A mountain pass is a navigable route through a mountain range or over a ridge. Since many of the world's mountain ranges have presented formidable barriers to travel, passes have played a key role in trade and both human and animal migration throughout Earth's history. At lower elevations it may be called a hill pass; the highest vehicle-accessible pass in the world appears to be Mana Pass, located in the Himalayas on the border between India and Tibet, China. Mountain passes make use of a gap, saddle, or col. A topographic saddle is analogous to the mathematical concept of a saddle surface, with a saddle point marking the highest point between two valleys and the lowest point along a ridge. On a topographic map, passes are characterized by contour lines with an hourglass shape, which indicates a low spot between two higher points. Passes are found just above the source of a river, constituting a drainage divide. A pass may be short, consisting of steep slopes to the top of the pass, or may be a valley many kilometres long, whose highest point might only be identifiable by surveying.
Roads have long been built through passes, as well as railways more recently. Some high and rugged passes may have tunnels bored underneath a nearby mountainside to allow faster traffic flow throughout the year; the top of a pass is the only flat ground in the area, is a high vantage point. In some cases this makes it a preferred site for buildings. If a national border follows a mountain range, a pass over the mountains is on the border, there may be a border control or customs station, a military post as well. For instance Argentina and Chile share the world's third-longest international border, 5,300 kilometres long; the border runs north -- south with a total of 42 mountain passes. On a road over a pass, it is customary to have a small roadside sign giving the name of the pass and its elevation above mean sea level; as well as offering easy travel between valleys, passes provide a route between two mountain tops with a minimum of descent. As a result, it is common for tracks to meet at a pass.
Passes traditionally were places for trade routes, cultural exchange, military expeditions etc. A typical example is the Brenner pass in the Alps; some mountain passes above the tree line have problems with snow drift in the winter. This might be alleviated by building the road a few meters above the ground, which will make snow blow off the road. There are many words for pass in the English-speaking world. In the United States, pass is common in the West, the word gap is common in the southern Appalachians, notch in parts of New England, saddle in northern Idaho. Scotland has the Gaelic term bealach. In the Lake District of north-west England, the term hause is used, although the term pass is common—one distinction is that a pass can refer to a route, as well as the highest part thereof, while a hause is that highest part flattened somewhat into a high-level plateau. There are thousands of named passes around the world, some of which are well-known, such as the Great St. Bernard Pass at 2,473 metres in the Alps, the Chang La at 5,360 metres, the Khardung La at 5,359 metres in Jammu and Kashmir, India.
The roads at Mana Pass at 5,610 metres and Marsimik La at 5,582 metres, on and near the China-India border appear to be world's two highest motorable passes. Khunjerab Pass between Pakistan and China at 4,693 metres is a high-altitude motorable mountain pass. Media related to Mountain passes at Wikimedia Commons
Race Driver: Grid
Race Driver: Grid is a racing video game developed and published by Codemasters for Microsoft Windows, PlayStation 3, Xbox 360, Nintendo DS, Arcade and OS X. It is the seventh game in the TOCA series. A Java ME version by Glu Mobile is now obsolete. Grid was published by Codemasters, the creators of the TOCA series, it is a game. As players progress they gain sponsors and can hire a teammate to drive alongside them in certain events; the game begins with the player accepting jobs to drive for other teams to earn money, once the player gains enough capital they can purchase their own vehicles and drive independently, as well as continuing to drive for other teams should they choose to. Grid features a gameplay mechanic known as Flashback which allows the player to rewind gameplay by up to ten seconds and resume from their chosen point; this is a limited-use feature, determined by the difficulty setting. Grid features several modes of competition using various cars. Three main regions are found in the game, United States and Japan, each with their own championship.
Each of the game's 43 cars are tied to one of these three regions. Grid features several types of events to compete in, including GT championships, touge, open wheel racing, demolition derby, as well as variants on several of these motorsports. Players can participate in the 24 Hours of Le Mans at the end of each racing season. Courses in the game are a mixture of point-to-point tracks. Real road courses such as Le Mans and Spa Francorchamps are included, while some defunct street circuits such as the Detroit street circuit in Michigan and the Washington D. C. street circuit are included. There are several fictional tracks inspired by real-world locations and circuits, such as street courses in San Francisco and Milan, Italy as well as Mount Haruna; the Nintendo DS version is a racing simulator consisting of 20 available circuits across Europe and the US, along with 25 cars to choose from. The game includes an updated version of the track designer from Race Driver: Create and Race, which allows players to create their own custom circuits and roadside billboards.
The game features vehicle customization and online multiplayer. Grid uses Codemasters' own Ego engine, an updated version of the Neon engine being used in their previous release Colin McRae: Dirt; the damage code has been rewritten to allow for environments with the potential for persistent damage. Ambisonics was used in the audio engine of the Xbox 360 versions. On 8 May 2008, a demo was released on the PlayStation Xbox Live Marketplace; the following day, a PC version of the demo was released. The demo allows players to try two game modes: drifting; the demo features a competition challenge, with a BMW 3 series, as a prize, for European-based gamers, a Ford Mustang for U. S.-based players. The American competition ended at midnight on 25 May 2008, whereas the European competition ended on 31 May 2008 at midnight; the demo has two competition tracks available online, allows up to 12 players to compete online. The demo has been downloaded by over one million people over three platforms. In 2010, an arcade version of the game was published by Sega.
Grid has had its official servers for the PC and PS3 shut down as of 19 June 2011. The servers for the 360 version are still running as of July 2014. On 19 September 2008 Codemasters announced that they would be releasing three DLC packs, the first of the three was released on 4 December 2008, the 8-Ball Pack was released on the Xbox Live Marketplace and the PlayStation Network; the pack contains eight new cars, these include the McLaren F1 GTR, TVR Cerbera Speed 12, Mitsubishi Lancer Evolution X, Honda S2000, Nissan GT-R, VW Nardo, Pontiac Firebird and the Volvo C30. The 8-Ball Pack comes complete with two new multiplayer events set on existing circuits from across Grid's three continents. On 4 March 2010 the second DLC pack dubbed; the pack adds Mount Panorama Circuit and ten cars, including the Ferrari F430 GTC, Bugatti Veyron and Ferrari F575 GTC. GRID received "favorable" reviews on all platforms according to video game review aggregator Metacritic. Edge ranked the game #41 on its list of "The 100 Best Games To Play Today", stating "It blows cobwebs from the genre, with handling a great balance of sim twitchiness and arcade abandon, breathtaking speed, a sense of being there like no other racer."North American publication Nintendo Power gave the game a score of 8.5 out of 10.
The review heaped praise on the game's robust car and course customization features, superb graphics, multiplayer modes. N-Europe gave the game an 8 out of 10. IGN awarded GRID with its DS: Best Racing Game 2008 award. Grid won several awards, including IGN's Editors' Choice Award 2008 as well as their Best Racing Game of 2008 award, it received a BAFTA award in the Sports category at the British Academy Video Games Awards. In July 2010, Codemasters revealed that a sequel to Grid was in development, was built using the improved EGO engine. On 8 August 2012, a trailer revealed that the game would be released in 2013. In 2014, a sequel to both GRID 2 and Race Driver: GRID was announced with "more authentic handling" and cockpit view; this sequel is called GRID Autosport, it was released on 24 June 2014. GRID at Killer List of Videogames GRID at MobyGames
Motorsport or motor sport is a global term used to encompass the group of competitive sporting events which involve the use of motorised vehicles, whether for racing or non-racing competition. The terminology can be used to describe forms of competition of two-wheeled motorised vehicles under the banner of motorcycle racing, includes off-road racing such as motocross. Four- wheeled motorsport competition is globally governed by the Fédération Internationale de l'Automobile; the Union Internationale Motonautique governs powerboat racing while the Fédération Aéronautique Internationale governs air sports. In 1894, a French newspaper organised a race from Paris to Rouen and back, starting city to city racing. In 1900, the Gordon Bennett Cup was established. Closed circuit racing arose. Brooklands was the first dedicated motor racing track in the United Kingdom. Following World War I, European countries organised Grand Prix races over closed courses. In the United States, dirt track racing became popular.
After World War II, the Grand Prix circuit became more formally organised. In the United States, stock car racing and drag racing became established. Motorsports became divided by types of motor vehicles into racing events, their appropriate organisations. Motor racing is the subset of motorsport activities which involve competitors racing against each other; the Red Bull RB8, the 2012 Formula One World Championship winning car Formula racing is a set of classes of motor vehicles, with their wheels outside, not contained by, any bodywork of their vehicle. These have been globally classified as specific'Formula' series - the most common being Formula One, many others include the likes of Formula 3, Formula Ford, Formula Renault and Formula Palmer Audi. However, in North America, the IndyCar series is their pinnacle open-wheeled racing series. More new open-wheeled series have been created, originating in Europe, which omit the'Formula' moniker, such as GP2 and GP3. Former ` Formula' series include Formula Two.
Formula One is a class of single-seat and open-wheel grand prix closed course racing, governed by the Fédération Internationale de l'Automobile, organized by the owned company Formula One Group. The formula regulations contain a strict set of rules which govern vehicle power and size. Formula E is a class of open-wheel auto racing; the series was conceived in 2012, the inaugural championship started in Beijing on 13 September 2014. The series is sanctioned by the FIA and races a spec chassis/battery combination with manufacturers allowed to develop their own electric power-trains; the series has gained significant traction in recent years. A series originated on June 1909 in Portland, Oregon at its first race. Shortly after, Indianapolis Motor Speedway opened in 1909 and held races that ranged from 50-200 miles, its premier race is the Indianapolis 500 which began on May 11th, 1911 and a tradition was born. Today, Indycar operates a full schedule with over 40 different drivers; the current schedule includes 14 tracks over the course of 17 races per season.
Josef Newgarden was crowned current champion of the Indycar Series at Sonoma Raceway on September 17th, 2017 in Sonoma, California. Enclosed wheel racing is a set of classes of vehicles, where the wheels are enclosed inside the bodywork of the vehicle, similar to a North American'stock car'. Sports car racing is a set of classes of vehicles, over a closed course track, including sports cars, specialised racing types; the premiere race is the 24 Hours of Le Mans which takes place annually in France during the month of June. Sports car racing rules and specifications differentiate in North America from established international sanctioning bodies. Stock car racing is a set of vehicles that race over a speedway track, organized by NASCAR. While once stock cars, the vehicles are now purpose built, but resemble the body design and shape of production cars. Bootleggers throughout the Carolinas are credited for the origins of NASCAR due to the resistance during the prohibition. Many of the vehicles were modified to increase top speed and handling, to provide the bootleggers with an advantage toward the vehicles local law enforcement would use in the area.
An important part to the modifications of stock cars, was to increase the performance of the vehicle while maintaining the same exterior look giving it the name Stock car racing. Many legends in NASCAR originated as bootleggers in the Great Smoky Mountains of North Carolina like Junior Johnson. Organized oval racing began on Daytona Beach in Florida as a hobby but gained interest from all over the country; as oval racing became larger and larger, a group gathered in hopes to form a sanctioning body for the sport. NASCAR was organized in 1947. Daytona Beach and Road Course was founded where land speed records were set on the beach, including part of A1A; the highlight of the stock car calendar is the season-opening Daytona 500 nicknamed'The Great American Race', held at Daytona International Speedway in Daytona Beach, Florida. NASCAR has now held over 2,500 sanctioned events over the course of 70 seasons. Richard Petty is known as the king of NASCAR with over 200 recorded wins in the series and has competed in 1,184 races in his career.
Touring car racing is a set of vehicles, modified street cars, that race over closed purpose built race tracks and street courses. Off-Road Racing is a group
Ridge Racer is a series of arcade racing video games developed and published by Namco for arcade and various video game consoles. In each of the games, players take part in races set in and around the fictional Ridge City while utilizing the concepts of drift racing to traverse corners, its virtual mascot is Reiko Nagase. The first game was released in 1993 and has overall spanned four arcade titles, eleven console titles, nine mobile and portable titles, it is considered influential. While there are differences among the various games, the basic gameplay in the Ridge Racer series has remained consistent. Races take place on tracks laid out on city streets and other public roads. Starting in last place, players have a limited number of laps in which they can overtake opponents and win the race; as many of the turns on the course were not intended to be taken at race speeds, players drift through the corners, attempting to maintain as much speed as possible. The latest console game of the series, 2012's Ridge Racer Unbounded, marked a notable departure from the traditional drifting style gameplay, moving to a more destructive style.
In the arcade games, the players race against a timer, with time extended for each successfully-completed lap of the course. The race will end if the timer expires or the player completes the final lap of the race, whichever occurs first. In the console-exclusive versions, players must finish the race in a minimum assigned place in order to advance through the game. Games in the series expanded these basics by introducing cars with different drifting characteristics. Another recent addition was "nitrous", which would give the player's car a short burst of additional speed and could be replenished by drifting through corners at high speeds; the tracks in the Ridge Racer series are located in and around Ridge City, a fictional coastal metropolis. Ridge City's environs are geographically diverse, including beaches, forests and mountains; the actual scope of Ridge City has changed over the series, with new regions and new tracks added continually. Most versions of the games incorporate the original courses from the Ridge Racer and Ridge Racer 2 arcade games.
Many of the tracks in a given game share components, with sections added or removed to alter the course layout, some games allow the courses to be run in the opposite direction. The Ridge Racer games use fictional cars with styling inspired by real-life cars of the day. Games introduced fictional auto companies that offer multiple vehicles. Cars in the series have taken their sponsors from various Namco-produced video games. Ridge Racer, for Namco System 22. Other versions were released such as Ridge Racer Full Scale, controlled by a real automobile and Pocket Racer for Namco System 11. Ridge Racer 2, for Namco System 22, an update to the original arcade game with multiplayer support, remixed soundtrack, a rear view mirror. Rave Racer, for Namco System 22. Ridge Racer V: Arcade Battle, for Namco System 246. Pachi-slot Ridge Racer, pachislot parody of Ridge Racer series. Pachi-slot Ridge Racer 2, pachislot parody of Ridge Racer series. Ridge Racer, for the PlayStation, similar to the arcade with an optional third person view.
Début of 13th Racing. A new version of the original game called Ridge Racer Turbo featured a reduced number of game modes but run at 60fps and featured gouraud shading, absent from the original; this version was given away as a bonus with R4: Ridge Racer Type 4. Ridge Racer Revolution, for the PlayStation. 13th Racing Kid and White Angel made their grand début in this game, challenging the player in the game's Time Trial mode. Soundtrack was taken from the Ridge Racer 2 arcade game. Rage Racer, for the PlayStation; this game marked the début of customization aspects. R4: Ridge Racer Type 4, for the PlayStation. Following the Rage Racer formula, but instead of customization, there are four racing teams to choose from. Ridge Racer 64, for the Nintendo 64, features tracks from Ridge Racer and Ridge Racer Revolution and its own set of desert tracks exclusive to the N64. Ridge Racer V, for the PlayStation 2 allows slight customisation, R4-style Grand Prix races are present rather than the original's free-form structure.
R: Racing Evolution, for the GameCube, PlayStation 2, Xbox. Critical Velocity, for the PlayStation 2 known as Rune Chaser. Plot-based spin-off game featuring Ridge Racer cars. Ridge Racer 6, for the Xbox 360. Ridge Racer 7, for the PlayStation 3 allowed complete customization of vehicles from body kits to engine parts and paint jobs. Pachi-slot Ridge Racer, for the PlayStation 2. Ridge Racer Unbounded, for Microsoft Windows, PlayStation 3, Xbox 360. Ridge Racer DS, fo
Need for Speed: Carbon
Need for Speed: Carbon is a 2006 racing video game developed for several platforms by EA Canada, Rovio Mobile and EA Black Box. It is published by Electronic Arts, it is the tenth installment in the Need for Speed series and a sequel to Need for Speed: Most Wanted. The PlayStation Portable, Nintendo DS and Game Boy Advance versions of the game are called Need for Speed: Carbon – Own the City, set in a fictional city named Coast City with a different storyline and featuring different AI teammate abilities. In 2009, a version of Own the City was released on the Zeebo as a pre-installed game, it was followed by Need for Speed: ProStreet in the following year. The gameplay of Need for Speed: Carbon is similar to its predecessors, Need for Speed: Most Wanted and Underground 2, but based upon rival street racing crews instead of individuals. Players run a crew and can hire specific street racers to be in their crew and the active friendly racer is known as a wingman; each employable street racer has a racing skill and a non-race skill.
Each skill has different properties from finding hidden alleys/back streets to reducing police attention. Cars driven by the wingmen are different. Car classes are Tuners and Exotics, are associated with their own borough and Boss. Players must choose a class when starting Career Mode, which will be permanent throughout the career; each choice starts in a different district, with corresponding initial car choices and unlocks as the game progresses. Players may choose from any class of car, can unlock cars that are reserved for Quick Races as they earn Reward Cards. In Career Mode, races cannot be redone for the same purse, it is necessary for players to plan which cars they will buy and upgrade, to avoid running out of money. There are phone calls and emails to go along with the storyline. Winning races causes new races to show up on the map. All gameplay takes place at night; as in Most Wanted the player can use Nitrous Oxide and Speedbreaker, which accumulate from driving, not from specific skill use to earn them.
Gameplay control methods vary from console to console. In PlayStation 3 and Xbox 360 versions, control steering through the control pad, while acceleration and other controls can be configured and mapped to the different buttons on the controllers; the Driving Force GT and G27 racing wheels can be used, this is the first Need for Speed title to implement force-feedback and the 900 degree turning radius. In Windows version and wheel controllers are supported, as well as those that support force feedback. Wii version lacks online play, but supports the use of the Wii Remote. Carbon features some online exclusive game modes, such as pursuit knockout, somewhat similar to lap knockout from Need for Speed: High Stakes. Players can upload in-game screenshots to the Need for Speed website, complete with stats and modifications; the Pursuit Knockout and Pursuit Tag game modes are modes that allow the player to play as either a racer or a cop. Pursuit Knockout is a lap knockout with a twist; the racers that are knocked out of the race come back as cops and it's their job to try to stop the other racers from finishing the race through any means necessary.
The player that finishes the race wins. Pursuit Tag begins with the rest of the players as cops, it is the cops' job to arrest the racer. The cop that makes the arrest turns into a racer and has to try to avoid the cops; the player who spends the most time as a racer wins. Unlike Need for Speed: Most Wanted and Underground, Carbon has no drag racing. However, Carbon features the return of drift racing, a mode, included in two previous installments Need for Speed: Underground and Underground 2, but omitted from Carbon's predecessor, Most Wanted. Other familiar race forms return, such as Sprint, "Tollbooth". There are no Street Knockout races. A new mode named "Rival Crew Challenge", consists getting a rival challenge, the player selecting a target spot on the map it's a race to the target spot. Most of Carbon's focus lies based on Japanese Touge races. There are four types of Canyon Events: Canyon Duel, Canyon Sprint, Canyon Checkpoint and Canyon Drift. Canyon Duels have two stages: In the first stage, the player chases the rival and accumulates points faster the closer they stick to the opponent.
In the second stage, the roles are reversed and the player's points decline faster the closer the opponent is. If anyone falls behind or is overtaken and passed, without regaining the distance, after ten seconds they lose. Players can lose by going off the cliff edge; some races have destructible, lit-up guardrails players must be careful not to crash through, some have solid walls. The Canyon Drift and Canyon Duel race modes are based on the final race taking place at a touge, featured in the 2006 film The Fast and the Furious: Tokyo Drift. In Career mode, players have to win races throughout the city to conquer territories, face off against bosses to conquer the first three boroughs. To challenge Darius and win the game, players must defeat the three Bosses in two final races and defeat Darius in a Circuit race and a Canyon Duel. Th
Initial D is a Japanese street racing manga series written and illustrated by Shuichi Shigeno. It was serialized in Weekly Young Magazine from 1995 to 2013, with the chapters collected into 48 tankōbon volumes by Kodansha; the story focuses on the world of illegal Japanese street racing, where all the action is concentrated in the mountain passes and in cities or urban areas, with the drifting racing style emphasized in particular. Professional race car driver and pioneer of drifting Keiichi Tsuchiya helped with editorial supervision; the story is centered on the prefecture of Gunma, more on several mountains in the Kantō region and in their surrounding cities and towns. Although some of the names of the locations the characters race in have been fictionalized, all of the locations in the series are based on actual locations in Japan. Initial D has been adapted into several anime television and original video animations series by OB Studio Comet, Studio Gallop, Pastel, A. C. G. T and SynergySP.
A live action film by Avex and Media Asia was released in 2005. Both the manga and anime series were licensed for English-language distribution in North America by Tokyopop, the anime license has since been picked up by Funimation, while the manga is no longer available in English; the story is about 18 year old Takumi Fujiwara, an average high school kid. His father, Bunta Fujiwara, owns Takumi is the delivery boy, he uses his father's Panda 1985 Toyota Sprinter Trueno GT Apex AE86 to do the deliveries. Takumi hated driving; the deliveries train his extraordinary driving skills. His friends learn about his skills, introduce Takumi into the world of Touge racing. Takumi loves street racing, driving altogether, he has only one priority: To become the best driver in the Gunma Prefecture; the protagonist, Takumi Fujiwara, is a gas station attendant working with his friend Itsuki to buy a car, which they plan to drift on the twisting roads surrounding nearby Mount Akina. Unbeknownst to his colleagues, Takumi moonlights as a tofu delivery driver for his father's store before sunrise each morning, passively building an impressive amount of skill behind the wheel of the family car, an aging Toyota Sprinter Trueno.
Shortly after the story begins, the Red Suns, an amateur racing team from Mount Akagi led by Ryosuke Takahashi, challenge the local Speedstars team to a set of races on Mount Akina. Dispirited after watching the Red Suns' superior performance during a practice run, the Speedstars expect to lose; that night, the Red Suns' #2 driver, Keisuke Takahashi, heading home after the last practice run, is defeated soundly by a mysterious Sprinter Trueno, despite driving a much more powerful Mazda RX-7. An investigation into the identity of the driver leads to Takumi's father; the Speedstars beg Bunta to help them defeat the Red Suns, he refuses relenting to "maybe" show up at the race. At the same time, Takumi asks Bunta if he can borrow the car for a day to take a trip to the beach with a potential girlfriend, Bunta seizes the moment by granting permission on the condition that Takumi defeats Keisuke. On the night of the race, the Trueno does not show up, the Speedstars enlist a backup driver for the first run.
At the last moment before the race starts, the AE86 arrives. Takumi steps out of the car to the bewilderment of the Speedstars, he defeats Keisuke by utilizing a dangerous "Gutter run" technique on the mountain road's hairpin corners. The Red Suns' embarrassing defeat sets up the plot for the rest of the series: drivers from neighboring prefectures come to challenge Takumi and the "Legendary Eight-Six of Akina" and thus prove themselves as racers; the plot moves away from Mount Akina as Takumi becomes bored with racing on that road. He joins an experimental racing team formed by the disbanded Red Suns and challenges more difficult opponents on their home courses in the pursuit of his dream to be "the fastest driver out there". Initial D manga Japanese release: 48 Volumes Initial D manga Tokyopop release: 33 Volumes The first Initial D volume was released in Japan on November 6, 1995 and concluded on July 29, 2013; the manga has been translated into Chinese and English over its publication run.
As of 2013, 48 volumes have been published. The manga and anime were licensed for English releases in North America by Tokyopop; the company changed the names of the characters in the anime edition, subsequently changed them in the manga to match. These name changes were to reflect the name changes that Sega implemented into the western releases of the Initial D A Stage video games due to name length limits. Tokyopop cut out a character's enjo kōsai relationship with another and edited sex scenes, appearing in volumes 1 and 9 in the original manga. In addition, "street slang" was interlaced in translations; the manga had some translation errors. One example was the technical term "Wastegate", translated as "West Gate". Another was an inaccurate explanation of. Many of the explanations of automotive design an