The Bishorn is a mountain in the Pennine Alps in Switzerland, just north of the Weisshorn. The mountain has two summits, separated by a 600-metre easy-angled snow ridge. The west and higher summit, first ascent by G. S. Barnes and R. Chessyre-Walker with guides Joseph Imboden, the east summit, first ascent by Elizabeth Burnaby with guides Joseph Imboden and Peter Sarbach on 6 May 1884. Huts serving the peak are the Cabane de Tracuit and the Turtmann hut, access to both huts is snow-free in summertime. The Tracuit hut is accessed from the Zinal valley, a long and demanding walk of around five hours from the village to the hut. The Turtmann hut is used for climbing the Barrhorn and the Brunegghorn. Note that climbing the Bishorn from the Turtmann hut requires a far longer glacier walk through sections with numerous crevasses, the access roads to the huts are from the Rhone valley in the north. The road to Zinal starts at Sierre, and the road starts from Turtmann village. In both cases these are good and attractive mountain roads typical of the area, dumler and Willi P.
Burkhardt, The High Mountains of the Alps, Diadem,1994 The Bishorn on SummitPost
The Monte Rosa and the lower Gornergrat at 3,090 m. Monte Rosa is one of the high mountains surrounding the 40 km long Matter Valley south of Stalden. On the southwest to west are Liskamm, Zwillinge with Castor and Pollux, the Breithorn and the Matterhorn, on the north are the Weisshorn, there are no convenient mode of subdividing the range. However the natural limits of the district can be defined on the side by the two branches of the Visp torrent. Within the line so traced, exceeding 450 km in length, the direction of the ranges and the depressions offers a marked contrast to that prevailing throughout the adjoining regions of the Alps. Unless in a part of the Italian valleys, the direction here is either parallel or perpendicular to the meridian. The minor ridges on the side of the border are parallel to this latter range, with their corresponding depressions occupied by the glaciers of Gorner. On clear days the mountainous massif of Monte Rosa provides a view from the Po plain, particularly its upper reaches in western Lombardy.
It dominates the horizon, towering between other lesser Alpine peaks as a prominent, multi-pointed, razor-sharp bulge, its permanent glaciers shining under the sun, - John Ball The massif is the border between Switzerland and Italy, though glacial melt has caused some alterations to the border. These changes were ratified by the two countries in 2009 and will continue to be subject to change as melting continues, the entire massif consists mainly of granite and granite gneiss. Rocks in the paragneiss of the Monte Rosa Nappe record eclogite-facies metamorphism, the deformation of the Monte Rosa granites indicates a depth of subduction of about 60 km. They were brought to the surface by uplift, which still continues today. The summit is a sharp, jagged edge of mica schist connected by an arête with the Nordend, being the highest point in Switzerland, Monte Rosa is one of the most extreme places. The average air pressure is about half of that of the sea level, the snow line is located at about 3,000 metres.
The Monte Rosa massif is popular for mountaineering, hiking and snowboarding and it hosts several ski resorts with long pistes. Plateau Rosa, about 3,500 metres high sea level, is a renowned summer ski resort. The Plateau Rosa is connected via aerial tramway to Cervinia and to Zermatt via the Klein Matterhorn, the western fringes of the massif reach the Zermatt ski domain. Gressoney, Alagna Valsesia and Macugnaga are the main mountain, the Tour of Monte Rosa can be effected by trekkers in about 10 days. The circuit follows many ancient trails that have linked the Swiss, the circuit includes larch forests, alpine meadows, balcony trails and a glacial crossing
Castor is a mountain in the Pennine Alps on the border between Valais and the Aosta Valley in Italy. It is the higher of a pair of peaks, the other being Pollux. Castors peak is at an elevation of 4,223 m and it is separated from Pollux by a pass at 3,847 m, named Passo di Verra in Italian and Zwillingsjoch in German. Ascents are usually made from the alpine hut Capanna Quintino Sella on the Italian side, by means of the Felikjoch, from the Swiss side, ascents start from Klein Matterhorn and go by way of the Italian glacier Grand Glacier of Verra and the mountains west flank. The first ascent was made on August 23,1861, Castor and Pollux are a pair of summits in Yellowstone National Park in Wyoming, USA. Located in the Absaroka Range, Castor is 3,308 m,65 m lower than its twin
Switzerland, officially the Swiss Confederation, is a federal republic in Europe. It consists of 26 cantons, and the city of Bern is the seat of the federal authorities. The country is situated in western-Central Europe, and is bordered by Italy to the south, France to the west, Germany to the north, and Austria and Liechtenstein to the east. Switzerland is a country geographically divided between the Alps, the Swiss Plateau and the Jura, spanning an area of 41,285 km2. The establishment of the Old Swiss Confederacy dates to the medieval period, resulting from a series of military successes against Austria. Swiss independence from the Holy Roman Empire was formally recognized in the Peace of Westphalia in 1648. The country has a history of armed neutrality going back to the Reformation, it has not been in a state of war internationally since 1815, nevertheless, it pursues an active foreign policy and is frequently involved in peace-building processes around the world. In addition to being the birthplace of the Red Cross, Switzerland is home to international organisations.
On the European level, it is a member of the European Free Trade Association. However, it participates in the Schengen Area and the European Single Market through bilateral treaties, spanning the intersection of Germanic and Romance Europe, Switzerland comprises four main linguistic and cultural regions, French and Romansh. Due to its diversity, Switzerland is known by a variety of native names, Suisse, Svizzera. On coins and stamps, Latin is used instead of the four living languages, Switzerland is one of the most developed countries in the world, with the highest nominal wealth per adult and the eighth-highest per capita gross domestic product according to the IMF. Zürich and Geneva have each been ranked among the top cities in the world in terms of quality of life, with the former ranked second globally, according to Mercer. The English name Switzerland is a compound containing Switzer, a term for the Swiss. The English adjective Swiss is a loan from French Suisse, in use since the 16th century.
The name Switzer is from the Alemannic Schwiizer, in origin an inhabitant of Schwyz and its associated territory, the Swiss began to adopt the name for themselves after the Swabian War of 1499, used alongside the term for Confederates, used since the 14th century. The data code for Switzerland, CH, is derived from Latin Confoederatio Helvetica. The toponym Schwyz itself was first attested in 972, as Old High German Suittes, ultimately related to swedan ‘to burn’
The Gorner Glacier is a valley glacier found on the west side of the Monte Rosa massif close to Zermatt in the canton of Valais, Switzerland. It is about 12.4 km long and 1 to 1.5 km wide, the entire glacial area of the glacier related to Gorner Glacier is 57 km2, which makes it the second largest glacial system in the Alps after the Aletsch Glacier system. Numerous smaller glaciers connect with the Gorner Glacier and its tributaries are, Monte Rosa Gletscher, Zwillingsgletscher, Schwärzegletscher, Breithorngletscher and Unterer Theodulgletscher. The Grenzgletscher between the central Monte Rosa massif and the Liskamm to the south is nowadays by far the lower Gorner Glaciers main tributary, the Gorner Glaciers upper part is almost already disconnected from its lower part. Also the former tributaries Breithorngletscher and Unterer Theodulgletscher left their connections to the Gorner Glacier during the last century, the Lower Theodul Glacier in the 1980s. An interesting feature of this glacier is the Gornersee, an ice marginal lake at the area of the Gorner-.
This lake fills every year and drains in summer, usually as a Glacial lake outburst flood and this is one of few glacial lakes in the Alps exhibiting this kind of behaviour. There are several interesting features including crevasses and table top forms where large surface boulders have been left stranded above the glaciers surface. Supported by ice that the boulder has sheltered from melting that has effected the more exposed surrounding ice, due to the immense information about the glacier, it is perfect for a glacier project. It is the source of the river Gornera which flows down through Zermatt itself, most of its water gets captured by a water catchment station of the Grande Dixence hydroelectric power plant. This water ends up in the Lac des Dix, the reservoir of Grande Dixence. The glacier as well as the mountains can be seen from the Gornergrat. Like almost all glaciers in the Alps, and most glaciers on the globe as well. And in a dramatic way. Nowadays, Gorner Glacier retreats with about 30 metres every year, since its last major expansion in 1859 it lost more than 2,500 metres in distance.
However, the upper Gorner Glacier traditionally is to be found on the north side, the reason is that the upper part of the Gorner Glacier is currently losing contact with its lower part and now the Grenzgletscher has become its much larger tributary. So it is easy to mismatch the Border Glacier as the upper Gorner Glacier, but this was not the case in earlier times, as the following comparison impressively shows, List of glaciers in Switzerland Gorner Glacier glaciology. ethz. ch Gorner Glacier swisseduc. ch
The Gornergrat is a rocky ridge of the Pennine Alps, overlooking the Gorner Glacier south-east of Zermatt in Switzerland. It can be reached from Zermatt by the Gornergrat rack railway and it is located about three kilometers east of Zermatt in the Swiss canton of Valais. This is the last stop of the Gornergrat train, opened in 1898, at the terminus on the south-western tip of the ridge is a hotel. The station forms part of the Zermatt ski area, at the west side of the Gorner Ridge, nearby the Rotenboden railway station is the peak Riffelhorn. Gornergratbahn Riffelalptram List of mountains of Switzerland accessible by public transport Media related to Gornergrat at Wikimedia Commons
The Matter Valley is located in southwestern Switzerland, south of the Rhone valley in the canton of Valais. The village of Zermatt is the most important settlement of the valley, located in the Pennine Alps, the Matter Valley is drained by the Matter Vispa, a tributary of the Rhone. The valley itself ends at Stalden where it meets the Saas Valley, the resulting Visp Valley continues for a few kilometres until it reaches the town of Visp on the young river Rhone. The valley starts between the high summits south of Zermatt on the border with Italy. The upper side is glaciated, the second largest glacier of the Alps, around the village of Randa are located the Weisshorn and the Dom. The difference of height between the talweg and the summits on both side reaches over 3 km, the total length of the valley is about 40 km. 5,600 inhabitants, is the largest and highest town in the valley, St. Niklaus follows with 2,400 inhabitants. Between them are located the villages of Täsch and Randa. The villages of Grächen, Embd and Törbel are located above the valley, located at the end of the valley, is the lowest village.
Since the end of the century the upper end of the valley is connected by rail from Visp. If the main road connect Zermatt from Visp, it cannot be used between Täsch and Zermatt, the latter being completely car-free, since 1930 the valley is directly connected to St. Moritz by the Glacier Express panoramic train
The Zinalrothorn is a mountain in the Pennine Alps in Switzerland. Its name comes from the village of Zinal lying on the north side, when it was first climbed in 1864 the mountain was known locally as Moming. The Zinalrothorn is one of the high summits separating the Matter valley on the east, the summit of the Weisshorn is located 5 km to the north and the Dent Blanche 7 km to the west. At the western foot of the lies the large Zinal Glacier and, on the northern side. LEpaule is a minor summit lying at the base of the northern ridge, the villages of Täsch and Zermatt are the closest while Zinal on the north-west is located further. The first ascent was made on 22 August 1864 via the ridge by Leslie Stephen and Florence Crauford Grove with guides Jakob Anderegg. They left Zinal at 1 a. m. and ascended the Zinal Glacier, the reached the shoulder from the ridge connecting the Blanc de Moming at the base of the northern ridge at 9 a. m. The traverse of the ridge to the summit took them 2 hours, the first winter and ski ascent was by Marcel Kurz and T.
Theytaz on 7 February 1914. In the 1880s Mrs Aubrey Le Blond, the first president of the Ladies Alpine Club, to preserve her modesty, she made the decision to climb the mountain a second time to retrieve it rather than return to Zermatt in trousers