Chankillo is an ancient monumental complex in the Peruvian coastal desert, found in the Casma-Sechin basin in the Ancash Department of Peru. The ruins include the hilltop Chankillo fort, the nearby Thirteen Towers solar observatory, the Thirteen Towers have been interpreted as an astronomical observatory built in the 4th century BC. The culture that produced Chankillo is called the Casma/Sechin culture or the Sechin Complex, the site covers about four square kilometres and has been interpreted as a fortified temple. The regularly-spaced thirteen towers of Chankillo were constructed atop the ridge of a low hill running near north to south and are, to the east and west investigators designated two possible observation points. From these vantages, the 300m long spread of the towers along the horizon corresponds very closely to the rising and setting positions of the Sun over the year, the Thirteen Towers of Chankillo could be the earliest known observatory in the Americas. Inhabitants of Chankillo would have been able to determine an accurate date, acaray List of archaeoastronomical sites by country 3D reconstruction of the site Chankillo, Ancient Solar Observatory
Guitarrero Cave is located in the Callejón de Huaylas valley in Yungay Province, in the Ancash region of Peru. The cave stands 50 m above Rio Santa and 2,580 m meters above sea level, Guitarrero Cave has evidence of human use around 8,000 BCE and possibly as early as 10,560 BCE. A humans mandible and teeth found in the cave have been dated to 10,610 BCE. Above all that, there were a series of Archaic period campfires, bone and fiber cordage were among the artifacts that were recovered from the level, as well as willow leaf, tanged and concave base Ichuna/Arcata projectile points. A single grinding slab and a bone flesher were recovered from this part of the area, levels were included in the Early and Middle Horizon occupations, cist tombs, and wall paintings between about the 1000 BCE to 1000 CE. In the 1960s, archeologists discovered artifacts in a state of preservation at the site. Remarkably, textiles and leather tools, and basketry have been preserved intact, some of the evidence of early domesticated beans Phaseolus, chili and other cultivars have been argued for Guitarrero.
Fiberwork found in the dates back over ten-thousand years – the earliest found in South America. The cave held utilitarian containers made by twisting, the people of Guitarrero Cave are possible ancestors of the Chavín culture. Some of the earliest cultivated plants in South America have been found in the cave, first appears 7,000 BCE Maize or corn, possibly first traces but not conclusively identified from 6,200 BCE. Maize has been identified in the Ayacucho Region of south central Peru as early as 4,400 and 3,100 BCE, art of the Andes, from Chavín to Inca
Chan Chan, the largest city of the pre-Columbian era in South America, is now an archaeological site in La Libertad Region 5 kilometres west of Trujillo, Peru. Chan Chan is located in the mouth of the Moche Valley and was the capital of the empire of the Chimor from 900 to 1470. Chimor, a conquest state, developed from the Chimú culture which established itself along the Peruvian coast around 1400 AD, in the Chimú tongue, Chan Chan means Sun Sun, it was named for its sunny climate which is cooled year round by a southerly breeze. Chan Chan is in a particularly arid section of the desert of northern Peru. Due to the lack of rain in this area, the source of water for Chan Chan is in the form of rivers carrying surface runoff from the Andes. This runoff allows for control of land and water through irrigation systems, the city of Chan Chan spanned 20 km² and had a dense urban center of 6 km² which contained extravagant ciudadelas. Ciudadelas were large architectural masterpieces which housed plazas, the splendor of these ciudadelas suggests their association with the royal class.
Housing for the classes of Chan Chans hierarchical society are known as small. Because the lower classes were often artisans whose role in the empire was to produce crafts, many of these SIARs were used as workshops. In this figure, it can be seen that Verlarde and Bandelier form the border of Chan Chan while Uhle, Tschudi. The location chosen for the coordinates is in the center of these cities, the name is probabilly derived from the Quingnam Jiang or Chang which means Sun, from which Chan-Chan would be literally, Sun-Sun. It is hypothesized that its meaning would be, Great sun, resplendent Sun. Another theory says that the name would derive from the term, the Shi voice translates as Moon and An as house, meaning House of the Moon, making known that the Moon was the main deity. Chan Chan is believed to have been constructed around 850 AD by the Chimú and it was the Chimor empire capital city with an estimated population of 40, 000-60,000 people. After the Inca conquered the Chimú around 1470 AD, Chan Chan fell into decline, in 1535 AD, Francisco Pizarro founded the Spanish city of Trujillo which pushed Chan Chan further into the shadows.
While no longer a capital city, Chan Chan was still well known for its great riches and was consequently looted by the Spaniards. An indication of the great Chimú wealth is seen in a sixteenth century list of items looted from a tomb in Chan Chan. In 1969, Michael Moseley and Carol J. Mackey began excavations of Chan Chan, the plan was approved by the Peruvian Government
Cahuachi, in Peru, was a major ceremonial center of the Nazca culture, based from 1 AD to about 500 AD in the coastal area of the Central Andes. It overlooked some of the Nazca lines, the Italian archaeologist Giuseppe Orefici has been excavating at the site for the past few decades. The site contains over 40 mounds topped with adobe structures, the past several years long time researcher Omar Faizi has conducted in depth study of the Nazca lines with startling conclusions to his study. Scholars once thought the site was the capital of the Nazca state but have determined that the permanent population was quite small and they believe that it was a pilgrimage center, whose population increased greatly in relation to major ceremonial events. New research has suggested that 40 of the mounds were natural hills modified to appear as artificial constructions, looting is the greatest problem facing the site today. Most of the burial sites surrounding Cahuachi were not known until recently and are tempting targets for looters, the Cahuachi site is located near the south coast of Peru, and found in the Nazca Valley.
Within the Nazca Valley is the Río Grande de Nazca drainage system and is where the Nasca culture developed, the area is ecologically classified as “pre-mountain desert formation. Yunga refers to the Quechua Yungas meaning warm valley, the site itself can be found on the southern side of the Nazca River, one of ten major tributaries that form the Río Grande de Nazca drainage system. The Nazca Valley Grande drainage area is dry in the summer. Precipitation varies between none and 125 mm, the Río Grande regions soils are available for irrigation agriculture with limitations. Cahuachi is located off of the bottom of the treeless hills and terraces beneath Pampa de Atarco. It is on these hills that formed the core majority of artificial constructions at Cahuachi. Dr. Frabee was the first to acknowledge and excavate the site of Cahuachi in the Nazca region in 1922. The following researchers have studied and interpreted the site, Tello, Strong. Among the most extensive research done at Cahuachi was the conducted by William Strong.
Strong was one of the archaeologists who took a broad approach to the site, contextualizing it within Nasca society. He set out to find evidence that would resolve the gap between Paracas and Nasca styles in the region. He did settlement pattern studies in order to out the kinds of activities that went on at Cahuachi
Peru, officially the Republic of Peru, is a country in western South America. It is bordered in the north by Ecuador and Colombia, in the east by Brazil, in the southeast by Bolivia, in the south by Chile, and in the west by the Pacific Ocean. Peruvian territory was home to ancient cultures spanning from the Norte Chico civilization in Caral, one of the oldest in the world, to the Inca Empire, the largest state in Pre-Columbian America. The Spanish Empire conquered the region in the 16th century and established a Viceroyalty with its capital in Lima, ideas of political autonomy spread throughout Spanish America and Peru gained its independence, which was formally proclaimed in 1821. After the battle of Ayacucho, three years after proclamation, Peru ensured its independence, the country has undergone changes in government from oligarchic to democratic systems. Peru has gone through periods of political unrest and internal conflict as well as periods of stability, Peru is a representative democratic republic divided into 25 regions.
It is a country with a high Human Development Index score. Its main economic activities include mining, manufacturing and fishing, the Peruvian population, estimated at 31.2 million in 2015, is multiethnic, including Amerindians, Europeans and Asians. The main spoken language is Spanish, although a significant number of Peruvians speak Quechua or other native languages and this mixture of cultural traditions has resulted in a wide diversity of expressions in fields such as art, cuisine and music. The name of the country may be derived from Birú, the name of a ruler who lived near the Bay of San Miguel, Panama. When his possessions were visited by Spanish explorers in 1522, they were the southernmost part of the New World yet known to Europeans, when Francisco Pizarro explored the regions farther south, they came to be designated Birú or Perú. An alternative history is provided by the contemporary writer Inca Garcilasco de la Vega, son of an Inca princess, the Spanish Crown gave the name legal status with the 1529 Capitulación de Toledo, which designated the newly encountered Inca Empire as the province of Peru.
Under Spanish rule, the country adopted the denomination Viceroyalty of Peru, the earliest evidences of human presence in Peruvian territory have been dated to approximately 9,000 BC. Andean societies were based on agriculture, using such as irrigation and terracing, camelid husbandry. Organization relied on reciprocity and redistribution because these societies had no notion of market or money, the oldest known complex society in Peru, the Norte Chico civilization, flourished along the coast of the Pacific Ocean between 3,000 and 1,800 BC. These early developments were followed by archaeological cultures that developed mostly around the coastal, the Cupisnique culture which flourished from around 1000 to 200 BC along what is now Perus Pacific Coast was an example of early pre-Incan culture. The Chavín culture that developed from 1500 to 300 BC was probably more of a religious than a political phenomenon, on the coast, these included the civilizations of the Paracas, Nazca and the more outstanding Chimu and Mochica.
Their capital was at Chan Chan outside of modern-day Trujillo, in the 15th century, the Incas emerged as a powerful state which, in the span of a century, formed the largest empire in pre-Columbian America with their capital in Cusco
Huaca de la Luna
Huaca de la Luna is a large adobe brick structure built mainly by the Moche people of northern Peru. Along with the Huaca del Sol, the Huaca de la Luna is part of Huacas de Moche, the Huacas de Moche site is located 4 km outside the modern city of Trujillo, near the mouth of the Moche River valley. The Huaca de la Luna, though it is the smaller of the two huacas at the site, has yielded the most archaeological information. The Huaca del Sol was partially destroyed and looted by Spanish conquistadors in the 17th century, archeologists believe that the Huaca del Sol may have served for administrative and residential functions, as well as a burial mound for the Moche elite. The Huaca de la Luna served primarily a ceremonial and religious function, today the Huaca de la Luna is colored the soft brown of its adobe brickwork. At the time of construction, it was decorated in registers of murals which were painted in black, bright red, sky blue, the sun and weather has since utterly faded these murals away.
Inside the Huaca are other murals created in earlier phases of construction, many of these depict a deity now known as Ayapec. Ayapec is a pre-Quechua word translating as all knowing, wrinkle-Face is the name given to another deity by the Inca because of the deitys appearance. Many of the bricks used in the structure bear one of over 100 different markings. Each team was assigned a mark to put on their bricks. The Huaca de la Luna is a complex of three main platforms, each one serving a different function. The northernmost platform, at one time decorated with a variety of murals. The surviving central and southern platforms have been the focus of most excavations, the central platform has yielded multiple high-status burials interred with a variety of fine ceramics, suggesting that it was used as a burial ground for the Moche religious elite. The grave goods found at the Huaca del Sol suggest it may have used for the interment of political rulers. The eastern platform, black rock and adjacent patios were the sites of human sacrifice rituals and these are depicted in a variety of Moche visual arts, most notably painted ceramics.
After the sacrifice, bodies of victims would be hurled over the side of the Huaca and left exposed in the patios. Researchers have discovered multiple skeletons of adult males at the foot of the rock, all of whom show signs of trauma, usually a severe blow to the head, the World Monuments Fund has been working at Huaca de la Luna to support needed conservation work. This includes ongoing assessments, documentation and consolidation of excavated architectural, el Brujo Moche culture Huanchaco Trujillo, Peru Art of the Andes, from Chavin to Inca
Choquequirao, Chuqi Kiraw or Chuqikiraw is an Incan site in south Peru, similar in structure and architecture to Machu Picchu. The ruins are buildings and terraces at levels above and below Sunchu Pata, the hilltop was anciently leveled and ringed with stones to create a 30 by 50 m platform. Choquequirao at an elevation of 3,050 metres ) is in the spurs of the Vilcabamba mountain range in the Santa Teresa district, the complex is 1,800 hectares, of which 30–40% is excavated. The site overlooks the Apurimac River canyon which has an elevation of 1,450 metres, the site is reached by a two-day hike from outside Cusco. Choquequirao has topped in the prestigious Lonely Planets Best in Travel 2017 Top Regions list, Choquequirao is a 15th and 16th century settlement associated with the Incan Empire, or more correctly Tahuantinsuyo. The site had two major growth stages and this could be explained if Pachacuti founded Choquequirao and his son, Tupac Inca Yupanqui and extended it after becoming the Sapa Inca.
Choquequirao is located in the considered to be Pachacuti’s estate. Other sites in this area are Sayhuite, Machu Picchu, Chachabamba and Guamanmarca, the architectural style of several important features appears to be of Chachapoya design, suggesting that Chachapoya workers were probably involved in the construction. This suggests that Tupaq Inka probably ordered the construction, colonial documents suggest that Tupac Inca ruled Choquequirao since his great grandson, Tupa Sayri, claimed ownership of the site and neighboring lands during Spanish colonization. It was one of the last bastions of resistance and refuge of the Son of the Sun, Manco Inca Yupanqui, spreading over 700 meters, the ceremonial area drops as much as 65 meters from the elevated areas to the main square. The city played an important role as a link between the Amazon Jungle and the city of Cusco, Choquequirao is situated at an elevation of 3,000 m above sea level on a southwest-facing spur of a glaciated peak above the Apurimac River.
The region is characterized by mountain topography and covered with Amazonian flora and it is 98 km west of Cusco, in the Vilcabamba range. Architecturally it is similar to Machu Picchu, there is a conglomeration of common buildings clustered away from the plaza. Excavations and surface items suggest they were used for workshops. Most buildings are well-preserved and well-restored, restoration continues, the terrain around the site was greatly modified. The central area of the site was leveled artificially and the hillsides were terraced to allow cultivation. The typical Inca terraces form the largest constructions on site, many of the ceremonial structures are associated with water. There are two unusual temple waka sites that lie several hundred meters lower than the two plazas and these are carefully crafted step terraces down a steep slope are designed around water
This article is about the archaeological site. Caral is the most ancient city of the Americas and a site of the Norte Chico civilization. Caral was inhabited roughly between the 26th and 20th centuries BCE, enclosing an area of more than 60 hectares. Caral was described by its excavators as the oldest urban center in the Americas, accommodating more than 3000 inhabitants, it is the best studied and one of the largest Norte Chico sites known. Ruth Shady further explored the 4, 000- to 4, 600-year-old city of temples in the Peruvian desert, with its complex of temples. The urban complex is spread out over 150 acres and contains plazas, Caral was a thriving metropolis at roughly the same time that Egypts great pyramids were being built. It is believed that Caral may answer questions about the origins of the Andean civilizations, among the artefacts found at Caral are a knotted textile piece that the excavators have labeled a quipu. Evidence has emerged that the quipu may have recorded logographic information in the way writing does.
Gary Urton has suggested that the quipus used a system which could record phonological or logographic data. The main temple complex is 150 meters long,110 meters wide and 28 meters high, the date of its construction is unknown. No trace of warfare has been found at Caral, no battlements, no weapons, ruth Shadys findings suggest it was a gentle society, built on commerce and pleasure. In one of the temples, they uncovered 32 flutes made of condor and pelican bones and 37 cornetts of deer, one find revealed the remains of a baby and buried with a necklace made of stone beads. Caral spawns 19 other temple complexes scattered across the 35 square miles area of the Supe Valley, the find of the quipu indicates that the Inca Empire preserved some cultural continuity from the Caral civilization. The date of 2627 BCE is based on carbon dating reed and these bags were used to carry the stones that were used for the construction of the temples. The material is an excellent candidate for dating, thus allowing for a high precision, the site may date even earlier as samples from the oldest parts of the excavation have yet to be dated.
The town had a population of approximately 3000 people, there are 19 other sites in the area, allowing for a possible total population of 20,000 people for the Supe Valley. All of these sites in the Supe valley share similarities with Caral and they had small platforms or stone circles. In 2000, Marco Machacuay and his colleague, Rocío Aramburú and this image, known as a geoglyph, is located on the desert floor just west of the main site at Caral