Japanese Americans are Americans who are or of Japanese descent those who identify with that ancestry, along with their cultural characteristics. Japanese Americans were among the three largest Asian American ethnic communities during the 20th century. According to the 2010 census, the largest Japanese American communities were found in California with 272,528, Hawaii with 185,502, New York with 37,780, Washington with 35,008, Illinois with 17,542, Ohio with 16,995. Southern California has the largest Japanese American population in North America and the city of Torrance holds the densest Japanese American population in the 48 contiguous states. People from Japan began migrating to the US in significant numbers following the political and social changes stemming from the Meiji Restoration in 1868. Large numbers went to Hawaii and the West Coast. In 1907, the "Gentlemen's Agreement" between the governments of Japan and the US ended immigration of Japanese unskilled workers, but permitted the immigration of businessmen and spouses of Japanese immigrants in the US.
The Immigration Act of 1924 banned the immigration of nearly all Japanese. The ban on immigration produced unusually well-defined generational groups within the Japanese American community. Original immigrants belonged to an immigrant generation, the Issei, their US-born children to the Nisei Japanese American generation; the Issei comprised those who had immigrated before 1924. Because no new immigrants were permitted, all Japanese Americans born after 1924 were—by definition—born in the US; this generation, the Nisei, became a distinct cohort from the Issei generation in terms of age and English-language ability, in addition to the usual generational differences. Institutional and interpersonal racism led many of the Nisei to marry other Nisei, resulting in a third distinct generation of Japanese Americans, the Sansei. Significant Japanese immigration did not occur again until the Immigration and Nationality Act of 1965 ended 40 years of bans against immigration from Japan and other countries.
The Naturalization Act of 1790 restricted naturalized United States citizenship to "free white persons", which excluded the Issei from citizenship. As a result, the Issei were unable to vote and faced additional restrictions such as the inability to own land under many state laws. Japanese Americans were parties in several important Supreme Court decisions, including Ozawa v. United States and Korematsu v. United States; the Korematsu case originated the "strict scrutiny" standard, applied, with great controversy, in government considerations of race since the 1989 Adarand Constructors v. Peña decision. In recent years, immigration from Japan has been more like that from Western Europe; the numbers involve on average 5 to 10 thousand per year, is similar to the amount of immigration to the US from Germany. This is in stark contrast to the rest of Asia, where family reunification is the primary impetus for immigration. During World War II, an estimated 120,000 Japanese Americans and Japanese nationals or citizens residing on the West Coast of the United States were forcibly interned in ten different camps across the western interior of the country.
The internments were based on the ancestry rather than activities of the interned. Families, including children, were interned together. Four decades the Civil Liberties Act of 1988 acknowledged the "fundamental violations of the basic civil liberties and constitutional rights" of the internment. Many Japanese-Americans consider the term internment camp a euphemism and prefer to refer to the forced relocation of Japanese-Americans as imprisonment in concentration camps. Webster's New World Fourth College Edition defines a concentration camp as, "A prison camp in which political dissidents, members of minority ethnic groups, etc. are confined." The nomenclature for each of their generations who are citizens or long-term residents of countries other than Japan, used by Japanese Americans and other nationals of Japanese descent are explained here. The Japanese American communities have themselves distinguished their members with terms like Issei and Sansei, which describe the first and third generations of immigrants.
The fourth generation is called Yonsei, the fifth is called Gosei. The term Nikkei encompasses Japanese immigrants of all generations; the kanreki, a pre-modern Japanese rite of passage to old age at 60, is now being celebrated by increasing numbers of Japanese American Nisei. Rituals are enactments of shared meanings and values. Issei and many nisei speak Japanese in addition to English as a second language. In general generations of Japanese Americans speak English as their first language, though some do learn Japanese as a second language. In Hawaii however, where Nikkei are about one-fifth of the whole population, Japanese is a major language and studied by many of the state's residents across ethnicities, it is taught in private Japanese language schools as early as the second grade. As a courtesy to the large number of Japanese tourists, Japanese characters are provided on place signs, public transportation, civic facilities; the Hawaii media market h
Manzanar is most known as the site of one of ten American concentration camps where over 110,000 Japanese Americans were incarcerated during World War II from December 1942 to 1945. Located at the foot of the Sierra Nevada in California's Owens Valley between the towns of Lone Pine to the south and Independence to the north, it is 230 miles north of Los Angeles. Manzanar was identified by the United States National Park Service as the best-preserved of the former camp sites, is now the Manzanar National Historic Site, which preserves and interprets the legacy of Japanese American incarceration in the United States. Long before the first incarcerees arrived in March 1942, Manzanar was home to Native Americans, who lived in villages near several creeks in the area. Ranchers and miners formally established the town of Manzanar in 1910, but abandoned the town by 1929 after the City of Los Angeles purchased the water rights to the entire area; as different as these groups were, their histories displayed a common thread of forced relocation.
Since the last incarcerees left in 1945, former incarcerees and others have worked to protect Manzanar and to establish it as a National Historic Site to ensure that the history of the site, along with the stories of those who were unjustly incarcerated there, are remembered by current and future generations. The primary focus is the Japanese American incarceration era, as specified in the legislation that created the Manzanar National Historic Site; the site interprets the former town of Manzanar, the ranch days, the settlement by the Owens Valley Paiute, the role that water played in shaping the history of the Owens Valley. Since the end of World War II, there has been debate over the terminology used to refer to Manzanar, the other camps in which Americans of Japanese ancestry and their immigrant parents, were incarcerated by the United States Government during the war. Manzanar has been referred to as a "War Relocation Center," "relocation camp," "relocation center," "internment camp," and "concentration camp," and the controversy over which term is the most accurate and appropriate continues to the present day.
Dr. James Hirabayashi, Professor Emeritus and former Dean of Ethnic Studies at San Francisco State University, wrote an article in 1994 in which he stated that he wonders why euphemistic terms used to describe camps such as Manzanar are still being used. Let us review the main points of the debate. Over 120,000 residents of the U. S. A. two thirds of whom were American citizens, were incarcerated under armed guard. There were no crimes committed, no trials, no convictions: the Japanese Americans were political incarcerees. To detain American citizens in a site under armed guard constitutes a "concentration camp." But what were the terms used by the government officials who were involved in the process and who had to justify these actions? Raymond Okamura provides us with a detailed list of terms. Let's consider three such euphemisms: "evacuation," "relocation," and "non-aliens." Earthquake and flood victims are relocated. The words refer to moving people in order to protect them from danger; the official government policy makers used "evacuation" to refer to the forced removal of the Japanese Americans and the sites were called "relocation centers."
These are euphemisms as the terms do not imply forced removal nor incarceration in enclosures patrolled by armed guards. The masking was intentional. Hirabayashi went on to describe the harm done by the use of such euphemisms and addressed the issue of whether or not only the Nazi camps can be called "concentration camps." The harm in continuing to use the government's euphemisms is that it disguises or softens the reality which subsequently has been recognized as a grave error. The actions abrogated some fundamental principles underlying the Constitution, the document under which we govern ourselves; this erosion of fundamental rights has consequences for all citizens of our society and we must see that it is never repeated. Some have argued that the Nazi Germany camps during the Holocaust were concentration camps and to refer to the Japanese American camps would be an affront to the Jews, it is true that the Japanese Americans did not suffer the harsh fate of the Jews in the terrible concentration camps or death camps where Nazi Germany practiced a policy of genocide.
Although the loss of life was minimal in America's concentration camps, it does not negate the reality of the unconstitutional incarceration of Japanese American citizens. Michi and Walter Weglyn's research concerning Nazi Germany's euphemisms for their concentration camps revealed such phrases as "protective custody camps," "reception centers," and "transit camps." Two Nazi euphemisms were identical to our government's usage: "assembly centers" and "relocation centers." It might be well to point out that the Nazis were not operating under the U. S. Constitution. Comparisons neglect to point out that Hitler was operating under the rules of the Third Reich. In America all three branches of the U. S. government, ostensibly operating under the U. S. Constitution, ignored the Bill of Rights in order to incarcerate Japanese Americans. In 1998, use of the term "concentration camps" gained greater credibility prior to the opening of an exhibit about the American camps at Ellis Island; the American Jewish Committee and the National Park Service, which manages Ellis Island, objected to the use of the term in the exhibit.
However, during a subsequent meeting held at the offices of the AJC in New York City, leaders representing
Kitarō, born Masanori Takahashi, is a Japanese recording artist, record producer, arranger noted for his electronic-instrumental music, is associated with and regarded as one of the most prominent musical acts of New-age music. He is the winner of a Grammy Award for Best New Age Album and a Golden Globe Award for the Heaven & Earth original score. Masanori Takahashi was born in Toyohashi, Japan, is a graduate of Sahid University. Kitarō, his boyhood name meaning "man of love and joy", a practicing Buddhist himself, was born in a family of Shinto-Buddhist farmers. After graduating his parents were first opposed to the idea of their son having a musical career. In an effort to maneuver him towards their vision, they made arrangements for him to take a job at a local company. In return, he did not show for the job without telling them, managed to convince them to work on something he loved. In high school Kitarō played electric guitar in a band that played American rhythm and blues of Otis Redding and covers by The Beatles.
After graduating, learning to play drums and bass, Kitaro moved to Tokyo to experience and become a part of the music scene, it was there that he discovered the synthesizer. His first synthesizer was analog, he recalls having "just loved the analog sound that it made compared to today's digital sound". In the early 1970s he changed to keyboard and joined the Japanese progressive rock band Far East Family Band and recorded four albums with them. While in Japan and Europe in 1975, he met the German electronica and former Tangerine Dream member Klaus Schulze. Schulze gave Kitaro some tips for controlling synthesizers. In 1976, Kitaro travelled through Asia. Back in Japan, Kitaro started his solo career in 1977; the first two albums Ten Kai and Daichi were released in 1978 and 1979. He performed his first symphonic concert at the "Small Hall" of the Kosei Nenkin Kaikan in Shinjuku, Tokyo; the Silk Road: The Rise And Fall Of Civilizations is an NHK Tokushu documentary series that first aired on 7 April 1980, with sequels being broadcast over a 10-year period.
It took a total of 17 years from conception to complete what many consider a landmark in Japan's broadcasting television history. The intention of the program was to reveal how ancient Japan was influenced by the Silk Road trade route; the documentary was narrated by Ishizaka Koji with music composed by Kitaro, who insisted that the show be broadcast in stereo. The music was composed using a Minimoog, Minikorg 700, Maxikorg DV800; the score received a Galaxy Award, the series of soundtracks sold millions of copies. The success created from the program brought Kitaro international attention. In 1984, Kitaro embarked on a "Live in Asia" tour. Notably, he was forced to cancel a leg in Singapore because he had long hair and at that time the country had a policy banning it, he entered into a worldwide distribution arrangement with Geffen Records in 1985–1986. This included a re-releasing of six prior albums titled Ten Kai, Millennia, Silver Cloud and Live in Asia as well as a new album, aptly titled Towards the West.
Due to his combination of electronic and acoustic sounds, mellow music and repeating chords which resembled the umbrella New-age music category in the United States and Europe, his music was labeled as "New-age". However, he's not comfortable with the term. "whether people say my music is new age or not, it's OK with me, I'm just going to keep calling it Kitaro's music". On his music he noted that his outlook on life, study of philosophy, responsibility to create music which has a good influence on society, influence his musical creation. In 1987, he collaborated with Mickey Hart of the Grateful Dead for the album The Light of the Spirit and in 1992 with Jon Anderson for the album Dream. In 1988, his record sales soared to 10 million worldwide following a successful US tour, he was nominated three times for Grammy Award for Best New Age Album during his tenure at Geffen Records. In 1990 was released studio album Kojiki, inspired by the Japense 8th century chronicle Kojiki, it reached #159 on Billboard 200, #1 on Billboard New Age albums chart.
His soundtrack for the movie Heaven & Earth won the Golden Globe Award for Best Original Score. Kitaro produced an album Scenes released by Shrapnel Records with former Megadeth guitarist Marty Friedman. Since his 1994 debut for Domo Records, the Grammy-nominated Mandala, Kitaro has released 24 studio albums. Among them, the live An Enchanted Evening, Gaia-Onbashira, Ancient were all Grammy nominated. In 1999, Thinking of You won the Grammy for Best New Age Album. Kitaro’s and soundtrack album The Soong Sisters received, Best Original Music Award from the Hong Kong Film Award as well as the Taiwan Golden Horse Film Festival and Award. Kitaro's music has long been recognized for its messages of spirituality. In the wake of 9/11, during which time the conceptual endeavor, which he envisioned as an artistic means to help unify people globally, the artist began recording Sacred Journey of Ku-Kai, a series of peace-themed albums inspired by the Shikoku Henro Pilgrimage, the travel of Kūkai more than 1100 years ago.
The four volumes in the album series were released in 2003, 2005, 2007, 2011, respectively. Every track on the 4 volumes of Sacred Journey Of Ku-Kai contains samples from
Pasadena is a city in Los Angeles County, United States, located 10 miles northeast of Downtown Los Angeles. The estimated population of Pasadena was 142,647 in 2017, making it the 183rd-largest city in the United States. Pasadena is the ninth-largest city in Los Angeles County. Pasadena was incorporated on June 19, 1886, becoming one of the first cities to be incorporated in what is now Los Angeles County, following the city of Los Angeles, it is one of the primary cultural centers of the San Gabriel Valley. The city is known for hosting Tournament of Roses Parade. In addition, Pasadena is home to many scientific and cultural institutions, including Caltech, Pasadena City College, Fuller Theological Seminary, ArtCenter College of Design, the Pasadena Playhouse, the Ambassador Auditorium, the Norton Simon Museum, the USC Pacific Asia Museum; the original inhabitants of Pasadena and surrounding areas were members of the Native American Hahamog-na tribe, a branch of the Tongva Nation. They had lived in the Los Angeles Basin for thousands of years.
Tongva dwellings lined the Arroyo Seco in present day Pasadena and south to where it joins the Los Angeles River and along other natural waterways in the city. The native people lived in dome-shape lodges, they lived on a diet of acorn meal and herbs, other small animals. They traded for ocean fish with the coastal Tongva, they made cooking vessels from steatite soapstone from Catalina Island. The oldest transportation route still in existence in Pasadena is the old Tongva foot trail known as the Gabrielino Trail, that follows the west side of the Rose Bowl and the Arroyo Seco past the Jet Propulsion Laboratory into the San Gabriel Mountains; the trail has been in continuous use for thousands of years. An arm of the trail is still in use in what is now known as Salvia Canyon; when the Spanish occupied the Los Angeles Basin they built the San Gabriel Mission and renamed the local Tongva people "Gabrielino Indians," after the name of the mission. Today, several bands of Tongva people live in the Los Angeles area.
Pasadena is a part of the original Mexican land grant named Rancho del Rincon de San Pascual, so named because it was deeded on Easter Sunday to Eulalia Perez de Guillén Mariné of Mission San Gabriel Arcángel. The Rancho comprised the lands of today's communities of Pasadena and South Pasadena. Before the annexation of California in 1848, the last of the Mexican owners was Manuel Garfias who retained title to the property after statehood in 1850. Garfias sold sections of the property to the first Anglo settlers to come into the area: Dr. Benjamin Eaton, the father of Fred Eaton. Much of the property was purchased by Benjamin Wilson, who established his Lake Vineyard property in the vicinity. Wilson, known as Don Benito to the local Indians owned the Rancho Jurupa and was mayor of Los Angeles, he was the grandfather of Jr. and the namesake of Mount Wilson. In 1873, Wilson was visited by Dr. Daniel M. Berry of Indiana, looking for a place in the country that could offer a mild climate for his patients, most of whom suffered from respiratory ailments.
Berry claimed that he had his best three night's sleep at Rancho San Pascual. To keep the find a secret, Berry code-named the area "Muscat" after the grape. To raise funds to bring the company of people to San Pascual, Berry formed the Southern California Orange and Citrus Growers Association and sold stock in it; the newcomers were able to purchase a large portion of the property along the Arroyo Seco and on January 31, 1874, they incorporated the Indiana Colony. As a gesture of good will, Wilson added 2,000 acres of then-useless highland property, part of which would become Altadena. Colonel Jabez Banbury opened the first school on South Orange Grove Avenue. Banbury had twin daughters, named Jessie; the two became the first students to attended Pasadena’s first school on Orange Grove. At the time, the Indiana Colony was a narrow strip of land between the Arroyo Seco and Fair Oaks Avenue. On the other side of the street was Wilson's Lake Vineyard development. After more than a decade of parallel development on both sides, the two settlements merged into the City of Pasadena.
The popularity of the region drew people from across the country, Pasadena became a stop on the Atchison and Santa Fe Railway, which led to an explosion in growth. From the real estate boom of the 1880s until the Great Depression, as great tourist hotels were developed in the city, Pasadena became a winter resort for wealthy Easterners, spurring the development of new neighborhoods and business districts, increased road and transit connections with Los Angeles, culminating with the opening of the Arroyo Seco Parkway, California's first freeway. By 1940, Pasadena had become the eighth-largest city in California and was considered a twin city to Los Angeles; the first of the great hotels to be established in Pasadena was the Raymond atop Bacon Hill, renamed Raymond Hill after construction. Pasadena was served by the Atchison and Santa Fe Railway at the Santa Fe Depot in downtown when the Second District was opened in 1887; the original Mansard Victorian 200-room facility burned down on Easter morning of 1895, was rebuilt in 1903, razed during the Great Depression to make way for residential development.
The Maryland Hotel existed from the early 1900s and was demolished in 1934. The world-famous Mount Lowe Railway and associated mountain hotels shu
Ford Thunderbird is a nameplate, used by Ford from model years 1955 to 1997 and 2002 to 2005 over eleven model generations. Introduced as a two-seat convertible, the Thunderbird was produced in a number of body configurations through its production life, including four-seat hardtop coupe, four-seat convertible, five-seat convertible and hardtop, four-door pillared hardtop sedan, six-passenger hardtop coupe, five passenger pillared coupe, with the final generation produced as a two-seat convertible; the 1958 addition of a rear seat to the Thunderbird, while controversial, marked the creation of market segment known as personal luxury vehicles. An American interpretation of the grand tourer, personal luxury cars were built with a higher emphasis on driving comfort and convenience features over handling and high-speed performance. From 1968 to 1998, Lincoln-Mercury marketed their own versions of the Thunderbird as the Mercury Cougar and the Continental Mark III, Mark IV, Mark V, Lincoln Mark VII, Lincoln Mark VIII.
The Thunderbird entered production for the 1955 model year as a sporty two-seat convertible. Unlike the Chevrolet Corvette, it was not marketed as a sports car. Ford positioned the Thunderbird as an upscale model and is credited in developing a new market segment, the personal luxury car. In 1958, the Thunderbird gained a second row of seats. Succeeding generations became larger until the line was downsized in 1977, again in 1980, once again in 1983. Sales were good until the 1990s. Initial production ceased at the end of 1997. In 2002, production of the Thunderbird started again. From its introduction in 1955 to its final phaseout in 2005, Ford produced over 4.4 million Thunderbirds. The Second to Fourth Generation Thunderbird convertibles were similar in design to the Lincoln convertible of the time and borrowed from earlier Ford hardtop/convertible designs. While these Thunderbird models had a true convertible soft top, the top was lowered to stow in the forward trunk area; this design reduced available trunk space.
The trunk lid was rear-hinged. The forward end of the trunk lid contained a metal plate that extended upward to cover the area that the top is stowed in. With the top down and the trunk lid lowered, there is no sight of the soft top; the overall appearance was a sleek look with no trace of a convertible top at all. No cover boot was needed. However, this design could present a challenge to one, troubleshooting a convertible top malfunction; the system consists of a spiderweb of solenoids, limit switches, electric motors, a hydraulic pump/reservoir, hydraulic directional valves and cylinders. While the hydraulics are not a cause for trouble, the electrical relays are known to fail. Failure of any of the relays, motors or limit switches will prevent the convertible system from completing the cycle. Unlike hardtop models that utilized a conventional key-secured, forward hinged design, the convertibles combined the trunk opening and closing within the convertible top operating system; as a result of this design, the trunks of convertible models were notorious for leaking.
A smaller two-seater sports roadster was created at the behest of Henry Ford II in 1953 called the Vega. The completed one-off generated interest at the time, but had meager power, European looks, a correspondingly high cost, so it never proceeded to production; the Thunderbird was similar in concept, but would be more American in style, more luxurious, less sport-oriented. The men and their teams credited with the creation of the original Thunderbird are: Lewis Crusoe, a former GM executive lured out of retirement by Henry Ford II. Ford Designer William P. Boyer was lead stylist on the original 1955 two-seater Thunderbird and had a hand in designing the future series of Thunderbirds including the 30th Anniversary Edition. Hershey's participation in the creation of the Thunderbird was more administrative than artistic. Crusoe and Walker met in France in October 1951. Walking in the Grand Palais in Paris, Crusoe pointed at a sports car and asked Walker,'Why can't we have something like that?' Some versions of the story claim that Walker replied by telling Crusoe, "oh, we're working on it"... although if anything existed at the time beyond casual dream-car sketches by members of the design staff, records of it have never come to light.
Walker promptly telephoned Ford's HQ in Dearborn and told designer Frank Hershey about the conversation with Crusoe. Hershey began working on the vehicle; the concept was for a two-passenger open car, with a target weight of 2525 lb, an Interceptor V8 engine based on the forthcoming overhead-valve Ford V8 slated for 1954 model year introduction, a top speed of over 100 mph. Crusoe saw a painted clay model on May 18, 1953, which corresponded to the final car. After Henry Ford II returned from the Los Angeles Auto Show in 1953 he approved the final design concept to compete with the new Corvette; the name was not among the thousands proposed, including rejected options such as Apache, Eagle, Tropicale and Thunderbolt. A Ford sty
Ansel Easton Adams was an American landscape photographer and environmentalist known for his black-and-white images of the American West. Adams helped found Group f/64, an association of photographers advocating "pure" photography that favored sharp focus and the use of the full tonal range of a photograph. With Fred Archer, he developed an exacting system of image-making called the Zone System, which described a method of achieving a desired final print through a technical understanding of how tonal range is recorded and developed in exposure, negative development, printing; the resulting clarity and depth of such images characterized his photography. Adams was a life-long advocate for environmental conservation, his photographic practice was entwined with this advocacy. At age 12, he was given his first camera during his first visit to Yosemite National Park, he developed his early photographic work as a member of the Sierra Club. He was contracted with the U. S. Department of the Interior to make photographs of U.
S. National Parks. For his work and his persistent advocacy, which helped expand the National Park system, he was awarded the Presidential Medal of Freedom in 1980. With trustee David H. McAlpin and curator Beaumont Newhall, Adams was a key advisor in establishing the photography department at the Museum of Modern Art in New York, an important landmark in securing photography's institutional legitimacy, he helped to stage that department's first photography exhibition, helped found the photography magazine Aperture, co-founded the Center for Creative Photography at the University of Arizona. Adams was born in the Fillmore District of San Francisco, the only child of Charles Hitchcock Adams and Olive Bray Adams, he was named after Ansel Easton. His mother's family came from Baltimore, where his maternal grandfather had a successful freight-hauling business but lost his wealth investing in failed mining and real estate ventures in Nevada; the Adams family came from New England, having migrated from Northern Ireland during the early 18th century.
His paternal grandfather founded and built a prosperous lumber business which his father managed. In life, Adams condemned the industry his grandfather worked in for cutting down many of the great redwood forests. One of Adams's earliest memories was watching the smoke from the fires caused by the 1906 San Francisco earthquake. Four years old, Adams was uninjured in the initial shaking but was tossed face-first into a garden wall during an aftershock three hours breaking and scarring his nose. A doctor recommended that his nose be reset once he reached maturity, but it remained crooked and necessitated mouth breathing for his entire life. In 1907, his family moved 2 miles west to a new home near the Seacliff neighborhood, just south of the Presidio Army Base; the home had a "splendid view" of the Marin Headlands. Adams was a hyperactive child and prone to frequent hypochondria, he had few friends, but his family home and surroundings on the heights facing the Golden Gate provided ample childhood activities.
He had little patience for games or sports, but enjoyed the beauty of nature from an early age, collecting bugs and exploring Lobos Creek all the way to Baker Beach and the sea cliffs leading to Lands End, "San Francisco's wildest and rockiest coast, a place strewn with shipwrecks and rife with landslides." Adams's father had a three-inch telescope, they enthusiastically shared the hobby of amateur astronomy, visiting the Lick Observatory on Mount Hamilton together. His father served as the paid secretary-treasurer of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific from 1925 to 1950. Charles Adams's business suffered significant financial losses after the death of his father in the aftermath of the Panic of 1907; some of the induced near-poverty was because his uncle Ansel Easton and Cedric Wright's father George had secretly sold their shares of the company to the Hawaiian Sugar Trust for a large amount of money, "knowingly providing the controlling interest." By 1912, the family's standard of living had dropped sharply.
Adams was dismissed from several private schools for being restless and inattentive, so when he was 12 his father decided to remove him from school. For the next two years he was educated by private tutors, his aunt Mary, his father. Mary was a devotee of Robert G. Ingersoll, a 19th-century agnostic and women's suffrage advocate, so Ingersoll's teachings were important to his upbringing. During the Panama–Pacific International Exposition in 1915, his father insisted that he spend part of each day studying the exhibits as part of his education, he resumed and completed his formal education by attending the Mrs. Kate M. Wilkins Private School, graduating from eighth grade on June 8, 1917. During his years, he displayed his diploma in the guest bathroom of his home, his father raised him to follow the ideas of Ralph Waldo Emerson: to live a modest, moral life guided by a social responsibility to man and nature. Adams had a loving relationship with his father, but he had a distant relationship with his mother, who did not approve of his interest in photography.
The day after her death in 1950, Ansel had a dispute with the undertaker when choosing the casket in which to bury her. He chose the cheapest in the room, a $260 coffin that seemed the least he could purchase without doing the job himself; the undertaker remarked, "Have you no respect for the dead?" Adams replied, "One more crack like that and I will take Mama elsewhere." Adams became interested in piano at age 12 after hearing his sixteen-year-old neighbor, Henry Cowell, play on the Adamses' piano, he taught himself to play and read music. Cowell a well-known avante-garde composer, gave