St. Niklaus, Switzerland
St. Niklaus is a village and a municipality in the Mattertal, part of the district of Visp in the canton of Valais in Switzerland. St. Niklaus is first mentioned in 1233 as chousun, in 1272 it was mentioned as ecclesia Sancti Nicholai de Chouson, Gebreitun de Gazun,1388 in villa sti nicolai de chosun, niu a fr Saint-Nicolas. Josef Marie Lochmatter, his best friend Peter Knubel, his brother-in-law Alois Pollinger, and Josef Imboden and they had a monopoly on Matterhorn ascents. Moreover, as the first Swiss guide, Peter Knubel climbed a mountain outside the Alps in 1874, Alois Pollinger invented the double-rope system of descent with. He used this technique with success at the Ridge of Ferpècle, Josef Imboden was the first Swiss to ascend a 6,000 meter-high in the Himalayas in 1883, where we find the highest mountains in the world. The fathers trained the sons early in their expeditions. The initiators of the new school came out of their ranks for the time, a fact that gave a new input to alpinism.
They werent satisfied to climb a mountain, but they always chose more and more difficult routes. They were the first ski-guides and were pioneers overseas, the mountain guides of St. Niklaus have effected about 300 first ascents a little bit everywhere in the world. In 1995 a monument for all guides of St. Niklaus was built, moreover, in 2000 a museum of the mountain guides was opened in St. Niklaus. St. Niklaus has an area, as of 2011, of 89.3 square kilometers, of this area,9. 8% is used for agricultural purposes, while 21. 5% is forested. Of the rest of the land,1. 5% is settled and 67. 2% is unproductive land, the municipality is located in the Visp district. It is the settlement in the Matter valley. It consists of the settlements of Riedmatten, Stalu, Ze Schwidernu, Herbriggen, Breitmatten on the valley floor and the alpine settlement of Gasenried on the eastern slope. St Niklaus sits in the Mattertal, the valley that runs from Stalden to Zermatt. There are several footpath nets for Alpine hikers leading up on the mountains, the closest hut is the Topali hut at the west side of the village.
The Bordier hut at the east side can be accessed easily from St Niklaus, the highest mountain close to St Niklaus is Brunegghorn, reaching almost 4,000 m. In 1866 the municipality was created through the merger of St. Niklaus Dorf, the municipality is a stop on section of the Matterhorn Gotthard Bahn between Visp railway station and Zermatt railway station
The Matter Valley is located in southwestern Switzerland, south of the Rhone valley in the canton of Valais. The village of Zermatt is the most important settlement of the valley, located in the Pennine Alps, the Matter Valley is drained by the Matter Vispa, a tributary of the Rhone. The valley itself ends at Stalden where it meets the Saas Valley, the resulting Visp Valley continues for a few kilometres until it reaches the town of Visp on the young river Rhone. The valley starts between the high summits south of Zermatt on the border with Italy. The upper side is glaciated, the second largest glacier of the Alps, around the village of Randa are located the Weisshorn and the Dom. The difference of height between the talweg and the summits on both side reaches over 3 km, the total length of the valley is about 40 km. 5,600 inhabitants, is the largest and highest town in the valley, St. Niklaus follows with 2,400 inhabitants. Between them are located the villages of Täsch and Randa. The villages of Grächen, Embd and Törbel are located above the valley, located at the end of the valley, is the lowest village.
Since the end of the century the upper end of the valley is connected by rail from Visp. If the main road connect Zermatt from Visp, it cannot be used between Täsch and Zermatt, the latter being completely car-free, since 1930 the valley is directly connected to St. Moritz by the Glacier Express panoramic train
The Haute Route, is the name given to a route undertaken on foot or by ski touring between Chamonix in France and Zermatt in Switzerland. Originally dubbed The High Level Route in English by members of the hiking club, since the French term has prevailed. While the term haute route has become genericized for any of the many multi-day, hut-to-hut alpine tours. Besides the original Haute Route, there is a Walkers Haute Route. The Walkers route stays below 3000 meters and takes advantage of the mountain huts and small inns. The original Haute Route has large portions of travel, for which suitable mountaineering gear. In the winter, ski touring gear is required, and depending upon the weather and route chosen, may require crampons, there is occasionally a danger of collapsing glaciers which can render the path virtually impassable. However, a lower level variation exists that avoids crossing glaciers, majority of hikers complete it in 12-16 days First successfully completed in 1911, The Haute Route ski tour is probably the most famous and coveted ski tour in the world.
Using high mountain huts to allow skiers to stay high and cover substantial distances and it requires good weather, favourable snow conditions and strong effort to complete this line. Because of this, roughly half of the skiers who begin the tour do not complete it, there are many variations of the HLR that work their way between Chamonix and Zermatt, including those listed below. It is possible to add ascents of a number of ski peaks to any of the routes, the winter Haute Route deviates from the summer route to avoid terrain that is dangerous or impassable when snow-covered. Many people ski the Haute Route in the direction, by variations that select better ascent. Lionel Claudepierre, a member of PGHM of Bourg Saint Maurice, the winter Haute Routes original line which involves long climbs and mountaineering with ice axe and crampons. Day 1, Argentiere village, over the Col du Chardonnet, day 2, Champex-Lac via the Val dArpette. Day 3, Long climb up to the Valsorey Hut on the shoulder of Grand Combin, day 4, Over the Plateau du Couloir and down the Glacier du Mont Durand to the Chanrion Hut.
Day 5, A long climb up the Otemma Glacier to the Vignettes Hut, day 6, A long day to Zermatt over the Col de lEvêque, Col du Mont Brulé and Col de Valpelline, a long descent under the shoulder of the Matterhorn and Dent dHerens. Day 7, Optional extension to Saas-Fee over the Adler Pass, the purest skiing line, and the most frequently done. Day 1, Argentière, over the Col du Chardonnet, day 2, Champex-Lac via the Val dArpette
Zermatt is a municipality in the district of Visp in the German-speaking section of the canton of Valais in Switzerland. It has a population of about 5,800 inhabitants, the town lies at the upper end of Mattertal at an elevation of 1,620 m, at the foot of Switzerlands highest peaks. It lies about 10 km from the over 10,800 ft high Theodul Pass bordering Italy, Zermatt is famed as a mountaineering and ski resort of the Swiss Alps. The year round population is 5,759, though there may be several times as many tourists in Zermatt at any one time. Much of the economy is based on tourism, with about half of the jobs in town in hotels or restaurants. Just over one-third of the permanent population was born in the town, the name of Zermatt, as well as that of the Matterhorn itself, derives from the alpine meadows, or matten, in the valley. The name appeared first as Zur Matte and became Zermatt and it does not appear until 1495 on a map or 1546 in a text, but may have been employed long before. Praborno or Prato Borno are the names of Zermatt, they appear in the ancient maps as early as the thirteenth century.
The Romand-speaking people from the Aosta Valley and from the Romand-speaking part of canton Wallis used this name until about 1860 in the form of Praborne, the reason of this change from Praborno to Zermatt is attributed to the gradual replacement of the Romance-speaking people by German-speaking colony. The town of Zermatt lies at the end of the Matter Valley. Zermatt is almost completely surrounded by the mountains of the Pennine Alps among which Monte Rosa. It is followed by the Dom, Lyskamm and the Matterhorn, most of the Alpine four-thousanders are located around Zermatt or in the neighbouring valleys. The town of Zermatt, while dense, is geographically small, there are three main streets which run along the banks of the river Matter Vispa, and numerous cross-streets, especially around the station and the church which forms the centre of Zermatt. In general anything is at most a thirty-minute walk away, there are several suburbs within Zermatt. Winkelmatten, which was once a hamlet, lies on a hill on the southern side.
Steinmatten is located on the bank of the main river. Many hamlets are located in the valleys above Zermatt, however they are not usually inhabited all year round, zum See lies south of Zermatt on the west bank of the Gorner gorge, near Furi where a cable car station is located. On the side of Zmutt valley lies the hamlet of Zmutt, findeln is located in the eastern valley above the Findelbach river
The Monte Rosa and the lower Gornergrat at 3,090 m. Monte Rosa is one of the high mountains surrounding the 40 km long Matter Valley south of Stalden. On the southwest to west are Liskamm, Zwillinge with Castor and Pollux, the Breithorn and the Matterhorn, on the north are the Weisshorn, there are no convenient mode of subdividing the range. However the natural limits of the district can be defined on the side by the two branches of the Visp torrent. Within the line so traced, exceeding 450 km in length, the direction of the ranges and the depressions offers a marked contrast to that prevailing throughout the adjoining regions of the Alps. Unless in a part of the Italian valleys, the direction here is either parallel or perpendicular to the meridian. The minor ridges on the side of the border are parallel to this latter range, with their corresponding depressions occupied by the glaciers of Gorner. On clear days the mountainous massif of Monte Rosa provides a view from the Po plain, particularly its upper reaches in western Lombardy.
It dominates the horizon, towering between other lesser Alpine peaks as a prominent, multi-pointed, razor-sharp bulge, its permanent glaciers shining under the sun, - John Ball The massif is the border between Switzerland and Italy, though glacial melt has caused some alterations to the border. These changes were ratified by the two countries in 2009 and will continue to be subject to change as melting continues, the entire massif consists mainly of granite and granite gneiss. Rocks in the paragneiss of the Monte Rosa Nappe record eclogite-facies metamorphism, the deformation of the Monte Rosa granites indicates a depth of subduction of about 60 km. They were brought to the surface by uplift, which still continues today. The summit is a sharp, jagged edge of mica schist connected by an arête with the Nordend, being the highest point in Switzerland, Monte Rosa is one of the most extreme places. The average air pressure is about half of that of the sea level, the snow line is located at about 3,000 metres.
The Monte Rosa massif is popular for mountaineering, hiking and snowboarding and it hosts several ski resorts with long pistes. Plateau Rosa, about 3,500 metres high sea level, is a renowned summer ski resort. The Plateau Rosa is connected via aerial tramway to Cervinia and to Zermatt via the Klein Matterhorn, the western fringes of the massif reach the Zermatt ski domain. Gressoney, Alagna Valsesia and Macugnaga are the main mountain, the Tour of Monte Rosa can be effected by trekkers in about 10 days. The circuit follows many ancient trails that have linked the Swiss, the circuit includes larch forests, alpine meadows, balcony trails and a glacial crossing
The Breithorn is a mountain range of the Pennine Alps with its highest peak of the same name, located on the border between Switzerland and Italy. It lies on the chain of the Alps, approximately halfway between the Matterhorn and Monte Rosa and east of the Theodul Pass. Most of the massif is glaciated and includes several peaks, all located east of the main summit, the Central Breithorn, the western Breithorn Twin, the Gendarm. The main summit is distinguished by the name Western Breithorn. The nearest settlements are Zermatt and St-Jacques, the Breithorn is considered the most easily climbed 4,000 m Alpine peak. This is due to the Klein Matterhorn cable car which takes climbers to over 3,820 m from Zermatt for a starting point. The standard route is from the Italian side of the mountain, inexperienced mountaineers may run into severe difficulty if caution is not taken near cornices or in bad weather. For experienced climbers wanting more of a challenge, the traverse of the Breithorn crest is another option.
The Breithorn was first climbed in 1813 by Henry Maynard, Joseph-Marie Couttet, Jean Gras, Jean-Baptiste Erin, media related to Breithorn at Wikimedia Commons Breithorn on SummitPost Breithorn on Peakware - photos Breithorn on 4000er. de Breithorn on WinterClimb. com - photos, practical info
Lyskamm, known as Silberbast, is a mountain in the Pennine Alps lying on the border between Switzerland and Italy. It consists of a ridge with two distinct peaks. The mountain has gained a reputation for seriousness because of the many cornices lying on the ridge, because of its modest prominence, Liskamm is sometimes considered to be part of the extended Monte Rosa group. The northern side of the mountain is an impressive 1,100 metres ice-covered wall, the gentler southern side rises only a few hundred metres above the glacier of the same name, Lysgletscher. The eastern and higher of the two peaks is 4,527 m, and was first ascended in 1861 from the Lisjoch up the east ridge by a 14-man team led by J. F. Hardy, others in the party included A. C. Ramsey, F. Sibson, T. Rennison, J. A. Hudson, C. H. Pilkington, the guides were Franz Josef Lochmatter of St. Niklaus in the canton Valais, J. -P. Cachet, K. Kerr, S. Zumtaugwald, P. and J. -M, the ridge as a whole was first traversed three years by Leslie Stephen, Edward N.
Buxton, Jakob Anderegg and Franz Biener. The first attempt to climb the imposing north-east face was made in 1880 by the brothers Kalbermatten and they were carried down to the glacier by an avalanche but they survived the accident. On 9 August 1890, L. Norman-Neruda with guides Christian Klucker and J. Reinstadler were the first to reach the summit by the north face, the first winter ascent of this route was made on 11 March 1956 by C. In 1907, Geoffrey Winthrop Young and his guide traversed the whole ridge two times, Young wanted to traverse the ridge from the Nordend to the Breithorn. They started from Riffelalp at midnight and finished the traverse of the Monte Rosa massif at midday, but after the traverse of the Liskamm and Castor the guide was too tired. Young, who was disappointed, convinced him to go back by the Lisjoch before descending to Zermatt. Young even wanted to back to the Nordend but his guide refused to prolong the journey. The normal route starts from the Lisjoch, which can be accessed from the Gnifetti Hut or from the Monte Rosa Hut, the route follows the route taken by the first ascensionist.
The mountain is climbed as a traverse from the Feliksjoch. The traverse consists mostly of a narrow, snow-covered ridge, with some scrambling over rocks. W. E. Hall The fatal accident on the Lyskamm, Alpine Journal,5, 23–32 Liskamm on Peakbagger. com Liskamm on SummitPost Italian route account from south - Czech and English
Castor is a mountain in the Pennine Alps on the border between Valais and the Aosta Valley in Italy. It is the higher of a pair of peaks, the other being Pollux. Castors peak is at an elevation of 4,223 m and it is separated from Pollux by a pass at 3,847 m, named Passo di Verra in Italian and Zwillingsjoch in German. Ascents are usually made from the alpine hut Capanna Quintino Sella on the Italian side, by means of the Felikjoch, from the Swiss side, ascents start from Klein Matterhorn and go by way of the Italian glacier Grand Glacier of Verra and the mountains west flank. The first ascent was made on August 23,1861, Castor and Pollux are a pair of summits in Yellowstone National Park in Wyoming, USA. Located in the Absaroka Range, Castor is 3,308 m,65 m lower than its twin
Zmutt is a small village in the municipality of Zermatt, Switzerland, situated at 1936 m in the Zmutt Valley west of Zermatt. The village chapel is dedicated to Saint Catherine of Alexandria, patroness of the Valais, the valley passes the northern slope of the Matterhorn and terminates in the Zmutt Glacier on the border to Italys Aosta Valley. The Zmutt dam at 46°0′28″N 7°42′34″E, constructed in 1964, has a height of 74 m and this dam is fed by waters from the Bis and Gorner Glacier