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Tōkaidō Shinkansen

The Tōkaidō Shinkansen is a Japanese high-speed Shinkansen line, opened in 1964 between Tokyo and Shin-Ōsaka. Since 1987 it has been operated by the Central Japan Railway Company, prior to that by Japanese National Railways, it is the oldest high-speed rail system in the world and one of the most used. The line was named a joint Historic Mechanical Engineering Landmark and IEEE Milestone by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers and the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers in 2000. Nozomi: limited-stop services, since March 1992 Hikari: semi-fast services Kodama: all-stations shuttle servicesThere are three types of trains on the line: from fastest to slowest, they are the Nozomi and Kodama. Many Nozomi and Hikari trains continue onward to the San'yō Shinkansen, going as far as Fukuoka's Hakata Station. 700 series and N700 series train sets operate on the line in any of the three service patterns. The Hikari run from Tokyo to Osaka took four hours in 1964. With the introduction of high-speed Nozomi service in 1992, the travel time was shortened to 2 hours 30 minutes.

The introduction of N700 series trains in 2007 further reduced the Nozomi travel time to 2 hours 25 minutes. As of 14 March 2015, after a speed increase to 285 km/h, the fastest Nozomi service now takes 2 hours 22 minutes from Tokyo to Shin-Osaka; as of August 2008, Hikari services travel from Tokyo to Shin-Osaka in 3 hours, with all-stopping Kodama services making the same run in about 4 hours. Nozomi trains are not valid for foreign tourists travelling with a Japan Rail Pass. Kodama trains stop at all stations. Nozomi and Hikari trains have varying stopping patterns. All trains stop at Tokyo, Shin-Yokohama, Nagoya and Shin-Osaka. 700 series 16-car sets, since March 1999 N700A series 16-car sets, since 1 July 2007 N700A series 16-car sets, since 8 February 2013 N700S 16-car sets, to be introduced by JR Central from fiscal 2020The last service operated by 700 series trainsets is scheduled to take place on 8 March 2020, after which all Tokaido Shinkansen services are scheduled to be operated by N700A series or N700A series trainsets.

0 series 12/16-car sets, 1 October 1964 to 18 September 1999 100 series 16-car sets, 1 October 1985 to September 2003 300 series 16-car sets, March 1992 to 16 March 2012 500 series 16-car sets, November 1997 to February 2010 The Tokaido Shinkansen line was conceived in 1940 as a 150 km/h dedicated railway between Tokyo and Shimonoseki, which would have been 50% faster than the fastest express train(Bullet Train Project) of the time. The beginning of World War II stalled the project in its early planning stages, although a few tunnels were dug that were used in the Shinkansen route. Construction of the line began on 20 April 1959 under JNR president Shinji Sogō and chief engineer Hideo Shima, it was completed in 1964, with the first train travelling from Tokyo to Shin-Osaka on 1 October 1964 at 210 km/h. The opening was timed to coincide with the 1964 Summer Olympics in Tokyo, which had brought international attention to the country; the line was called the New Tokaido Line in English. It is named after the Tokaido route of Japan, used for centuries.

Speeds have been increased to 285 km/h, except for lower limits applying between Tokyo and Shin-Yokohama and in densely populated urban areas around Nagoya and Shin-Osaka stations. A new Shinkansen stop at Shinagawa Station opened in October 2003, accompanied by a major timetable change which increased the number of daily Nozomi services. All Tōkaidō Shinkansen train services to and from Tokyo make mandatory stops at Shinagawa and Shin-Yokohama. A new station, Minami-Biwako, was planned to open in 2012 between Maibara and Kyoto to allow a transfer to the Kusatsu Line. Construction started in May 2006, but in September 2006, the Ōtsu district court ruled that the ¥4.35 billion bond that Rittō city had issued to fund construction was illegal under the local finance law and had to be cancelled. The project was cancelled in October 2007. From 1964 to 2012, the Tokaido Shinkansen line alone carried some 5.3 billion passengers. Ridership increased from 61,000 per day in 1964 to 391,000 per day in 2012.

By 2016, the route was carrying 452,000 passengers per day on 365 daily services making it one of the busiest high speed lines in the world. It was announced in June 2010 that a new shinkansen station in Samukawa, Kanagawa Prefecture was under consideration by JR Central. If constructed, the station would open. In December 2013, JR Central president Yoshiomi Yamada announced the operating company's intentions to raise the maximum line speed beyond 270 km/h, with a revised timetable to be introduced in spring 2015. In February 2014, JR Central announced that, from spring 2015, the maximum speed would be increased to 285 km/h for services using N700A or modified N700 series trains. Just one service per hour would run at 285 km/h, with more services added, as the older 700 series is phased out. By May 2020, all 700 series train are planned to have been retired from service on the line, completing the transition to 285 km/h operation. Shizuoka Prefecture has long lobbied JR Central for the construction of a sta

Josip Horvat Međimurec

Josip Horvat, born in Čakovec, was a Croatian painter. Horvat was born to Marija Horvat in Čakovec, he attended elementary school in Čakovec, grade school in Nagykanizsa and Pest. He attended the Academy of Fine Arts Vienna from 1917 to 1923, he started working in Zagreb in 1924, supported by patron Antun Ullrich, worked there until his death, shortly after the Second World War. Having been accused of collaboration with authorities of the Independent State of Croatia, he was executed by the Yugoslav Partisans, without trial; the place of his burial is unknown. Josip Horvat illustrated the following books: Dragutin Nemet: "Prince Zoran" Mark Šeparović: "Croatian history grandfather granddaughter" Milutin Majer: "Tatars in Croatia"He illustrated novels Marija Jurić Zagorka coming out in installments in Jutarnji list 1929 to 1931. Art Pavilion in Zagreb 16.-30. XI. 1928.. XI. – 4. XII. 1936.. II. 1941.. VII. – 11. VIII. 1942 "Pictorial impressions from battlefield". XI. – 13. XII. 1942. "II Exhibitions Croatian arts in the Independent State of Croatia".

– 31. X. 1943. "III Exhibitions Croatian arts in the Independent State of Croatia". VI. – 9. VII. 1944. "IV Exhibitions Croatian arts in the Independent State of Croatia". Historical painting in Croatia", Zagreb 1969. Towns and countryside on pictures and drawing from 1800. to 1940", Zagreb 1977. Josip Horvat Međimurec, author of monumental scenes from the Croatian history and forgotten academic painter on YouTube Overview of some of the Horvat's paintings Horvat - one of the most famous Croatian patriotic painters

Bulgarka Junior Quartet

Bulgarka Junior Quartet is a Bulgarian vocal folklore ensemble. Bulgarka Junior Quartet was formed in 1989 in Plovdiv, as the initiator for the formation of the group is Rumyana Tsintsarska; the concept behind the name of the formation - Bulgarka Junior Quartet comes from Latin word "junior" - "young" in English, selected coincidentally, as a sign of continuity between generations folk singers - in 1989, when Trio Bulgarka ensemble are at the zenith of their fame and have realized joint projects with musicians such as George Harrison and Kate Bush. The repertoire of the ensemble covers both traditional Bulgarian folk songs and rearranged Bulgarian folklore music by some of the most notable contemporary composers and interpreters of Bulgarian folk rhythms as Ivan Spassov, Krasimir Kyurkchiyski, Theodosi Spassov, Stefan Mutafchiev, Nikolai Kaufman, Dimitar Trifonov and others; the initial ensemble of the quartet include singers Christina Anastasova, Fanka Koynarova, Vichka Nikolova and Tonka Koleva who were members of Trakia Ensemble at the time.

As vocalists at Trakia Ensemble the four folk singers were among the first Bulgarian artists who sang on the stage of Olympia Hall in Paris, France. The first album of the quartet was released by Mega Music Label; the promotion of the album started at MIDEM Festival in France. Between 1989 and 1993 Bulgarka Junior Quartet had several concert tours in Finland, Israel and participated in the famous Wagner Days; the concert of the ensemble took place in famous Bayreuth Festspielhaus. At the end of 1993 Vichka Nikolova left the ensemble in pursuit of a solo career; as of 1994, Bulgarka Junior Quartet members are: Christina Anastasova raised and educated in Strandzha folklore tradition. Anastasova graduated with honors Music School "Philip Koutev" Kotel and the Academy of Music and Dance in Plovdiv and in 1997 she released her first solo album "Living With Strandzhas' Songs" Fanka Koynarova who as a child was a part of a youth ensemble in Smolyan and graduated Music School Shiroka Laka and Academy of Music and Dance in Plovdiv, Bulgaria.

In 1998 Koynarova released a joint album with Mladen Koynarov, year before that, in 1997 she debuted as solo artist with the project called "A Rhodopa Song". Elena Bedeleva graduated with honors Music School "Philip Koutev" Kotel and Academy of Music and Fine Arts Plovdiv, Bulgaria. Tonka Koleva began singing appearances since childhood as a vocalist of the Children's Folklore Ensemble Haskovo and graduated with honors Music School "Philip Koutev" Kotel, Bulgaria and и Academy of Music and Fine Arts Plovdiv, Bulgaria. In 1994 she released her first solo album "Walnut Leaf"; each of Bulgarka Junior Quartet members come from different Bulgarian folklore region with specific and rich vocal heritage and each one of them was brought with folklore singing as a family tradition and started professional careers as musicians by own choice. All this, the fact that they are musically educated contribute to their professional growth through long years of artistic career; the first concerts of Bulgarka Junior Quartet took place during the MIDEM Festival in Cannes, France.

This is the first introduction of the ensemble to the world music scene. The quartet toured in France, Germany, Morocco, Italy and England; the quartet's repertoire is diverse in style-wise. Bulgarka Junior Quartet's discography includes collaborations with Kepa Junkera, Juan Peña Fernández El Lebrijano, Sabin Todorov, A Filetta, Bolyari Ensemble, Nikolay Kaufmann and Bruno Kule. In 1998 the group took part in the Sfinks Festival, where they shared a stage with names like Susana Baca and Jorge Ben Jor. Quartet was invited to play a musical accompaniment for the fashion review of British/Turkish Cypriot fashion designer Hussein Chalayan that took place during the London Fashion Week in 1999 where Chalayan won for the second time Best Designer of the Year Award. In the summer of 2009 Bulgarian Junior Quartet were invited to participate in "Unique Voices of Bulgaria" concert that aimed to revive the architectural and historic Old Town of Plovdiv as a national music scene for high arts. Tonka Koleva, Fanka Koynarova, Elena Bedeleva and Christina Atanasova enchanted audience with its rich folklore program, including acappella chants and folk songs to the accompaniment of flute and percussion.

In the month of June 2011 the quartet participated in Finland. The concert of the quartet was a collaboration with Sabin Todorov, the event took place in the Old Customs House Hall. 1989 "Bulgarian Folklore" 1994 "PALESTRINA missa primi toni" 1995 "Legend of Bulgarian Voices" 1996 "The Magic Voices of Bulgaria" 1997 "Traditional Bulgarian Folk Songs" 2010 Inside Story 2 Sabin Todorov Trio, Sal La Rocca & Lionel Beuvens 2011 Folk Series: Bulgarka Junior Quartet & Bulgarian National Radio Folk Orchestra 1999 Various Artists "El Lebrijanо: Lagrimas De Cera" 1999 Kepa Hunkera "Bilbao 00:00h" 2001 "Le peuple migrateur" Bruno Coulais 2001 Kepa Junkera "Maren" 2003 Kepa Junkera "K" 2004 Hughes De Courson – Lux Obscura "Un Projet Electro-Medieval" (Издател:Balloon Noir/EMI R

Lawless v. Ireland

Lawless v Ireland was the first international court case decision that involved the interpretation of international human rights law and the first one filed against a country. It was referred to the European Court of Human Rights and the judgement by that court was its first; the case was filed by Gerard Richard Lawless, an IRA member, although he claimed to have left the IRA. He was arrested on 11 July 1957, as he was about to travel to Great Britain from Ireland, subsequently detained under the special powers of indefinite detention without trial under the Offences against the State Act 1940; the case was filed by Lawless for violation, by the Irish Government, of Articles 5, 6 and 7 of the European Convention of Human Rights, providing rights to liberty and security, fair trial and the principle of'no punishment without law'. The Offences against the State Act 1940 was introduced by the Irish government as a response to a sabotage campaign initiated by the IRA in January 1939. Lawless was an IRA member and had been arrested in 1956 after guns and other weapons were found in County Leitrim.

Lawless was detained under emergency legislation on his third arrest. The Irish government's case was presented by the Attorney General of Ireland, Aindrias Ó Caoimh, while Lawless was represented by Seán MacBride; the case was dismissed. Lawless v. Ireland judgement

Jonathan Alder

Jonathan Alder was an American pioneer, the first white settler in Madison County, Ohio. As a young child living in Virginia, Alder was kidnapped by Shawnee Indians, adopted by a Mingo chief in the Ohio Country, he lived with the Native Americans for many years before returning to the white community. Alder settled near present-day Plain City, where he became a farmer, he was reunited with his birth family, which moved to Ohio with him, had a short career as a military officer during the War of 1812. A middle school, high school, school district in Plain City all bear his name. Alder was born September 17, 1773, in Gloucester, New Jersey, to Bartholomew Alder and Hannah Worthington; the family moved in 1775 to Wythe County, where Alder's father died about a year later. In May 1782, Jonathan, at eight years old, was sent out with his brother David to search for a couple of horses that ran away, they were attacked by a small group of Shawnee Indians from Ohio. David saw the Indians first and tried to escape, but he was chased down and scalped.

The Indian group captured Alder's neighbor, Mrs. Martin, her young child; the group travelled north, passing present-day Chillicothe, Ohio, on the way to a Mingo village on the north side of the Mad River, somewhere near present-day Logan County, Ohio. During the trip the Indians scalped Martin's child, which they found burdensome. Martin responded by screaming in grief. Alder's life was spared due to his appearance, his captors thought. When the group reached the village, Alder learned. One of the Mingo chiefs and his wife, were an aging couple who had lost their son, planned to adopt Alder as a replacement. Alder was forced to run the gauntlet, as a rite of passage, after he exhibited bravery during the trial, he was adopted and cared for by Whinecheoh; the Indian's other prisoner, Mrs. Martin, had been promised to a man in another village, was taken away during Alder's adoption ceremony; the first few years that Alder lived with the Indians he was ill, a condition Alder attributed to the Indians' diet.

The other children in the village were friendly towards Alder, worked together to teach him their language and traditions. In time, Alder adopted the Mingo way of life; when he was old enough he was given an English musket, which he used to hunt mud turtles, wild turkeys, raccoons. He was praised in the village for his hunting skills, he grew attached to his new life and when, in 1783, a trader from Kentucky offered to exchange him for a Shawnee prisoner, Alder refused. Alder was living in the Indian village of Mack-a-chack when it was destroyed by Benjamin Logan during his raid into Ohio Country in 1786, he accompanied the Indians on raids into Kentucky to steal horses from white settlers. In 1790, Whinecheoh died at the age of eighty, Succohanes died in 1792 at the age of ninety. After their deaths, Alder wandered from village to village, began courting an Indian woman from Upper Sandusky named Barshaw. In the fall of 1793, during the peak of the Northwest Indian War, he joined Shawnee chief Blue Jacket to defend against Anthony Wayne's attacks in the Ohio Country, took part in the attack on Fort Recovery on June 30, 1794.

Alder was asked for advice on the 1795 Treaty of Greenville on land reservations, urged by the Indians to attend its signing. Alder, not realizing the treaty's importance, chose not to attend. In the summer after the signing of the Treaty of Greenville, which restored peace between Indians and settlers, Alder decided to return to the white community, he married Barshaw, settled in Pleasant Valley, in the area of Jerome Township, about 5 miles north of present-day Plain City, Ohio. He built a cabin, took up the lifestyle of a farmer, raised hogs and horses, he sold milk and butter he made to the Indians, pork and horses to the whites. Alder began adopting the white community's habits, learned English from the other white settlers. While living in Pleasant Valley, Barshaw struggled to integrate with settler life, she gave birth to two of Alder's children. The couple decided the Great Spirit was opposed to their marriage, separated. Alder gave Barshaw most of the couple's property, including the cabin, all of the cows, seven horses, about $200 in silver.

Alder kept the hogs. After some time Alder developed interest in his original family in Virginia. A companion, John Moore, learned that Alder had been taken prisoner near Greenbrier, traveled to Wythe County to search for Alder's family. Initial inquiries were unsuccessful, but one of a series of advertisements Moore placed in the district was seen by Alder's surviving brother Paul. Paul wrote Jonathan to inform him that the family was still alive. Alder left for Paul's house, with Moore, in November 1805, he and Moore arrived in Virginia the Sunday after New Year, Alder was reunited with his biological mother and siblings. Alder stayed with his family in Virginia for over a year, while visiting his family he met and fell in love with Mary Ann Blont, a woman from Virginia; the couple were married on January 6, 1806, in August 1806, Alder and the rest of Alder's family returned to Pleasant Valley. Alder built another log cabin along the Big Darby Creek in 1806, he and Mary had 12 children between 1808 and 1830.

During the War of 1812, during the summer of 1812 or 1813, Alder was elected captain of a company of 70 men formed in Plain City. Wit

1911 Canadian federal election

The 1911 Canadian federal election was held on September 21 to elect members of the House of Commons of Canada of the 12th Parliament of Canada. The central issue was Liberal support for a proposed treaty with the US to lower tariffs; the Conservatives denounced it because it threatened to weaken ties with Britain and submerge the Canadian economy and Canadian identity into its big neighbour. The Conservatives won, Robert Borden became prime minister; the idea of a Canadian Navy was an issue. The election ended 15 years of government by the Liberal Party of Wilfrid Laurier; the Liberal Party government was caught up in a debate over the naval arms race between the British Empire and Germany. Laurier attempted a compromise by starting up the Canadian Navy, but this failed to appease either the French or English Canadians. After the election, the Conservatives drew up a bill for naval contributions to the British, but it was held up by a lengthy Liberal filibuster before being passed by invoking closure it was struck down by the Liberal-controlled Senate.

Many English Canadians in British Columbia and the Maritimes felt that Laurier was abandoning Canada's traditional links to their mother country, Great Britain. On the other side, Quebec nationalist Henri Bourassa, having earlier quit the Liberal Party over what he considered the government's pro-British policies, campaigned against Laurier in that province. Bourassa's attacks on Laurier in Quebec aided in the election of the Conservatives, who held more staunchly Imperialist policies than the Liberals. In mid-1910, Laurier had attempted to kill the Naval issue, settling Anglo-Canadians against French-Canadians by opening talks for a reciprocity treaty with the United States, he believed that an economically favourable treaty would appeal to most Canadians and have the additional benefit of dividing the Conservatives between the western wing of the party, which had long wanted free trade with the United States, the eastern wing, which were more opposed to Continentalism. In January 1911, Laurier and President William Howard Taft of the United States announced that they signed a reciprocity agreement, which they decided to pass by concurrent legislation rather than a formal treaty, as would been the case.

As such, the reciprocity agreement had to be ratified by both houses of the US Congress rather than just the Senate, which Laurier would regret. The base of Liberal support shifted to Western Canada, seeking markets for its agricultural products, it had long been a proponent of free trade with the United States. The protected manufacturing businesses of Central Canada were against it; the Liberals, who by ideology and history were in favour of free trade, decided to make the issue the central plank of their re-election strategy, they negotiated a free trade agreement in natural products with the United States. Allen argues that two speeches by American politicians gave the Conservatives the ammunition needed to arouse anti-American, pro-British sentiments, which provided the winning votes; the Speaker of the US House of Representatives was a Democrat, Champ Clark, he declared, on the floor of the House, "I look forward to the time when the American flag will fly over every square foot of British North America up to the North Pole.

The people of Canada are of our blood and language." Clark went on to suggest in his speech that reciprocity agreement was the first step towards the end of Canada, a speech, greeted with "prolonged applause" according to the Congressional Record. The Washington Post reported, "Evidently the Democrats approved of Mr. Clark's annexation sentiments and voted for the reciprocity bill because, among other things, it improves the prospect of annexation."The Chicago Tribune, in an editorial, condemned Clark and warned that Clark's speech might have fatally damaged the reciprocity agreement in Canada and stated, "He lets his imagination run wild like a Missouri mule on a rampage. Remarks about the absorption of one country by another grate harshly on the ears of the smaller."A Republican Representative, William M. Bennett, a member of the House Foreign Relations Committee, introduced a resolution that asked the Taft administration to begin talks with Britain on how the United States might best annex Canada.

Taft rejected the proposal and asked the committee to take a vote on the resolution, but the Conservatives now had more ammunition. Since Bennett, a strong protectionist, had been an opponent of the reciprocity agreement, the Canadian historian Chantal Allen suggested that Bennett had introduced his resolution deliberately inflame Canadian opinion against the reciprocity agreement. Clark's speech had provoked massive outrage in Canada. Bennett's resolution was taken by many Canadians as more proof that the Conservatives were right that the reciprocity agreement would result in American annexation of Canada; the Washington Post noted that the effect of Clark's speech and Bennett's resolution in Canada had "roused the opponents of reciprocity in and out of Parliament to the highest pitch of excitement they have yet reached". The Montreal Daily Star, English Canada's most read newspaper and had supported the Liberals and reciprocity, now did a volte-face and turned against the reciprocity agreement.

In an editorial, it wrote, "None of us realized the inward meaning of the shrewdly framed offer of the long headed American government when we first saw it. It was as cunning a trap as laid; the master bargainers of Washington have not lost their skill."Contemporary accounts mentioned in the aftermath of Clark's speech that anti-Americanism w