T–V distinction

The T–V distinction exists in some languages, serves to convey formality or familiarity. Its name comes from the Latin pronouns vos; the distinction takes a number of forms, indicates varying levels of politeness, social distance, age or insult toward the addressee. The field that studies and describes this phenomenon is sociolinguistics. Many languages lack this type of distinction, instead relying other morphological or discourse features to convey formality. Modern English no longer has a T–V distinction, with the exception of a few dialects. There was one with the pronouns thou and you, with the familiar thou disappearing from Early Modern English. Additionally British commoners have spoken to nobility and royalty using the third person rather than the second person, a practice that has fallen out of favor. English speakers today employ semantic analogues to convey the mentioned attitudes towards the addressee, such as whether to address someone by given or surname, or whether to use sir/ma'am.

Under a broader classification, T and V forms are examples of honorifics. The T–V distinction is expressed in a variety of forms. Two common means are Addressing a single individual using the second-person plural forms in the language, instead of the singular. Addressing individuals with another pronoun with its own verb conjugations; the terms T and V, based on the Latin pronouns tu and vos, were first used in a paper by the social psychologist Roger Brown and the Shakespearian scholar Albert Gilman. This was a historical and contemporary survey of the uses of pronouns of address, seen as semantic markers of social relationships between individuals; the study considered French, Italian and German. The paper was influential and with few exceptions, the terms T and V have been used in subsequent studies. In Latin, tu was the singular, vos the plural, with no distinction for honorific or familiar. According to Brown and Gilman, usage of the plural to the Roman emperor began in the 4th century AD.

They mention the possibility that this was because there were two emperors at that time, but mention that "plurality is a old and ubiquitous metaphor for power". This usage was extended to other powerful figures, such as Pope Gregory I; however and Gilman note that it was only between the 12th and 14th centuries that the norms for the use of T- and V-forms crystallized. Less the use of the plural may be extended to other persons, such as the "royal we" in English. Brown and Gilman argued that the choice of form is governed by either relationships of'power' and/or'solidarity', depending on the culture of the speakers, showing that'power' had been the dominant predictor of form in Europe until the 20th century. Thus, it expect a V-form in return. However, in the twentieth century the dynamic shifted in favour of solidarity, so that people would use T-forms with those they knew, V-forms in service encounters, with reciprocal usage being the norm in both cases. In the Early Middle Ages, the pronoun vos was used to address the most exalted figures and popes, who would use the pronoun tu to address a subject.

This use was progressively extended to other states and societies, down the social hierarchy as a mark of respect to individuals of higher rank, religious authority, greater wealth, or seniority within a family. The development was slow and erratic, but a consistent pattern of use is estimated to have been reached in different European societies by the period 1100 to 1500. Use of V spread to upper-class individuals of equal rank, but not to lower class individuals; this may be represented in Brown and Gilman's notation: Speakers developed greater flexibility of pronoun use by redefining relationships between individuals. Instead of defining the father–son relationship as one of power, it could be seen as a shared family relationship. Brown and Gilman term this the semantics of solidarity, thus a speaker might have a choice of pronoun, depending on how they perceived the relationship with the person addressed. Thus a speaker with superior power might choose V to express fellow feeling with a subordinate.

For example, a restaurant customer might use V to their favorite waiter. A subordinate with a friendly relationship of long standing might use T. For example, a child might use T to express affection for their parent; this may be represented as: These choices were available not only to reflect permanent relationships, but to express momentary changes of attitude. This allowed playwrights such as Racine, Molière, Ben Johnson and Shakespeare to express a character's inner changes of mood through outward changes of pronoun. For centuries, it was the more powerful individual who chose to address a subordinate either with T or with V, or to allow the subordinate to choose. For this reason, the pronouns were traditionally defined as the pronoun of either condescension or intimacy and the pronoun of reverence or formality. Brown and Gilman argue. Developments from the nineteenth century have seen the solidarity semantic more applied, it has become less acceptable for a more powerful individual to exercise the choice of pronoun.

Officers in most armies are not permitted to address a soldier as T. Most European parents cannot oblige their children to use V; the relationships illustrated above have changed in the direction of the following norms: The tendency to promote the solidarity semantic may lead to the abolition of any choice of address pronoun. During the French Revolution a

Karrinyup, Western Australia

Karrinyup is a suburb of Perth, the capital city of Western Australia, is located 12 km north of Perth's central business district. Its local government area is the City of Stirling; the name Karrinyup was derived from the word Careniup, a Noongar name for a nearby swamp, which means "the place where bush kangaroos graze". In the 1840s, Samuel Moore took up a grant of 780 acres in the northern part of the suburb. Moore's grant, Swan Location 92 was surveyed by P Chauncey in 1844 and Chauncey recorded a large swamp just to the east of Karrinyup as Careniup Swamp. In 1929, the foundation committee developing the Lake Karrinyup Country Club golf course opted to change the spelling. While the area had been subdivided by Charles Stoneman in 1904 and roads built, the country club remained the only significant feature in the area, rapid growth did not begin until 1957, with the part south of Karrinyup Road developing first. At this stage, the only access to the area from Perth was via Balcatta Beach Road.

The building of the Mitchell Freeway to Karrinyup Road in 1983-84 facilitated the growth of Karrinyup and nearby Stirling as a regional hub. Karrinyup is bounded by North Beach Road to the north, Marmion Avenue to the west, Newborough Street to the south and Huntriss Road and the country club to the east. About one-third of Karrinyup's land area is reserve or bushland, or part of the suburb's two golf courses. Karrinyup Road links West Coast Highway to Mitchell Freeway through the suburb. At the 2016 Australian census, Karrinyup had a population of 9,283. Most of the houses in Karrinyup are modern, though the prolonged period of development has resulted in a range of styles from various eras. Many of the homes within the suburb are of two storeys and the vast majority are of brick and tile construction; the Karrinyup Shopping Centre contains a bus station, community centre and library as well as two major department stores. It was built in 1973 and has since been extended to offer 54,587 m² of retail accommodation with undercover and open-air parking.

Karrinyup has two golf courses and Lake Karrinyup. Open spaces exist at the south-west of the suburb. Karrinyup contains three state primary schools and a private college, St Mary's Anglican Girls' School, founded in 1921 at West Perth and relocated to Karrinyup in 1961. Karrinyup is served by the Karrinyup bus station, located at the shopping centre, with Transperth bus routes 422, 423, 424 and 425 providing a link to Stirling train station. Further west is a bus depot operated by Swan Transit. All services are operated by Swan Transit. Karrinyup is a reasonably affluent suburb with many "mortgage belt" families and liberal voters, it supports the Liberal Party at both federal and state elections, although the part south of Karrinyup Road leans more towards the Australian Labor Party. Peter Dowding, former Premier of Western Australia Dennis Lillee, former Australian cricketer Emma Matthews, soprano Jeff Newman, former television presenter Tim Winton and National Living Treasure, grew up in Gwelup Street St Mary's Anglican Girls' School Karrinyup Shopping Centre

2020 Sydney Women's Sevens

The 2020 Sydney Women's Sevens was the fifth tournament within the 2019–20 World Rugby Women's Sevens Series and the fourth edition of the Australian Women's Sevens. It was held over the first weekend of February 2020 at Bankwest Stadium in Sydney and was run alongside the men's tournament. In the final, New Zealand claimed their fourth consecutive tournament victory in a row as they defeated Canada 33–7; the teams were drawn into three pools of four teams each. Each team played every other team in their pool once; the top team from each pool and the best second-placed team advanced to the semifinals to playoff for berths in the cup final and third place match. The other teams from each group were paired off for the lower classification matches. There were twelve national women's teams in the tournament, the eleven core teams for the series plus Japan as the invited side. Source: World Rugby World Rugby Women's Sevens Series 2019–20 World Rugby Women's Sevens Series 2020 Sydney Sevens Tournament site World Rugby info