The Netherlands is a country located in Northwestern Europe. The European portion of the Netherlands consists of twelve separate provinces that border Germany to the east, Belgium to the south, the North Sea to the northwest, with maritime borders in the North Sea with Belgium and the United Kingdom. Together with three island territories in the Caribbean Sea—Bonaire, Sint Eustatius and Saba— it forms a constituent country of the Kingdom of the Netherlands; the official language is Dutch, but a secondary official language in the province of Friesland is West Frisian. The six largest cities in the Netherlands are Amsterdam, The Hague, Utrecht and Tilburg. Amsterdam is the country's capital, while The Hague holds the seat of the States General and Supreme Court; the Port of Rotterdam is the largest port in Europe, the largest in any country outside Asia. The country is a founding member of the EU, Eurozone, G10, NATO, OECD and WTO, as well as a part of the Schengen Area and the trilateral Benelux Union.
It hosts several intergovernmental organisations and international courts, many of which are centered in The Hague, dubbed'the world's legal capital'. Netherlands means'lower countries' in reference to its low elevation and flat topography, with only about 50% of its land exceeding 1 metre above sea level, nearly 17% falling below sea level. Most of the areas below sea level, known as polders, are the result of land reclamation that began in the 16th century. With a population of 17.30 million people, all living within a total area of 41,500 square kilometres —of which the land area is 33,700 square kilometres —the Netherlands is one of the most densely populated countries in the world. It is the world's second-largest exporter of food and agricultural products, owing to its fertile soil, mild climate, intensive agriculture; the Netherlands was the third country in the world to have representative government, it has been a parliamentary constitutional monarchy with a unitary structure since 1848.
The country has a tradition of pillarisation and a long record of social tolerance, having legalised abortion and human euthanasia, along with maintaining a progressive drug policy. The Netherlands abolished the death penalty in 1870, allowed women's suffrage in 1917, became the world's first country to legalise same-sex marriage in 2001, its mixed-market advanced economy had the thirteenth-highest per capita income globally. The Netherlands ranks among the highest in international indexes of press freedom, economic freedom, human development, quality of life, as well as happiness; the Netherlands' turbulent history and shifts of power resulted in exceptionally many and varying names in different languages. There is diversity within languages; this holds for English, where Dutch is the adjective form and the misnomer Holland a synonym for the country "Netherlands". Dutch comes from Theodiscus and in the past centuries, the hub of Dutch culture is found in its most populous region, home to the capital city of Amsterdam.
Referring to the Netherlands as Holland in the English language is similar to calling the United Kingdom "Britain" by people outside the UK. The term is so pervasive among potential investors and tourists, that the Dutch government's international websites for tourism and trade are "holland.com" and "hollandtradeandinvest.com". The region of Holland consists of North and South Holland, two of the nation's twelve provinces a single province, earlier still, the County of Holland, a remnant of the dissolved Frisian Kingdom. Following the decline of the Duchy of Brabant and the County of Flanders, Holland became the most economically and politically important county in the Low Countries region; the emphasis on Holland during the formation of the Dutch Republic, the Eighty Years' War and the Anglo-Dutch Wars in the 16th, 17th and 18th century, made Holland serve as a pars pro toto for the entire country, now considered either incorrect, informal, or, depending on context, opprobrious. Nonetheless, Holland is used in reference to the Netherlands national football team.
The region called the Low Countries and the Country of the Netherlands. Place names with Neder, Nieder and Nedre and Bas or Inferior are in use in places all over Europe, they are sometimes used in a deictic relation to a higher ground that consecutively is indicated as Upper, Oben, Superior or Haut. In the case of the Low Countries / Netherlands the geographical location of the lower region has been more or less downstream and near the sea; the geographical location of the upper region, changed tremendously over time, depending on the location of the economic and military power governing the Low Countries area. The Romans made a distinction between the Roman provinces of downstream Germania Inferior and upstream Germania Superior; the designation'Low' to refer to the region returns again in the 10th century Duchy of Lower Lorraine, that covered much of the Low Countries. But this time the corresponding Upper region is Upper Lorraine, in nowadays Northern France; the Dukes of Burgundy, who ruled the Low Countries in the 15th century, used the term les pays de par deçà for the Low Countries as opposed to les pays de par delà for their original
Gimp is a narrow ornamental trim used in sewing or embroidery. It is made of silk, wool, or cotton and is stiffened with metallic wire or coarse cord running through it. Gimp is used as trimming for dresses, furniture, etc; the term referred to a thread with a cord or wire in the center, but now is used for a trimming braided or twisted from this thread. Sometimes gimp is covered in spangles; the term "gimp" for a braided trim has been around since the 15th and 16th centuries, when gimp threads were braided into flat braids up to a quarter of an inch wide. The braids were sometimes made either with bobbins or needle and thread, which gave greater control over the threads. Gimp trim was sewn down to form designs; the name "gimp" has been applied to the plastic thread used in the knotting and plaiting craft scoubidou. The term gimp with reference to lace refers to the thread, used to outline the pattern; this thread is thicker than that used to make the lace. It gives definition and raises the edge of the design.
A gimp thread is used in many laces, with notable exceptions being Binche lace and Valenciennes lace. The terms gimp and cordonnet can, for the most part, be used interchangeably, as both are defined as the thread that forms the outline of the design; the term "cordonnet" is used when the outline is padded and when the thread is on the surface of the lace. When the thread is made of more than one strand, it is called a cordonnet. In machine-made laces the outlining thread is always called a cordonnet
Westphalia is a region in northwestern Germany and one of the three historic parts of the state of North Rhine-Westphalia. It has an area of 7.9 million inhabitants. The region is identical to the Province of Westphalia, a part of the Kingdom of Prussia from 1815 to 1918 and the Free State of Prussia from 1918 to 1946. In 1946, Westphalia merged with the Northern Rhineland, another former part of Prussia, to form the newly created state of North Rhine-Westphalia. In 1947, the state with its two historic parts was joined by a third one: Lippe, a former principality and free state. All of the seventeen districts and nine independent cities of Westphalia and Lippe's only district are members of the Westphalia-Lippe Regional Association. Previous to the formation of Westphalia as a province of Prussia and state part of North Rhine-Westphalia, the term "Westphalia" was applied to different territories of different sizes such as a part of the ancient Duchy of Saxony, the Duchy of Westphalia or the Kingdom of Westphalia.
The Westphalian language, a variant of the German language, spreads beyond Westphalia's borders into southwestern Lower Saxony and northwestern Hesse. Being a part of the North German Plain, most of Westphalia's north is flat. In the south the German Central Uplands emerge. Westphalia is divided into the following landscapes. Flat to hilly: East Westphalia, Münsterland, eastern Ruhr Metropolitan Area, Tecklenburg Land, Westphalian Hellweg Hilly to mountainous: Westphalian part of the Sauerland, Wittgenstein Westphalia is the region in between the rivers Rhine and Weser, located both north and south of the Ruhr River. Other important rivers are the Lippe; the Langenberg and the Kahler Asten in the Sauerland part of the Rothaar Mountains are Westphalia's and North Rhine-Westphalia's highest mountains. The term "Westphalia" contrasts with the much less used term "Eastphalia", which covers the southeastern part of the present-day state of Lower Saxony, western Saxony-Anhalt and northern Thuringia.
Westphalia is divided into three governmental districts. These are subdivided into independent cities. All districts and independent cities of the governmental districts of Arnsberg and Münster are considered to be a part of Westphalia as a historic region; the District of Lippe as successor of the Free State of Lippe in the Governmental District of Detmold is rather considered to be a separate historic region. The traditional symbol of Westphalia is the Westphalian Steed: a white horse on a red field, it is derived from the Saxon Steed in the coat of arms of the medieval Duchy of Saxony which most of today's Westphalia was part of. In official contexts the coat of arms of Westphalia is being used by the Westphalia-Lippe Regional Association, which represents these two historic parts of North Rhine-Westphalia; the coat of arms of North Rhine-Westphalia uses the Westphalian Steed to represent Westphalia as one of its parts alongside the Lippish Rose representing Lippe and the Rhine River representing the Northern Rhineland.
Prussia used the Westphalian Steed in the coat of arms of its Province of Westphalia. The coat of arms of Lower Saxony uses a different version of the Saxon Steed since the state covers large parts of the Old Saxons' duchy; the colors of Westphalia are red. The flag of the Westphalia-Lippe Regional Association uses these colors with the Westphalian coat of arms in its center; the flag of North Rhine-Westphalia is a combination of the Northern Rhineland's colors green/white and the Westphalian white/red. The flag of the Prussian Province of Westphalia displayed the colors white and red; the flag of Lower Saxony shows the colors of the Saxon Steed. Composed in Iserlohn in 1886 by Emil Rittershaus, the Westfalenlied is an unofficial anthem of Westphalia. While the Northern Rhineland and Lippe are different historic territories of today's North Rhine-Westphalia, the old border between the former Rhine Province and the Province of Westphalia is a language border. While in Westphalia and Lippe, people tend to speak West Low German dialects and the Westphalian variant of the Low German language, Central German and Low Franconian dialects are being spoken in the Northern Rhineland.
These different regional identities are being emphasized by different majorities of denomination between Roman Catholics and Lutheran Protestants. The different majorities date back to the days of the territorial fragmentation of the Holy Roman Empire which existed until 1806; the Münsterland and the region around Paderborn for instance are still Catholic regions because of the former existence of the prince-bishoprics of Münster and Paderborn. The Lutheran Lippe was able to retain its independence as a small state within Germany in the form of a principality until 1918 and as a free state until 1946; this continues to influence the identity of its people who distinguish themselves from neighboring regions such as East Westphalia. In addition to these historic and religious aspects, there are some regional differences in culture and mentality; that is why many of the citizens of North Rhine-Westphalia rather see themselves either as "Rhinelanders", "Westphalians" or "Lippers" rather than as "North Rhine-Westphalians".
Westphalia is known for the 1648 Peace of Westphalia which ended the Thirty Years' War, as the two treaties were signed in Münster and Osnabrück. It is one of the regions that were part of all incarnations of the German state since the Early M
Mesh grounded bobbin lace
Mesh grounded lace is a continuous bobbin lace known as straight lace. Continuous bobbin lace is made in one piece on a lace pillow; the threads of the ground enter motifs leave to join the ground again further down the process, all made in one go. This is different to part lace, where the motifs are created separately joined together afterwards. Mesh grounded lace is a group of lace types that may look different but share several common properties. In the middle of the eighteenth century, many laces could be named by their grounds. In 1820–30 lace making was so widespread that names refer to a kind of lace and no longer to the place where it was made; the inherently complex study of lace is further complicated by the use of foreign terms, of alternative terms, by contradictory usage. Moreover, lace makers have other viewpoints than collectors and curators, so classification is not a black-and-white discussion; the following overview follows a construction point of view, recognizable when looking into the minute details, but with this approach the exception proves the rule.
Dense areas of lace have the worker pair acting like wefts weaving to and fro, passive threads hanging downwards, like warps. In point ground, the workers stay in the dense area, the passives join or leave, one pair per pin; the worker properties apply to Torchon and Freehand lace. The images below compare fragments of lace with a similar ground. Flanders uses a single pin in the centre of the rectangles, the Torchon Rose ground uses a pin at each edge of the rectangle; the Torchon motif has a weaver in the dense motive, the Flanders motive has no pair making U-turns around pins. The Flanders sample illustrating the two pair per pin principle shows a ring pair: a pair following the shape of the motive, but unlike the gimp it has some distance. Many pattern books and directions for making lace were printed in the first half of the sixteenth century. Skilled lacemakers made samples of new designs that were passed around to less skilled lace makers. At the time this was the only way of learning new designs.
To date we have pattern books with diagrams. As bobbin lace is worked by plaiting or weaving pairs of threads, lines in many diagrams represent pairs, less elaborate to draw and easier to read large sections. Basic lessons or special tricks are explained with thread diagrams. Black and white pair diagrams do not contain enough information to reproduce the intricate mesh laces; the Kantnormaalschool founded in Brugge in 1911 developed a color code. Put: where lines cross, a color indicates what to do at that point; the method is accepted and applied in modern pattern books. For mesh laces though other types of lace types may benefit from the drawing technique. Before the mid-nineteenth century, not many corners were designed. For commercial use straight length were rejoined or gathered to fit around a corner. After the First World War lace-making became a manufacturing was no longer and issue. To close a square for a handkerchief, still two parts need to be joined. After overlapping and matching the pattern, stitches are oversewn with a thinner thread that matches the color of the lace.
Wherever possible avoid sewing in cloth stitch, in corners and in open ground, in other words: don't sew along a straight line but choose the path for the sewings to make it as little visible as possible. Other methods are needle weaving, the detour technique with knots or overlapping threads
Duchy of Brabant
The Duchy of Brabant was a State of the Holy Roman Empire established in 1183. It developed from the Landgraviate of Brabant and formed the heart of the historic Low Countries, part of the Burgundian Netherlands from 1430 and of the Habsburg Netherlands from 1482, until it was partitioned after the Dutch revolt. Present-day North Brabant was adjudicated to the Generality Lands of the Dutch Republic according to the 1648 Peace of Westphalia, while the reduced duchy remained part of the Southern Netherlands until it was conquered by French Revolutionary forces in 1794. Today all the duchy's former territories, apart from exclaves, are in Belgium except for the Dutch province of North Brabant; the Duchy of Brabant was divided into four parts, each with its own capital. The four capitals were Leuven, Antwerp and's-Hertogenbosch. Before's-Hertogenbosch was founded, Tienen was the fourth capital, its territory consisted of the three modern-day Belgian provinces of Flemish Brabant, Walloon Brabant and Antwerp, the Brussels-Capital Region and most of the present-day Dutch province of North Brabant.
Its most important cities were Brussels, Leuven, Breda,'s-Hertogenbosch and Mechelen. The modern flag of Belgium takes its colors from Brabant's coat of arms: a lion or armed and langued gules as a primary heraldic charge on a black field. First used by Count Lambert I of Louvain, the lion is documented in a 1306 town's seal of Kerpen, together with the red lion of Limburg. Up to the present, the Brabant lion features as the primary charge on the coats of arms of both Flemish and Walloon Brabant, of the Dutch province of North Brabant; the region's name is first recorded as the Carolingian shire pagus Bracbatensis, located between the rivers Scheldt and Dijle, from braec "marshy" and bant "region". Upon the 843 Treaty of Verdun it was part of Lotharingia within short-lived Middle Francia, was ceded to East Francia according to the 880 Treaty of Ribemont. In earlier Roman times, the Nervii, a Belgic tribe, lived in the same area, they were incorporated into the Roman province of Belgica, considered to have both Celtic and Germanic cultural links.
At the end of the Roman period the region was conquered by the Germanic Franks. In 959 the East Frankish king Otto I of Germany elevated Count Godfrey of Jülich to the rank of duke of Lower Lorraine. In 962 the duchy became an integral part of the Holy Roman Empire, where Godfrey's successors of the ducal Ardennes-Verdun dynasty ruled over the Gau of Brabant. Here, the counts of Leuven rose to power, when about 1000 Count Lambert I the Bearded married Gerberga, the daughter of Duke Charles of Lower Lorraine, acquired the County of Brussels. About 1024 southernmost Brabant fell to Count Reginar V of Mons, Imperial lands up to the Schelde river in the west came under the rule of the French Counts Baldwin V of Flanders by 1059. Upon the death of Count Palatine Herman II of Lotharingia in 1085, Emperor Henry IV assigned his fief between the Dender and Zenne rivers as the Landgraviate of Brabant to Count Henry III of Leuven and Brussels. About one hundred years in 1183/1184, Emperor Frederick I Barbarossa formally established the Duchy of Brabant and created the hereditary title of duke of Brabant in favour of Henry I of Brabant, son of Count Godfrey III of Leuven.
Although the original county was still quite small - and limited to the territory between the Dender and Zenne rivers, situated to the west of Brussels - from the 13th century onwards its name came to apply to the entire territory under control of the dukes. In 1190, after the death of Godfrey III, Henry I became Duke of Lower Lotharingia. By that time the title had lost most of its territorial authority. According to protocol, all his successors were thereafter called Dukes of Brabant and Lower Lotharingia. After the Battle of Worringen in 1288, the dukes of Brabant acquired the Duchy of Limburg and the lands of Overmaas. In 1354 Duke John III of Brabant granted a Joyous Entry to the citizens of Brabant. In 1430 the Duchies of Lower Lotharingia and Limburg were inherited by Philip the Good of Burgundy and became part of the Burgundian Netherlands. In 1477 the Duchy of Brabant became part of the House of Habsburg as part of the dowry of Mary of Burgundy. At that time the Duchy extended from Luttre, south of Nivelles to's Hertogenbosch, with Leuven as the capital city.
The subsequent history of Brabant is part of the history of the Habsburg Seventeen Provinces. The Eighty Years' War brought the northern parts under military control of the northern insurgents. After the Treaty of Westphalia in 1648, the United Provinces' independence was confirmed and northern Brabant was formally ceded to the United Provinces as Staats-Brabant, a federally governed territory and part of the Dutch Republic; the southern part remained in Spanish Habsburg hands as a part of the Southern Netherlands. It was transferred to the Austrian branch of the Habsburg monarchy in 1714. Brabant was included in the unrecognised United States of Belgium, which existed from January to December 1790 during short-lived revolt against Emperor Joseph II, until imperial troops regained the Austrian Netherlands for Leopold II who had succeeded his brother; the area was overrun during the French Revolution in 1794, formally annexed by France in 1795. The duchy of Brabant was dissolved and the territory was reorganised in the départements of Deux-Nèthes and Dyle.
After the defeat of Bonaparte in 1815, the United Kingdom of the Netherlands
Fanny Bury Palliser
Fanny Bury Palliser was an English writer on art, lace. Born on 23 September 1805, she was daughter of Joseph Marryat, M. P. of Wimbledon, by his wife Charlotte, daughter of Frederic Geyer of Boston, Massachusetts. In 1832 she married Captain Richard Bury Palliser, who died in 1852, with whom she had four sons and two daughters. Palliser took a leading part in the organisation of the international lace exhibition held at South Kensington in 1874, she died at her residence, 33 Russell Road, Kensington, on 16 January 1878, was buried in Brompton cemetery. Palliser was a contributor to the Art Journal and The Academy, was the author of: The Modern Poetical Speaker, or a Collection of Pieces adapted for Recitation … from the Poets of the Nineteenth Century, London, 1845. History of Lace, with numerous illustrations, London, 1865. 1875. This was translated into French by the Comtesse de Clermont Tonnerre. Brittany and its Byways: some Account of its Inhabitants and its Antiquities, London, 1869. Historic Devices and War Cries, London, 1870.
A Descriptive Catalogue of the Lace and Embroidery in the South Kensington Museum, 1871. 1873. 1881. Mottoes for Monuments. Illustrated with Designs by Flaxman and others, London, 1872; the China Collector's Pocket Companion, London, 1874. 1875. A Brief History of Germany to the Battle of Königgratz, on the plan of Mrs. Markham's histories, she translated from the French Handbook of the Arts of the Middle Ages, 1855, by Charles Jules Labarte, History of the Ceramic Art and History of Furniture, 1878, both by Albert Jacquemart. She assisted her eldest brother Joseph Marryat in revising the second edition of his History of Pottery and Porcelain. Attribution Works by Bury Palliser at Project Gutenberg Works by or about Fanny Bury Palliser at Internet Archive This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Lee, Sidney, ed.. "Palliser, Fanny Bury". Dictionary of National Biography. 43. London: Smith, Elder & Co
Chantilly lace is a handmade bobbin lace named after the city of Chantilly, France, in a tradition dating from the 17th century. The famous silk laces were introduced in the 18th century. Though called Chantilly lace, most of the lace bearing this name was made in Bayeux in France and Geraardsbergen, now in Belgium. Chantilly lace is known for its fine ground, outlined pattern, abundant detail; the pattern is outlined in a flat untwisted strand. The best Chantilly laces were made of silk, were black, which made them suitable for mourning wear. White Chantilly lace was made, both in linen and silk, though most Chantilly laces were made of silk; the black silk Chantilly lace became popular, there was a large market for it in Spain and the Americas. Chantilly and the Spanish laces were the most popular black laces. Little white Chantilly was made. Another notable thing about Chantilly lace is the use of a half-and-whole stitch as a fill to achieve the effect of light and shadow in the pattern, of flowers.
The background, or réseau, was in the form of a six pointed star, was made of the same thread as the pattern, unlike the otherwise similar blonde lace. The lace was produced in strips four inches wide, joined with a stitch that left no visible seam. Chantilly lace remained popular in the 19th century, when every fashionable lady had a black or white Chantilly shawl, made in Brussels or Ghent. In the 17th century, the Duchesse de Longueville organised the manufacture of lace at Chantilly, it has been produced from until the present day. It became popular because of the duchesse's patronage and Chantilly's proximity to Paris and came into fashion again during the reigns of Louis XV and Louis XVI; when the French Revolution began in 1789, demand for the lace ceased. The lace-makers were seen as protégés of the royals, after Mme du Barry and Marie Antoinette were guillotined in 1793, the lace-makers of Chantilly were themselves killed. At this point production ceased. Napoleon I sponsored a revival of Chantilly lace between the years 1804 and 1815.
At this point production was concentrated in Normandy around the Bayeux area. While it was no longer being made in Chantilly, all of the old techniques and designs were used. Chantilly lace reached the height of its popularity around 1830 and was revived again in the 1860s, at which point it was made at Bayeux as well as at Geraardsbergen, in Belgium. In 1844, a machine was patented that made Valenciennes lace and black silk Chantilly lace, difficult to distinguish from the handmade lace. Chantilly lace – Virtual Museum of Textile Arts