Budapest is the capital and the most populous city of Hungary, the tenth-largest city in the European Union by population within city limits. The city had an estimated population of 1,752,704 in 2016 distributed over a land area of about 525 square kilometres. Budapest is both a city and county, forms the centre of the Budapest metropolitan area, which has an area of 7,626 square kilometres and a population of 3,303,786, comprising 33 percent of the population of Hungary; the history of Budapest began when an early Celtic settlement transformed into the Roman town of Aquincum, the capital of Lower Pannonia. The Hungarians arrived in the territory in the late 9th century; the area was pillaged by the Mongols in 1241. Buda, the settlements on the west bank of the river, became one of the centres of Renaissance humanist culture by the 15th century; the Battle of Mohács in 1526 was followed by nearly 150 years of Ottoman rule. After the reconquest of Buda in 1686, the region entered a new age of prosperity.
Pest-Buda became a global city with the unification of Buda, Óbuda, Pest on 17 November 1873, with the name'Budapest' given to the new capital. Budapest became the co-capital of the Austro-Hungarian Empire, a great power that dissolved in 1918, following World War I; the city was the focal point of the Hungarian Revolution of 1848, the Battle of Budapest in 1945, the Hungarian Revolution of 1956. Budapest is an Alpha − global city with strengths in commerce, media, fashion, technology and entertainment, it is Hungary's financial centre and the highest ranked Central and Eastern European city on Innovation Cities Top 100 index, as well ranked as the second fastest-developing urban economy in Europe. Budapest is the headquarters of the European Institute of Innovation and Technology, the European Police College and the first foreign office of the China Investment Promotion Agency. Over 40 colleges and universities are located in Budapest, including the Eötvös Loránd University, the Semmelweis University and the Budapest University of Technology and Economics.
Opened in 1896, the city's subway system, the Budapest Metro, serves 1.27 million, while the Budapest Tram Network serves 1.08 million passengers daily. Budapest is cited as one of the most beautiful cities in Europe, ranked as "the world's second best city" by Condé Nast Traveler, "Europe's 7th most idyllic place to live" by Forbes. Among Budapest's important museums and cultural institutions is the Museum of Fine Arts. Further famous cultural institutions are the Hungarian National Museum, House of Terror, Franz Liszt Academy of Music, Hungarian State Opera House and National Széchényi Library; the central area of the city along the Danube River is classified as a UNESCO World Heritage Site and has many notable monuments, including the Hungarian Parliament, Buda Castle, Fisherman's Bastion, Gresham Palace, Széchenyi Chain Bridge, Matthias Church and the Liberty Statue. Other famous landmarks include Andrássy Avenue, St. Stephen's Basilica, Heroes' Square, the Great Market Hall, the Nyugati Railway Station built by the Eiffel Company of Paris in 1877 and the second-oldest metro line in the world, the Millennium Underground Railway.
The city has around 80 geothermal springs, the largest thermal water cave system, second largest synagogue, third largest Parliament building in the world. Budapest attracts 4.4 million international tourists per year, making it a popular destination in Europe. The separate towns of Buda, Óbuda, Pest were in 1873 unified and given the new name Budapest. Before this, the towns together had sometimes been referred to colloquially as "Pest-Buda". Pest has been sometimes used colloquially as a shortened name for Budapest. All varieties of English pronounce the -s- as in the English word pest; the -u in Buda- is pronounced either /u/ like food or /ju/ like cue. In Hungarian, the -s- is pronounced /ʃ/ as in wash; the origins of the names "Buda" and "Pest" are obscure. The first name comes from: Buda was the name of the first constable of the fortress built on the Castle Hill in the 11th century or a derivative of Bod or Bud, a personal name of Turkic origin, meaning'twig'. or a Slavic personal name, the short form of Budimír, Budivoj.
Linguistically, however, a German origin through the Slavic derivative вода is not possible, there is no certainty that a Turkic word comes from the word buta ~ buda'branch, twig'. According to a legend recorded in chronicles from the Middle Ages, "Buda" comes from the name of its founder, brother of Hunnic ruler Attila. There are several theories about Pest. One states that the name derives from Roman times, since there was a local fortress called by Ptolemaios "Pession". Another has it that Pest originates in the Slavic word for пещера, or peštera. A third cites pešt, referencing a cave where fires burned or a limekiln; the first settlement on the territory of Budapest was built by Celts before 1 AD. It was occupied by the Romans; the Roman settlement – Aquincum – became the main city of Pannonia Inferior in 106 AD. At first it was a military settlement, the city rose around it, making it the focal point of the city's commercial life. Today this area corresponds to the Óbuda district within Budapest.
The Romans constructed roads, amphitheaters and houses with heated floors in this fortified military camp. The Roman city of Aquincum is the best-conserved of the Roman sites in Hungary; the archaeological site was turned into a museum with open-air sections. The Magyar tribes led by Árpád, forc
Order of Merit of the Republic of Hungary
The Hungarian Order of Merit is the second highest State Order of Hungary. Founded in 1991, the order is a revival of an original order founded in 1946 and abolished in 1949, its origins can be traced to the Order of Merit of the Kingdom of Hungary which existed from 1922 until 1946. Since 2011, the Order of Saint Stephen of Hungary is the highest State Order of Hungary; the civil division is divided into six classes of merit, whilst the military division is divided into five. The highest class, the Grand Cross with Chain, is exclusive to the civilian division and is only awarded to heads of state. Below the Order of Merit in precedence is the Hungarian Cross of Merit, with three classes for both military and civilians; the medal of the Order is made on the features of the ancient Royal Order of Saint Stephen of Hungary: it consists of a white-enamelled cross edged with green, showing a central circular medallion enamelled in red showing the coat of arms of Hungary, surrounded by a wreath of green enamel.
The star is mounted on a golden radiant star. The ribbon is green with a red stripe and a white stripe for the civil class, while it is red with a green stripe and a white stripe for the military class. State Decorations, Office of the President of Hungary Hungary: Hungarian Order of Merit, Medals of the World 1991 XXXI law enacting the order
Yana Volodymyrivna Shemyakina is a Ukrainian épée fencer, Olympic champion at the 2012 Summer Olympics, bronze medallist at the 2014 World Championships and European champion in 2005. Shemyakina was raised in Lviv, Ukraine, she is the second of a family of three children: she has a brother six years older than her, a sister, Lyubov. Her family was not into sports: her brother had tried a few swimming lessons, but did not get into it. Shemyakina first tried ski at the age of nine. At the end of a lesson, after a few months' training, she attempted a harder downhill course than she was used to, fell and broke her leg, her absence had gone unnoticed and she stayed alone in the snow for a long time freezing, before she was found by chance and taken to the hospital. After Shemyakina recovered from her skiing accident, a friend suggested, she began training under Andriy Orlikovsky, who remains her coach as of 2015, took to the sport. She soon showed talent, her parents were doubtful at first of their daughter's sport ambitions, as they did not believe she could make a living off it, but her coach encouraged her to go on.
She went on to earn a silver medal at the 2005 Junior Fencing Championships. Shemyakina began fencing in the senior category in the 2002–03 season, she climbed the podium at her second World Cup event with a bronze medal in Katowice. This result had her selected into the senior national team at the age of seventeen for the 2003 World Fencing Championships, she created a surprise at the 2005 European Championships by reaching the final after defeating Romania's Iuliana Măceșeanu. She prevailed over Hungary's Hajnalka Tóth to win her first major title. Shemyakina took part in the 2007 Summer Universiade in Bangkok and won the individual event after defeating Israel's Noam Mills. For this result she was awarded the Ukrainian Order of Merit III degree by Ukrainian President Viktor Yushchenko. A year after she qualified to the 2008 Summer Olympics by reaching the final at the European zone qualifier held in Prague; the 2008 European Championships held at home in Kiev were a major disappointment: she lost four pool bouts and did not qualify for the main table.
For her Olympic début in Beijing she was defeated in the first round by Panama's Jesika Jiménez. After the Games, Shemyakina took a bronze medal at the 2009 European Championships after losing in the semifinals to Olympic champion Britta Heidemann. In the 2009–10 season she won her first World Cup event in Doha and proceeded to earn a silver medal in Lobnya and a bronze in Nanjing; these results, along with a quarter-final finish at the 2008 European Championships, allowed her to finish the season World No.6. She earned her ticket to the 2012 Summer Olympics in London as a member of the top-ranked European team in positions 5–16. In the individual event she saw off 2009 World champion Lyubov Shutova, she beat World No.1 Ana Maria Brânză and reigning European champion Simona Gherman, both by a single hit. She defeated China's Sun Yujie in the semifinals overcame Beijing Olympic champion Britta Heidemann to win the Olympic title. In the team event Ukraine lost to Russia in the first round to Germany and Italy, finished last.
Shemyakina ended the 2011–12 season World no.2, a career best as of 2015. For her Olympic performance she was awarded a second Ukrainian Order of Merit III degree by President Viktor Yanukovych, she was named “Person of the Year”. After the London Olympics, Shemyakina took a break to focus on life outside of sport, she competed in four World Cup events, winning the Budapest Grand Prix, but did not take part in the 2013 European Championships nor in the 2013 World Championships. The 2013–14 season she posted a second place at the Leipzig World Cup and a quarter-final finish at the Saint-Maur World Cup. At the 2014 European Championships in Strasbourg she lost in the quarter-finals to Romania's Simona Gherman, whom she had defeated in London at the same stage of the competition, but gained a spot in the Top 16, which qualifies for exemption from the pool phase in competitions. At the 2014 World Championships in Kazan she reached the semi-finals, where she lost to Italy's Rossella Fiamingo and took a bronze medal.
In the 2014 -- 15 season she won a bronze medal at the Barcelona World Cup. Shemyakina married fencing coach Oleg Lopatenko in May 2013, she is a student at the Lviv State University of Physical Culture. Profile at the European Fencing Confederation Olympics results at Sports Reference
Britta Heidemann is a German épée fencer. At the age of 14 being a successful athlete and swimmer, Britta Heidemann had her first contact with fencing in a variation of modern pentathlon called Friesenkampf. After first switching to modern pentathlon, at the end of 2000, she began to specialize in fencing. In 2001, she became junior European champion. In 2002, she reached third place in 2003 second with the team. In 2004, she won third place with the team in the Fencing World Cup. During the 2004 Summer Olympics in Athens, she won the silver medal in the team with Claudia Bokel and Imke Duplitzer. In 2007, she became world champion in singles in Saint Petersburg and at the 2008 Summer Olympics in Beijing, she won the gold medal in the individual competitions. A year in 2009, Heidemann secured the European championship title, thus becoming the first épée fencer to hold all three major titles at once. In 2011, she became German épée champion. Heidemann progressed to the finals of the individual competition of the 2012 Summer Olympics in London but lost to Ukraine's Yana Shemyakina.
Britta Heidemann donates time to the Bundesliga Foundation, a charity that sponsors health and integration projects. She supports the EU initiative "Youth on the Move" as well as the campaign "Kinderträume 2011". Heidemann lives in Cologne. Germany at the 2012 Summer Olympics Erfolg ist eine Frage der Haltung: Was Sie vom Fechten für das Leben lernen können. Ariston, München 2011, ISBN 978-3424200614 Official website Britta Heidemann at FIE Britta Heidemann at the International Olympic Committee Britta Heidemann at the Deutscher Olympischer Sportbund Entry in the Who's Who of Leverkusen
Fédération Internationale d'Escrime
The Fédération Internationale d'Escrime known by the acronym FIE, is the international governing body of Olympic fencing. Today, its head office is at the Maison du Sport International in Switzerland; the FIE is composed of 153 national federations, each of, recognized by its country's Olympic Committee as the sole representative of Olympic-style fencing in that country. Since its inception in 1913, there have been fourteen different presidents; the current president of the federation is Alisher Usmanov. The Fédération Internationale d'Escrime is the heir of the Société d'encouragement de l'escrime founded in France in 1882, which took part in the global movement of structuring sport; the first international fencing congress was held in Brussels, Belgium in 1897 at the instigation of the Fédération belge des cercles d'escrime, followed by another one in Paris in 1900. At this occasion the Société organised one of the first international fencing events. Dissensions arose between epeists and foilists, which held the majority at the Société.
The third congress held in Brussels in 1905 voted the creation of an international fencing committee whose mission would be of fostering friendship amongst all fencers, establishing national rules, supporting the organization of fencing competitions. The 3rd congress adopted the French rules as the basis for upcoming international competitions. New tensions appeared, this time about the regulatory weapon grip, they led to the boycott by France of the fencing events of the 1912 Olympic Games. A new international congress was called together in Ghent, Belgium, in July 1913; the main matter was the adoption of international regulations for each of the three weapons. The French rules were adopted in foil. Frenchman René Lacroix campaigned for the creation of an international fencing federation; the Fédération Internationale d'Escrime was founded on November 29, 1913, in the conference rooms of the Automobile Club de France in Paris. The nine founding nations were Belgium, France, Great Britain, Italy, the Netherlands, Norway.
Albert Feyerick, president of the Federation of fencing clubs of Belgium, was elected as the first president. The FIE held its first congress on June 23, 1914 and accepted the adhesion of seven new countries: Austria, Monaco, Russia and the United States. Competitions organized by the FIE include the senior World Championships and World Cup, the Junior World Championships and Junior World Cup, the Cadets World Championships and the Veterans World Championships; the FIE delegates to regional confederations the organization of the zone championships. The FIE assists the International Olympic Committee in the organization of fencing events at the Summer Olympics; the number of events is a matter of contention between the FIE and the CIO since the introduction of women's sabre at the 1999 World Championships: since the World Championships feature twelve events–an individual and a team weapon for each of the three weapons, for men and for women. However, the CIO refuses to increase the number of Olympic medals allocated to fencing.
After much dithering the FIE decided to organize all six individual events, but only four team events decided on a rotational basis. The two team events excluded from the Olympic programme, one for men and one for women, compete instead in World championships. A list of FIE presidents from 1913 to the present: As of 2012, the FIE recognizes 145 affiliated national federations. Note: As of 7 July 2012, the Netherlands Antilles is still listed as an FIE Member nation and 146 member nations are listed on the FIE's membership page. However, after the country was dissolved, it lost its National Olympic Committee status in 2011. At the 2012 Olympics, athletes from the former Netherlands Antilles were eligible to participate as independent athletes under the Olympic flag. Ottogalli, Cécile. L'Histoire de l'escrime. 1913–2013, un siècle de Fédération internationale d'escrime. Biarritz: Atlantica. ISBN 978-2-7588-0485-7. FIE100. Official website Olympics, FIE records History of fencing FIE calendar Results of FIE competitions FIE rules FIE Magazines FIE press releases
2000 Summer Olympics
The 2000 Summer Olympic Games known as the Games of the XXVII Olympiad and known as Sydney 2000 or the Millennium Olympic Games/Games of the New Millennium, were an international multi-sport event, held between 15 September and 1 October 2000 in Sydney, New South Wales, Australia. It was the second time that the Summer Olympics were held in Australia, the Southern Hemisphere, the first being in Melbourne, Victoria, in 1956. Sydney was selected as the host city for the 2000 Games in 1993. Teams from 199 countries participated; the Games’ cost was estimated to be A$6.6 billion. The Games received universal acclaim, with the organisation, volunteers and Australian public being lauded in the international media. Bill Bryson from The Times called the Sydney Games "one of the most successful events on the world stage", saying that they "couldn't be better". James Mossop of the Electronic Telegraph called the Games "such a success that any city considering bidding for future Olympics must be wondering how it can reach the standards set by Sydney", while Jack Todd in the Montreal Gazette suggested that the "IOC should quit while it's ahead.
Admit there can never be a better Olympic Games, be done with it," as "Sydney was both exceptional and the best". In preparing for the 2012 Olympic Games in London, Lord Coe declared the Sydney Games the "benchmark for the spirit of the Games, unquestionably" and admitting that the London organising committee "attempted in a number of ways to emulate what the Sydney Organising Committee did." These were the final Olympic Games under the IOC presidency of Juan Antonio Samaranch. These were the second Olympic Games to be held in spring and is to date the most recent games not to be held in its more traditional July or August summer slot; the final medal tally was led by the United States, followed by Russia and China with host Australia at fourth place overall. Several World and Olympic records were broken during the games. With little or no controversies, the games were deemed successful with the rising standard of competition amongst nations across the world. Sydney won the right to host the Games on 24 September 1993, after being selected over Beijing, Berlin and Manchester in four rounds of voting, at the 101st IOC Session in Monte Carlo, Monaco.
The Australian city of Melbourne had lost out to Atlanta for the 1996 Summer Olympics four years earlier. Beijing lost its bid to host the games to Sydney in 1993, but was awarded the 2008 Summer Olympics in July 2001 after Sydney hosted the previous year, it would be awarded the 2022 Winter Olympics twenty-two years in 2015. Although it is impossible to know why members of the International Olympic Committee voted for Sydney over Beijing in 1993, it appears that an important role was played by Human Rights Watch's campaign to "stop Beijing" because of China's human rights record. Many in China were angry at what they saw as U. S.-led interference in the vote, the outcome contributed to rising anti-Western sentiment in China and tensions in Sino-American relations. The Oxford Olympics Study 2016 estimates the outturn cost of the Sydney 2000 Summer Olympics at USD 5 billion in 2015-dollars and cost overrun at 90% in real terms; this includes sports-related costs only, that is, operational costs incurred by the organizing committee for the purpose of staging the Games, e.g. expenditures for technology, workforce, security, catering and medical services, direct capital costs incurred by the host city and country or private investors to build, e.g. the competition venues, the Olympic village, international broadcast center, media and press center, which are required to host the Games.
Indirect capital costs are not included, such as for road, rail, or airport infrastructure, or for hotel upgrades or other business investment incurred in preparation for the Games but not directly related to staging the Games. The cost for Sydney 2000 compares with a cost of USD 4.6 billion for Rio 2016, USD 40–44 billion for Beijing 2008 and USD 51 billion for Sochi 2014, the most expensive Olympics in history. Average cost for the Summer Games since 1960 is USD 5.2 billion, average cost overrun is 176%. In 2000, the Auditor-General of New South Wales reported that the Sydney Games cost A$6.6 billion, with a net cost to the public between A$1.7 and A$2.4 billion. Many venues were constructed in the Sydney Olympic Park, which failed in the years following the Olympics to meet the expected bookings to meet upkeep expenses. In the years leading up to the games, funds were shifted from education and health programs to cover Olympic expenses, it has been estimated that the economic impact of the 2000 Olympics was that A$2.1 billion has been shaved from public consumption.
Economic growth was not stimulated to a net benefit and in the years after 2000, foreign tourism to NSW grew by less than tourism to Australia as a whole. A "multiplier" effect on broader economic development is not realised, as a simple "multiplier" analysis fails to capture is that resources have to be redirected from elsewhere: the building of a stadium is at the expense of other public works such as extensions to hospitals. Building sporting venues does not add to the aggregate stock of productive capital in the years following the Games: "Equestrian centres, softball compounds and man-made rapids are not useful beyond their immediate function." In the years after the games, infrastructure issues have been of growing concern to citizens those in the western suburbs of Sydney. Proposed rail links to Sydney's west have been estimated to cost in the same order of magnitude as the public expenditure on the games. Although the Olympic Games Opening Ceremony was not sc
Ágnes Szávay is a former professional tennis player from Hungary. The 2007 WTA Newcomer of the Year achieved her career-high ranking of world No. 13 in April 2008. Szávay grew up in Soltvadkert, she started to play tennis at the age of six, with her parents acting as her first coaches and managers. She worked with several coaches including Zoltán Újhidy, Levente Barátosi, Miklós Hornok, József Bocskay, Zoltán Kuharszky, Karl-Heinz Wetter and Gábor Köves, her younger sister Blanka is five years her junior. In 2006, she made it to the final of the Ashland Challenger tournament, but lost there to Aleksandra Wozniak in straight sets. Szávay won her first career WTA-level tournament in singles in Palermo in July; the win caused her ranking to rise to world No. 37. She won one doubles tournament, the Tier III Budapest Grand Prix, with Vladimíra Uhlířová. In August, Szávay reached the final of the Tier II tournament Pilot Pen Tennis in New Haven, defeating Daniela Hantuchová, Alona Bondarenko, Samantha Stosur before losing to Svetlana Kuznetsova in the final.
Szávay was leading 6–4, 0–3 when she had to retire from the match because of a back injury. Szávay reached the quarterfinals of the US Open, defeating 32nd-seeded Michaëlla Krajicek and seventh-seeded Nadia Petrova before losing to Kuznetsova, she reached the semifinals in women's doubles, teaming with Uhlířová. At her first tournament after the US Open, she reached the final of the Tier II China Open in Beijing. Szávay, the sixth seed, capitalized on the withdrawal of top-seeded Kuznetsova to reach the semifinals where she defeated Chinese player Peng Shuai to advance to her second career Tier II final. Szávay defeated Jelena Janković to claim her first Tier II title. Szávay led 5–0 in the first set tiebreak before losing it 7–9. In the second set, Szávay saved a match point while trailing 5–1 with a second serve ace and won nine consecutive games. Szávay moved into the top 20 due to this performance. Szávay's year ended prematurely because of a thigh injury. In late September at the Tier IV Hansol Korea Open Tennis Championships in Seoul, she was forced to retire from her quarterfinal match with Eleni Daniilidou while tied at one set apiece.
She did not play on the tour the remainder of the year. For her achievements she was named "2007 Hungarian Sportswoman of the Year". Szávay began the year at the Mondial Australian Women's Hardcourt Tournament in Gold Coast, Australia. Szávay and Dinara Safina, the third seeded team, won the doubles title, defeating the first and second seeded teams in the semifinals and final, respectively. In singles, Szávay was the eighth seed but lost to unseeded Yuliana Fedak in the first round. At the Australian Open in Melbourne, Szávay was seeded 20th but lost in the first round to Ekaterina Makarova of Russia. Szávay reached the final of the Tier II Open Gaz de France in Paris, she defeated second seeded Daniela Hantuchová in the quarterfinals and fourth seeded Elena Dementieva in the semifinals before losing to Anna Chakvetadze in the three-set final. Szávay lost in the first round of three consecutive tournaments, she lost to Alisa Kleybanova at the Tier II Proximus Diamond Games in Antwerp, Ai Sugiyama at the Tier I Qatar Total Open in Doha, Akiko Morigami at the Tier II Dubai Tennis Championships.
She ended her four-match losing streak by winning her first round match at the Tier II Bangalore Open before losing in the second round to Akgul Amanmuradova. She lost in the second round of the Tier I Sony Ericsson Open in Key Biscayne, Florida to Elena Vesnina. Szávay started the spring clay court season by reaching the quarterfinals in three consecutive tournaments. At the Tier II Bausch & Lomb Championships in Amelia Island, Florida, Szávay lost to Lindsay Davenport in the quarterfinals. Going into the Tier I Family Circle Cup in Charleston, South Carolina, Szávay was ranked world No. 13, her highest-ever singles ranking. At the Tier I Qatar Telecom German Open in Berlin, Szávay lost to world No. 2 Ana Ivanovic in three sets. She was upset in the second round of the Tier I Internazionali BNL d'Italia in Rome and the third round of the French Open in Paris. At Wimbledon, Szávay was seeded 15th but lost in the fourth round to unseeded wildcard Zheng Jie of China. Zheng had upset the top seed Ana Ivanovic in the third round.
Szávay was the top seeded player at two Tier III tournaments played on clay. At the Budapest Grand Prix, she lost in the second round after receiving a first round bye. At the Gastein Ladies tournament in Austria, she lost in the semifinals to fourth seeded Pauline Parmentier. Szávay was upset in the early rounds of four hard court tournaments during the summer. At the Tier IV Nordea Nordic Light Open in Stockholm, Szávay was seeded second but lost in the second round. Szávay was seeded eleventh at the Summer Olympics in Beijing but lost to Zheng of China in the first round in three sets. Szávay was seeded fourth at the Tier II Pilot Pen Tennis tournament in New Haven, but lost in the second round to unseeded Amélie Mauresmo. Szávay was seeded thirteenth at the US Open but lost in the second round to Tathiana Garbin of Italy. Szávay began the year by competing in the JB Group Classic exhibition event in Hong Kong, representing Europe, she played the Moorilla Hobart International tournament as the fifth seed.
She lost in the first round to the United Kingdom's Anne Keothavong. At the Australian Open, Szávay was seeded 23rd in women's singles but lost in the first round to Galina Voskoboeva. In February, Szávay played in Fed Cup for Hungary. Szávay, w