Left-wing politics supports social equality and egalitarianism in opposition to social hierarchy. It involves a concern for those in society whom its adherents perceive as disadvantaged relative to others as well as a belief that there are unjustified inequalities that need to be reduced or abolished; the term left-wing can refer to "the radical, reforming, or socialist section of a political party or system". The political terms "Left" and "Right" were coined during the French Revolution, referring to the seating arrangement in the French Estates General: those who sat on the left opposed the monarchy and supported the revolution, including the creation of a republic and secularization, while those on the right were supportive of the traditional institutions of the Old Regime. Use of the term "Left" became more prominent after the restoration of the French monarchy in 1815 when it was applied to the "Independents"; the word "wing" was appended to Left and Right in the late 19th century with disparaging intent and "left-wing" was applied to those who were unorthodox in their religious or political views.
The term was applied to a number of movements republicanism during the French Revolution in the 18th century, followed by socialism, communism and social democracy in the 19th and 20th centuries. Since the term left-wing has been applied to a broad range of movements including civil rights movements, feminist movements, anti-war movements and environmental movements, as well as a wide range of parties. According to former professor of economics Barry Clark, " claim that human development flourishes when individuals engage in cooperative, mutually respectful relations that can thrive only when excessive differences in status and wealth are eliminated". In politics, the term "Left" derives from the French Revolution, as the anti-monarchist Montagnard and Jacobin deputies from the Third Estate sat to the left of the presiding member's chair in parliament, a habit which began in the French Estates General of 1789. Throughout the 19th century in France, the main line dividing Left and Right was between supporters of the French Republic and those of the monarchy.
The June Days Uprising during the Second Republic was an attempt by the Left to assert itself after the 1848 Revolution, but only a small portion of the population supported this. In the mid-19th century, socialism and anti-clericalism became features of the French Left. After Napoleon III's 1851 coup and the subsequent establishment of the Second Empire, Marxism began to rival radical republicanism and utopian socialism as a force within left-wing politics; the influential Communist Manifesto by Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels, published in 1848, asserted that all human history is the history of class struggle. They predicted that a proletarian revolution would overthrow bourgeois capitalism and create a classless, post-monetary communist society, it was in this period that the word "wing" was appended to both Right. In the United States, many leftists, social liberals and trade unionists were influenced by the works of Thomas Paine, who introduced the concept of asset-based egalitarianism, which theorises that social equality is possible by a redistribution of resources.
The International Workingmen's Association, sometimes called the First International, brought together delegates from many different countries, with many different views about how to reach a classless and stateless society. Following a split between supporters of Marx and Mikhail Bakunin, anarchists formed the International Workers' Association; the Second International became divided over the issue of World War I. Those who opposed the war, such as Vladimir Lenin and Rosa Luxemburg, saw themselves as further to the left. In the United States after Reconstruction, the phrase "the Left" was used to describe those who supported trade unions, the civil rights movement and the anti-war movement. More in the United States, left-wing and right-wing have been used as synonyms for Democratic and Republican, or as synonyms for liberalism and conservatism respectively. Since the Right was populist, both in the Western and the Eastern Bloc anything viewed as avant-garde art was called leftist in all Europe, thus the identification of Picasso's Guernica as "leftist" in Europe and the condemnation of the Russian composer Shostakovich's opera in Pravda as follows: "Here we have'leftist' confusion instead of natural, human music".
The following positions are associated with left-wing politics. Leftist economic beliefs range from Keynesian economics and the welfare state through industrial democracy and the social market to nationalization of the economy and central planning, to the anarcho-syndicalist advocacy of a council- and assembly-based self-managed anarchist communism. During the industrial revolution, leftists supported trade unions. At the beginning of the 20th century, many leftists advocated strong government intervention in the economy. Leftists continue to criticize what they perceive as the exploitative nature of globalization, the "race to the bottom" and unjust lay-offs. In the last quarter of the 20th century, the belief that government ought to be directly involved in the day-to-day workings of an economy declined in popularity amongst the center-left social democrats who became influenced by "Third Way" ideology. Other leftists believe in Marxian economics; some distinguish Marx's economic theories from his political philos
Anti-imperialism in political science and international relations is a term used in a variety of contexts by nationalist movements who want to secede from a larger polity or as a specific theory opposed to capitalism in Marxist–Leninist discourse, derived from Vladimir Lenin's work Imperialism, the Highest Stage of Capitalism. A less common usage is by supporters of a non-interventionist foreign policy. People who categorize themselves as anti-imperialists state that they are opposed to colonialism, colonial empires, hegemony and the territorial expansion of a country beyond its established borders; the phrase gained a wide currency after the Second World War and at the onset of the Cold War as political movements in colonies of European powers promoted national sovereignty. Some anti-imperialist groups who opposed the United States supported the power of the Soviet Union, such as in Guevarism, while in Maoism this was criticized as social imperialism. In the late 1870s, the term "imperialism" was introduced to the English language by opponents of the aggressively imperial policies of British Prime Minister Benjamin Disraeli.
It was shortly appropriated by supporters of "imperialism" such as Joseph Chamberlain. For some, imperialism designated a policy of philanthropy. John A. Hobson and Vladimir Lenin added a more theoretical macroeconomic connotation to the term. Many theoreticians on the left have followed either or both in emphasizing the structural or systemic character of "imperialism"; such writers have expanded the time period associated with the term so that it now designates neither a policy, nor a short space of decades in the late 19th century, but a global system extending over a period of centuries going back to Christopher Columbus and in some facts to the Crusades. As the application of the term has expanded, its meaning has shifted along five distinct but parallel axes: the moral, the economic, the systemic, the cultural and the temporal; those changes reflect—among other shifts in sensibility—a growing unease with the fact of power Western power. The relationships among capitalism and imperialism have been discussed and analysed by theoreticians, political scientists such as John A. Hobson and Thorstein Veblen, Joseph Schumpeter and Norman Angell.
Those intellectuals produced much of their works about imperialism before the World War I, yet their combined work informed the study of the impact of imperialism upon Europe and contributed to the political and ideologic reflections on the rise of the military–industrial complex in the United States from the 1950s onwards. John A. Hobson influenced the anti-imperialism of both Marxists and liberals, worldwide through his 1902 book on Imperialism, he argued that the "taproot of imperialism" is not in Capitalism. As a form of economic organization, imperialism is unnecessary and immoral, the result of the mis-distribution of wealth in a capitalist society; that created an irresistible desire to extend the national markets into foreign lands, in search of profits greater than those available in the Mother Country. In the capitalist economy, rich capitalists received a disproportionately higher income than did the working class. If the owners invested their incomes to their factories, the increased productive capacity would exceed the growth in demand for the products and services of said factories.
Lenin adopted Hobson's ideas to argue that capitalism was doomed and would be replaced by socialism, the sooner the better. Hobson was influential in liberal circles the British Liberal Party. Historians Peter Duignan and Lewis H. Gann argue that Hobson had an enormous influence in the early 20th century that caused widespread distrust of imperialism: Hobson's ideas were not original, his ideas influenced German nationalist opponents of the British Empire as well as French Anglophobes and Marxists. In days to come they were to contribute to American distrust of Western Europe and of the British Empire. Hobson helped make the British averse to the exercise of colonial rule. On the positive side, Hobson argued that domestic social reforms could cure the international disease of imperialism by removing its economic foundation. Hobson theorized that state intervention through taxation could boost broader consumption, create wealth and encourage a peaceful multilateral world order. Conversely, should the state not intervene, rentiers would generate negative wealth that fostered imperialism and protectionism.
As a self-conscious political movement, anti-imperialism originated in Europe in the late 19th and early 20th centuries in opposition to the growing European colonial empires and the United States control of the Philippines after 1898. However, it reached its highest level of popular support in the colonies themselves, where it formed the basis for a wide variety of national liberation movements during the mid-20th century and later; these movements, their anti-imperialist ideas, were instrumental in the decolonization process of the 1950s and 1960s, which saw most European colonies in Asia and Africa achieving
The Communist Party of Peru – Shining Path, more known as the Shining Path, is a communist revolutionary organization in Peru, espousing Marxism-Leninism-Maoism. When it first launched the internal conflict in Peru in 1980, its goal was to overthrow the state by guerrilla warfare and replace it with a "New Democracy"; the Shining Path believed that by establishing a dictatorship of the proletariat, inducing a cultural revolution, sparking a world revolution, they could arrive at full communism. Their representatives stated that existing socialist countries were revisionist, the Shining Path was the vanguard of the world communist movement; the Shining Path's ideology and tactics have been influential among other Maoist insurgent groups, notably the Communist Party of Nepal and other Revolutionary Internationalist Movement-affiliated organizations. Condemned for its brutality, including violence deployed against peasants, trade union organizers, elected officials and the general civilian population, the Shining Path is regarded by Peru as a terrorist organization.
Japan, the United States, the European Union, Canada classify the group as a terrorist organization and prohibit funding and other financial support. Since the capture of its leader Abimael Guzmán in 1992, the Shining Path has declined in activity; the common name of this group, Shining Path, distinguishes it from several other Peruvian communist parties with similar names. The name is derived from a maxim of José Carlos Mariátegui, the founder of the original Peruvian Communist Party in the 1920s: "El Marxismo-Leninismo abrirá el sendero luminoso hacia la revolución"; this maxim was featured on the masthead of the newspaper of a Shining Path front group. Due to the number of Peruvian groups that refer to themselves as the Communist Party of Peru, groups are distinguished by the names of their publications; the followers of this group are called senderistas. All documents and other materials produced by the organization are signed by the Communist Party of Peru. Academics refer to them as PCP-SL.
The Shining Path was founded in 1969 by Abimael Guzmán, a former university philosophy professor, a group of 11 others. His teachings created the foundation of its militant Maoist doctrine, it was an offshoot of the Communist Party of Peru — Bandera Roja, which in turn split from the original Peruvian Communist Party, a derivation of the Peruvian Socialist Party founded by José Carlos Mariátegui in 1928. The Shining Path first established a foothold at San Cristóbal of Huamanga University, in Ayacucho, where Guzmán taught philosophy; the university had reopened after being closed for about half a century, many students of the newly educated class adopted the Shining Path's radical ideology. Between 1973 and 1975, Shining Path members gained control of the student councils in the Universities of Huancayo and La Cantuta, they developed a significant presence at the National University of Engineering in Lima and the National University of San Marcos. Sometime it lost many student elections in the universities, including Guzmán's San Cristóbal of Huamanga.
It decided to abandon recruiting at reconsolidate. Beginning on March 17, 1980, the Shining Path held a series of clandestine meetings in Ayacucho, known as the Central Committee's second plenary, it formed a "Revolutionary Directorate", political and military in nature and ordered its militias to transfer to strategic areas in the provinces to start the "armed struggle", despite the revisionism instituted in China by Deng Xiaoping and its economic success since 1978. The group held its "First Military School" where members were instructed in military tactics and the use of weapons, they engaged in "Criticism and Self-criticism", a Maoist practice intended to purge bad habits and avoid the repetition of mistakes. During the existence of the First Military School, members of the Central Committee came under heavy criticism. Guzmán did not, he emerged from the First Military School as the clear leader of the Shining Path. In 1992, Guzman and other leaders of the Shining Path received life imprisonment sentences for their role in the Lucanamarca massacre, among other charges.
When Peru's military government allowed elections for the first time in a dozen years in 1980, the Shining Path was one of the few leftist political groups that declined to take part. It chose to begin guerrilla war in the highlands of the Ayacucho Region. On May 17, 1980, on the eve of the presidential elections, it burned ballot boxes in the town of Chuschi, it was the first "act of war" by the Shining Path. The perpetrators were caught and additional ballots were shipped to Chuschi; the elections proceeded without further problems, the incident received little attention in the Peruvian press. Throughout the 1980s, the Shining Path grew, both in terms of the territory it controlled, in the number of militants in its organization in the Andean highlands, it gained support from local peasants by filling the political void left by the central government and providing what they called "popular justice", public trials that disregard any legal and human rights that deliver swift and brutal sentences including public executions.
This caused the peasantry of some Peruvian villages to express some sympathy for the Shining Path in the impoverished and neglected regions of Ayacucho, Apurímac, Huancavelica. At times, the civilian population of small
El Comercio (Peru)
El Comercio is a Peru vian newspaper based in Lima. Founded in 1839, it is the oldest newspaper in Peru and one of the oldest Spanish-language papers in the world, it has a daily circulation of more than 120,000. It is one of the most influential media in Peru; the government of Juan Velasco Alvarado expropriated the newspaper in the mid-1970s. The company was returned to their original owners by President Fernando Belaúnde Terry on July 28, 1980, the same day he assumed office, it was his first official act upon assuming his presidency. The newspaper is owned by shareholders of the Miró Quesada family, whose ownership of the company dates to 1875. Despite this, management is under control of an individual, not a member of the family; the company has ownership over its subsidiaries, the newspapers Peru 21 and Trome, the magazine Somos. The corporation, Empresa Editora El Comercio S. A. is the product of the merging of many companies in 1996. The company manages the editing and distribution of the newspaper, El Comercio, as well as the publication and distribution of Trome, Peru 21, Gestion.
In addition, they manage the advertising aspects of the mentioned publications. Additionally, they are devoted to the editing and distribution of many other books, pamphlets, all sorts of graphic publications, multimedia products, videography. Informational content is distributed by their subsidiary Orbis Ventures S. A. C. A company in charge of the administration of the company's website; the legal address of the company, where their administrative offices are, is 300 Jr. Miró Quesada, Cercado of Lima, Peru, their publishing factories and Amauta, are in the districts of Pueblo Libre and the Cercado of Lima. Financially, the company operates independently, as the effects of consolidation have not in large part affected the operation of their subsidiaries, Orbis Ventures S. A. C. Zetta Comunicadores del Perú S. A. E. M. A. EC Jobs S. A. C. Punto y Coma Editores S. A. C. Suscripciones Integrales S. A. C. Amauta Impressiones Comerciales, Producciones Cantabria S. A. C. Inmobiliaria El Sol S. A. and Grupo TV S. A. C. In 1994, Ricardo Uceda resigned as editor-in-chief of Sí to form a special investigative team at El Comercio.
As with Uceda's Sí reporting, the Comercio team focused on cases of governmental corruption. One their most notable successes came in 1998, when they exposed the misuse of state funds intended for the survivors of floods and mudslides induced by the 1997-98 El Niño event. List of newspapers in Peru Media of Peru
Peruvian Armed Forces
The Peruvian Armed Forces are the military services of Peru, comprising independent Army and Air Force components. Their primary mission is to safeguard the country's independence and territorial integrity against any threat; as a secondary mission they participate in economic and social development as well as in civil defense tasks. The National Police of Peru is classified as a part of the armed forces. Although in fact it has a different organisation and a wholly civil mission, its training and activities over more than two decades as an anti-terrorist force have produced markedly military characteristics, giving it the appearance of a virtual fourth military service with significant land and air capabilities and 140,000 personnel; the Peruvian armed forces report through the Ministry of Defense, while the National Police of Peru report through the Ministry of Interior. The Joint Command of the Armed Forces is tasked with the mission to "plan, prepare and conduct military operations and actions to guarantee independence and territorial integrity and support the national development of Peru".
This branch of the armed forces was developed in the 1950s following World War II, when Peru evaluated operational tactics used and adapted them to their own military. On 1 February 1957, the Joint Command was created following a commission of defense agencies studied its role, with the Joint Command depending directly on the President of Peru while being "the highest step in the planning and coordination of the operations of the Army and Aeronautics Forces". Headquartered in Lima, it has a strength of 76,228 troops divided in four military regions with headquarters in Piura, Lima and Iquitos; every military region is assigned several brigades of which there are different types, including infantry and armored. There are several groups and battalions which operate independently of the army's organization; the equipment of the Peruvian Army includes infantry weapons that include assault rifles and carbines such as the M16A2 and the M4A1 and pistols like the FN Five-seveN and Smith & Wesson M&P9.
Vehicles include several types of tanks, armoured personnel carriers, antiaircraft systems and helicopters. Peru has sought to update their collection of tanks and armored personnel carriers that have not been updated since acquiring vehicles from the Soviet Union. After an initial deal with China fell through, Peru has attempted to make a deal with General Dynamics to purchase new military vehicles; the Peruvian Navy is organized in five naval zones headquartered in Piura, Arequipa and Pucallpa. It has a strength of around 25,988 troops divided between the Pacific Operations and the Amazon Operations General Commands and the Coast Guard; the Pacific fleet flagship is the guided-missile cruiser BAP Almirante Grau, named for the 19th-century Peruvian Admiral who fought in the War of the Pacific. The fleet includes 8 Lupo class frigates, 6 PR-72P class corvettes, 3 Terrebonne Parish class landing ships, 2 Type 209/1100 and 4 Type 209/1200 class German-built diesel submarines, as well as patrol vessels and cargo ships.
The Peruvian Navy has a naval aviation force, several naval infantry battalions and special forces units. The Peruvian Marines date back to 6 November 1821, when the Peruvian Navy requested a battalion of soldiers, its first battle was an attack on the Spanish taking the city of Arica. Into the mid-20th century, the Peruvian Marines modernized their equipment and by the 1980s with the Shining Path emerging as a new threat to Peru, the Marines began to be tasked with counterterrorism operations; as part of the Peruvian Navy, the Peruvian Marines utilize the equipment and logistics of the Navy. Various Marine battalions are based in Ancón, Mollendo, Pucallpa and Tumbes; the Peruvian Marines have a Special Forces composed of the Espíritus Negros and Fuerza Delta, based on the American Delta Force and US Army Rangers. On May 20, 1929, the aviation divisions of the Peruvian army and navy were merged into the Peruvian Aviation Corps. In 1950, the corps became the Peruvian Air Force; the Peruvian Air Force is divided into six wing areas, headquartered in Piura, Lima, Arequipa and Iquitos.
With a strength of 17,969 troops, the FAP counts in its arsenal with MiG-29 and Mirage 2000. It has Su-25 close-support aircraft, Mi-25 attack helicopters, Mi-17 transport helicopters, Aermacchi MB-339, Embraer EMB-312 Tucano subsonic training aircraft, the Cessna A-37B for light attack and COIN missions. In 1995, the FAP took part in the Cenepa War against Ecuador covering operations by the army and navy. After the war, the FAP began acquiring new aircraft MiG-29 fighters and Su-25 close air support aircraft which are, along with the Mirage 2000 fighters, the main combat elements of the FAP. Peruvian Ministry of Defence Official Peruvian Army website Official Peruvian Air Force website Official Peruvian Navy website
Socialism is a range of economic and social systems characterised by social ownership of the means of production and workers' self-management, as well as the political theories and movements associated with them. Social ownership can be citizen ownership of equity. There are many varieties of socialism and there is no single definition encapsulating all of them, with social ownership being the common element shared by its various forms. Socialist systems are divided into market forms. Non-market socialism involves the substitution of factor markets and money with engineering and technical criteria based on calculation performed in-kind, thereby producing an economic mechanism that functions according to different economic laws from those of capitalism. Non-market socialism aims to circumvent the inefficiencies and crises traditionally associated with capital accumulation and the profit system. By contrast, market socialism retains the use of monetary prices, factor markets and in some cases the profit motive, with respect to the operation of owned enterprises and the allocation of capital goods between them.
Profits generated by these firms would be controlled directly by the workforce of each firm, or accrue to society at large in the form of a social dividend. The socialist calculation debate concerns the feasibility and methods of resource allocation for a socialist system. Socialist politics has been both nationalist in orientation. Originating within the socialist movement, social democracy has embraced a mixed economy with a market that includes substantial state intervention in the form of income redistribution, a welfare state. Economic democracy proposes a sort of market socialism where there is more decentralized control of companies, currencies and natural resources; the socialist political movement includes a set of political philosophies that originated in the revolutionary movements of the mid-to-late 18th century and out of concern for the social problems that were associated with capitalism. By the late 19th century, after the work of Karl Marx and his collaborator Friedrich Engels, socialism had come to signify opposition to capitalism and advocacy for a post-capitalist system based on some form of social ownership of the means of production.
By the 1920s, social democracy and communism had become the two dominant political tendencies within the international socialist movement. By this time, socialism emerged as "the most influential secular movement of the twentieth century, worldwide, it is a political ideology, a wide and divided political movement" and while the emergence of the Soviet Union as the world's first nominally socialist state led to socialism's widespread association with the Soviet economic model, some economists and intellectuals argued that in practice the model functioned as a form of state capitalism or a non-planned administrative or command economy. Socialist parties and ideas remain a political force with varying degrees of power and influence on all continents, heading national governments in many countries around the world. Today, some socialists have adopted the causes of other social movements, such as environmentalism and progressivism. In 21st century America, the term socialism, without clear definition, has become a pejorative used by conservatives to taint liberal and progressive policies and public figures.
For Andrew Vincent, "he word ‘socialism’ finds its root in the Latin sociare, which means to combine or to share. The related, more technical term in Roman and medieval law was societas; this latter word could mean companionship and fellowship as well as the more legalistic idea of a consensual contract between freemen". The term "socialism" was created by Henri de Saint-Simon, one of the founders of what would be labelled "utopian socialism". Simon coined the term as a contrast to the liberal doctrine of "individualism", which stressed that people act or should act as if they are in isolation from one another; the original "utopian" socialists condemned liberal individualism for failing to address social concerns during the industrial revolution, including poverty, social oppression and gross inequalities in wealth, thus viewing liberal individualism as degenerating society into supporting selfish egoism that harmed community life through promoting a society based on competition. They presented socialism as an alternative to liberal individualism based on the shared ownership of resources, although their proposals for socialism differed significantly.
Saint-Simon proposed economic planning, scientific administration and the application of modern scientific advancements to the organisation of society. By contrast, Robert Owen proposed the organisation of ownership in cooperatives; the term "socialism" is attributed to Pierre Leroux and to Marie Roch Louis Reybaud in France. The modern definition and usage of "socialism" settled by the 1860s, becoming the predominant term among the group of words "co-operative", "mutualist" and "associationist", used as synonyms; the term "communism" fell out of use during this period, despite earlier distinctions between socialism and communism from the 1840s. An early distinction between socialism and communism was that the former aimed to only socialise production while the latter aimed to socialise both production and consumption. However, M
Politics of Peru
The politics of the Republic of Peru takes place in a framework of a unitary semi-presidential representative democratic republic, whereby the President of Peru is both head of state and head of government, of a pluriform multi-party system. Executive power is exercised by the Government. Legislative power is vested in the Congress; the Judiciary is independent of the legislature. The Economist Intelligence Unit has rated Peru as "flawed democracy" in 2016. According to Latinobarómetro's surveys, Peruvians have the worst image of their political system with Hondurans and Mexicans with Latin Americans; the historian Antonio Zapata describes Peru as a "right-wing country", the only left-wing government in contemporary history being that of Juan Velasco Alvarado, author of agrarian reform and the nationalization of strategic sectors1. All major media and political parties are in favour of economic liberalism. In 1924, from Mexico, university reform leaders in Peru, forced into exile by the government founded the American People's Revolutionary Alliance, which had a major influence on the country's political life.
APRA is thus a political expression of the university reform and workers' struggles of the years 1918-1920. The movement draws its influences from the Mexican revolution and its 1917 Constitution on issues of agrarianism and indigenism, to a lesser extent from the Russian revolution. Close to Marxism, it moves away from it on the question of class struggle and on the importance given to the struggle for the political unity of Latin America. In 1928, the Peruvian Socialist Party was founded, notably under the leadership of José Carlos Mariátegui, himself a former member of APRA. Shortly afterwards, in 1929, the party created the General Confederation of Workers; the Republic of Peru is in a state of ongoing democratization. Led by President Martin Vizcarra, the new government is expected to be accountable. A rubberstamp body, Peru's unicameral Congress is emerging as a strong counterbalance to the once-dominant executive branch, with increased oversight and investigative powers; the executive branch and Congress are attempting to reform the judicial branch and rife with corruption.
During the government of Fujimori the 1979 Constitution was changed after the Fujimori's self-coup where the president dissolved the Congress and established the new 1993 Constitution. One of the changes to the 1979 Constitution was the possibility of the president's immediate reelection which made possible the reelection of Fujimori in the next years. After the Fujimori era and Fujimori's resign, the transition government of Valentín Paniagua changed the article 112 and called new elections in 2001 where Alejandro Toledo was elected. After that, Peru has had all presidents democratically elected. Under the current constitution, the President is the head of government. All citizens above the age of eighteen are entitled and in fact compelled to vote; the first and second vice presidents are popularly elected but have no constitutional functions unless the president is unable to discharge his duties. The President appoints the Prime Minister and the Council of Ministers, individually and collectively responsible both to the president and the legislature.
All presidential decree laws or draft bills sent to Congress must be approved by the Council of Ministers. The legislative branch consists of a unicameral Congress of 130 members. Elected for a five-year term by proportional representation In addition to passing laws, Congress ratifies treaties, authorizes government loans, approves the government budget; the president has the power to block legislation with. Template:Peruvian legislative election, 2016 The judicial branch of government is headed by a 16-member Supreme Court seated in Lima; the National Council of the Judiciary appoints judges to this court. The Constitutional Court interprets the constitution on matters of individual rights. Superior courts in regional capitals review appeals from decisions by lower courts. Courts of first instance are located in provincial capitals and are divided into civil and special chambers; the judiciary has created several temporary specialized courts in an attempt to reduce the large backlog of cases pending final court action.
Peru's legal system is based on civil law system. Peru has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction. In 1996 a human rights ombudsman's office was created to address human rights issues. Peru's territory, according to the Regionalization Law, passed on 18 November 2002, is divided into 25 regions; these regions are subdivided into provinces. There are 1747 districts in Peru. Lima Province is not part of any political region. Leftist guerrilla groups include Shining Path Abimael Guzmán. Both Shining Path & MRTA are considered terrorist organizations. In the early 1970s and 1980s many grass-roots organizations emerged in Peru, they were concerned with problems of poverty reduction. After 2000 they played an important role in the decentralisation process, their hope was that power would be divided between nat