chiefly by that name.
The order given name – family name known as the Western order, is used throughout most European countries and in countries that have cultures predominantly influenced by European culture, including North and South America. The order family name – given name known as the Eastern order, is used in East Asia, as well as in Southern and North-Eastern parts of India, in Hungary; this order is common in Austria and Bavaria, in France, Belgium and Italy because of the influence of bureaucracy, which puts the family name before the given name. In China and Korea, part of the given name may be shared among all members of a given generation within a family and extended family or families, in order to differentiate those generations from other generations; the order given name – father's family name – mother's family name is used in Spanish-speaking countries to acknowledge the families of both parents. Today the order can be changed in Spain and Uruguay using given name – mother's family name – father's family name.
The order given name – mother's family name – father's family name is used in Portuguese-speaking countries to acknowledge the families of both parents. In many Western cultures, people have more than one given name. One of those, not the first in succession might be used as the name which that person goes by, such as in the cases of John Edgar Hoover and Mary Barbara Hamilton Cartland. A child's given name or names are chosen by the parents soon after birth. If a name is not assigned at birth, one may be given at a naming ceremony, with family and friends in attendance. In most jurisdictions, a child's name at birth is a matter of public record, inscribed on a birth certificate, or its equivalent. In western cultures, people retain the same given name throughout their lives. However, in some cases these names may be changed by repute. People may change their names when immigrating from one country to another with different naming conventions. In certain jurisdictions, a government-appointed registrar of births may refuse to register a name that may cause a child harm, considered offensive or which are deemed impractical.
In France, the agency can refer the case to a local judge. Some jurisdictions, such as Sweden, restrict the spelling of names. Parents may choose a name because of its meaning; this may be a personal or familial meaning, such as giving a child the name of an admired person, or it may be an example of nominative determinism, in which the parents give the child a name that they believe will be lucky or favourable for the child. Given names most derive from the following categories: Aspirational personal traits. For example, the name Clement means "merciful". English examples include Faith and August. Occupations, for example George means "earth-worker", i.e. "farmer". Circumstances of birth, for example Thomas meaning "twin" or the Latin name Quintus, traditionally given to the fifth male child. Objects, for example Peter means "rock" and Edgar means "rich spear". Physical characteristics, for example Calvin means "bald". Variations on another name to change the sex of the name or to translate from another language.
Surnames, for example Winston and Ross. Such names can honour other branches of a family, where the surname would not otherwise be passed down. Places, for example Brittany and Lorraine. Time of birth, for example day of the week, as in Kofi Annan, whose given name means "born on Friday", or the holiday on which one was born, for example, the name Natalie meaning "born on Christmas day" in Latin. Tuesday, May, or June. Combination of the above, for example the Armenian name Sirvart means "love rose". In many cultures, given names are reused to commemorate ancestors or those who are admired, resulting in a limited repertoire of names that sometimes vary by orthography; the most familiar example of this, to Western readers, is the use of Biblical and saints' names in most of the Christian countries (with Ethiopia, in which names were ideals or abstractions
The Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth – formally, the Crown of the Kingdom of Poland and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania and, after 1791, the Commonwealth of Poland – was a dual state, a bi-confederation of Poland and Lithuania ruled by a common monarch, both King of Poland and Grand Duke of Lithuania. It was one of the largest and most populous countries of 16th– to 17th-century Europe. At its largest territorial extent, in the early 17th century, the Commonwealth covered 400,000 square miles and sustained a multi-ethnic population of 11 million; the Commonwealth was established by the Union of Lublin in July 1569, but the Crown of the Kingdom of Poland and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania had been in a de facto personal union since 1386 with the marriage of the Polish queen Hedwig and Lithuania's Grand Duke Jogaila, crowned King jure uxoris Władysław II Jagiełło of Poland. The First Partition of Poland in 1772 and the Second Partition of Poland in 1793 reduced the state's size and the Commonwealth collapsed as an independent state following the Third Partition of Poland in 1795.
The Union possessed many features unique among contemporary states. Its political system was characterized by strict checks upon monarchical power; these checks were enacted by a legislature controlled by the nobility. This idiosyncratic system was a precursor to modern concepts of democracy, constitutional monarchy, federation. Although the two component states of the Commonwealth were formally equal, Poland was the dominant partner in the union; the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth was marked by high levels of ethnic diversity and by relative religious tolerance, guaranteed by the Warsaw Confederation Act 1573. The Constitution of 1791 acknowledged Catholicism as the "dominant religion", unlike the Warsaw Confederation, but freedom of religion was still granted with it. After several decades of prosperity, it entered a period of protracted political and economic decline, its growing weakness led to its partitioning among its neighbors during the late 18th century. Shortly before its demise, the Commonwealth adopted a massive reform effort and enacted the May 3 Constitution—the first codified constitution in modern European history and the second in modern world history.
The official name of the state was The Kingdom of Poland and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania and the Latin term was used in international treaties and diplomacy. In the 17th century and it was known as the Most Serene Commonwealth of Poland, the Commonwealth of the Polish Kingdom, or the Commonwealth of Poland, its inhabitants referred to it in everyday speech as the "Rzeczpospolita". Western Europeans simply called it Poland and in most past and modern sources it is referred to as the Kingdom of Poland, or just Poland; the terms: the Commonwealth of Poland and the Commonwealth of Two Nations were used in the Reciprocal Guarantee of Two Nations. The English term'Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth' and German'Polen-Litauen' are seen as renderings of the Commonwealth of Two Nations variant. Other names include the Republic of Nobles and the First Commonwealth, the latter common in Polish historiography. Poland and Lithuania underwent an alternating series of wars and alliances during the 14th century and early 15th century.
Several agreements between the two were struck before the permanent 1569 Union of Lublin. This agreement was one of the signal achievements of Sigismund II Augustus, last monarch of the Jagiellon dynasty. Sigismund believed, his death in 1572 was followed by a three-year interregnum during which adjustments were made to the constitutional system. The Commonwealth reached its Golden Age in the early 17th century, its powerful parliament was dominated by nobles who were reluctant to get involved in the Thirty Years' War. The Commonwealth was able to hold its own against Sweden, the Tsardom of Russia, vassals of the Ottoman Empire, launched successful expansionist offensives against its neighbors. In several invasions during the Time of Troubles, Commonwealth troops entered Russia and managed to take Moscow and hold it from 27 September 1610 to 4 November 1612, when they were driven out after a siege. Commonwealth power began waning after a series of blows during the following decades. A major rebellion of Ukrainian Cossacks in the southeastern portion of the Commonwealth began in 1648.
It resulted in a Ukrainian request, under the terms of the Treaty of Pereyaslav, for protection by the Russian Tsar. Russian annexation of part of Ukraine supplanted Polish influence; the other blow to the Commonwealth was a Swedish invasion in 1655, known as the Deluge, supported by troops of Transylvanian Duke George II Rákóczi a
Szymon Buchbinder, or Simeon Buchbinder was a Polish painter of Jewish ancestry. Most of his works were genre and historical portraits done in small formats, he received his first lessons from his brother, Józef, an established artist, his senior by fourteen years. He took lessons with two local painters. From 1869 to 1871, he attended the "Warsaw School of Drawing", where he studied with Wojciech Gerson and Rafał Hadziewicz. After graduating, he was able to find a position as a designer at the Vienna State Opera. Two years he enrolled at the Vienna Academy of Fine Arts, under the direction of Eduard von Engerth, he was there until 1878. The following year, he moved to Kraków where he obtained a position in the studios of Jan Matejko at the Academy of Fine Arts. Matejko would refer to him as a "painter of great hope". In 1883, a scholarship enabled him to study in Munich. In 1897, he concentrated on doing portraits, he died there around 1908, although he may have lived until as late as 1924. He exhibited.
Tiberiu Alexa, Artiştii Şcolii Hollósy la Baia Mare: Szymon Buchbinder, Editura Centrul Artistic Baia Mare, 2010 ISBN 978-973-0073-54-6 Media related to Szymon Buchbinder at Wikimedia Commons
Law and Justice
Law and Justice is a national-conservative, Christian democratic political party in Poland. With 237 seats in the Sejm and 66 in the Senate, it is the largest party in the Polish parliament; the party was founded in 2001 by the Kaczyński twins and Jarosław. It was formed from part of the Solidarity Electoral Action, with the Christian democratic Centre Agreement forming the new party's core; the party won the 2005 election. Jarosław served as Prime Minister, before calling elections in 2007, in which the party came in second to Civic Platform. Several leading members, including sitting president Lech Kaczyński, died in a plane crash in 2010; the party programme is dominated by the Kaczyńskis' conservative and order agenda. It has embraced economic interventionism, while maintaining a conservative stance that in 2005 moved towards the Catholic Church; the party is solidarist and mildly Eurosceptic, shares similar political tactics with Hungary's Fidesz but with anti-Russian stances. PiS is a member of the Alliance of Reformists in Europe European political party.
The current sixteen PiS MEPs sit, as well as three other people elected from the PiS register, in the European Conservatives and Reformists group in the European Parliament. The party was created on a wave of popularity gained by late president of Poland Lech Kaczyński while heading the Polish Ministry of Justice in the AWS-led government, although local committees began appearing from 22 March 2001; the AWS itself was created from a diverse array of many small political parties. In the 2001 general election PiS gained 44 seats in the lower chamber of the Polish Parliament with 9.5% of votes. In 2002, Lech Kaczyński was elected mayor of Warsaw, he handed the party leadership to his twin brother in 2003. In the 2005 general election, PiS took first place with 27.0% of votes, which gave it 155 out of 460 seats in the Sejm and 49 out of 100 seats in the Senate. It was universally expected that the two largest parties, PiS and Civic Platform, would form a coalition government; the putative coalition parties had a falling out, related to a fierce contest for the Polish presidency.
In the end, Lech Kaczyński won the second round of the presidential election on 23 October 2005 with 54.0% of the vote, ahead of Donald Tusk, the PO candidate. After the 2005 elections, Jarosław should have become Prime Minister. However, in order to improve his brother's chances of winning the presidential election, PiS formed a minority government headed by Kazimierz Marcinkiewicz as prime minister, an arrangement that turned out to be unworkable. In July 2006 PiS formed a right-wing coalition government with the agrarian populist Self-Defense of the Republic of Poland and nationalist League of Polish Families, headed by Jarosław Kaczyński. Association with these parties, on the margins of Polish politics affected the reputation of PiS; when accusations of corruption and sexual harassment against Andrzej Lepper, the leader of Self Defense, surfaced, PiS chose to end the coalition and called for new elections. In the 2007 general election PiS managed to secure 32.1% of votes. Although an improvement over its showing from 2005, the results were a defeat for the party, as Civic Platform gathered 41.5%.
The party won 166 out of 39 seats in Poland's Senate. On 10 April 2010, its former leader crash. Jarosław Kaczyński becomes the sole leader of the party, he was the presidential candidate in the 2010 elections, lost again in the 2011 general election. The party won the 2015 parliamentary election, this time with an outright majority—something no Polish party had done since the fall of Communism. In the normal course of events, this should have made Jarosław Kaczyński prime minister for a second time. However, Beata Szydło, perceived as being somewhat more moderate than Kaczyński, had been tapped as PiS' candidate for prime minister; the Law and Justice government has been accused of posing a threat to the Polish liberal democratic system by majority of opposition groups. PiS' 2015 victory prompted creation of a cross-party opposition movement, the Committee for the Defence of Democracy. Law and Justice has supported controversial reforms carried out by the Hungarian Fidesz party, with Jarosław Kaczyński declaring in 2011 that "a day will come when we have a Budapest in Warsaw".
Proposed 2017 judicial reforms, which according to the party were meant to improve efficiency of the justice system, sparked protest as they were seen as undermining judicial independence. As of December 2017, the draft bill is being amended following a veto from President Andrzej Duda. In January 2010, a breakaway faction led by Jerzy Polaczek split from the party to form Poland Plus, its seven members of the Sejm came from the centrist, economically liberal wing of the party. On 24 September 2010, the group was disbanded, with most of its Sejm members, including Polaczek, returning to Law and Justice. On 16 November 2010, MPs Joanna Kluzik-Rostkowska, Elżbieta Jakubiak and Paweł Poncyljusz, MEPs Adam Bielan and Michał Kamiński formed a new political group, Poland Comes First. Kamiński said that the Justice party had been taken over by far-right extremists; the breakaway party formed following dissatisfaction with the leadership of Kaczyński. On 4 November 2011, MEPs Zbigniew Ziobro, Jacek Kurski, Tadeusz Cymański were e
Szymon Stanisław Giżyński is a Polish politician. He graduated from the Faculty of Philology at the University of Silesia in Katowice. After 1990, he was a member of the Centre Agreement, the Movement for the Commonwealth, AWS. In 2001 he joined the Justice, he was the last voivode of Częstochowa in 1997-1998. In 2006 he started for the office of the President of Częstochowa. In 2001, 2005, 2007, 2011 and 2015, he obtained a parliamentary mandate in the Częstochowa district. Szymon Stanisław Giżyński - parliamentary page - includes declarations of interest, voting record, transcripts of speeches