Glasgow is the largest city in Scotland, and third largest in the United Kingdom. Historically part of Lanarkshire, it is now one of the 32 council areas of Scotland and it is situated on the River Clyde in the countrys West Central Lowlands. Inhabitants of the city are referred to as Glaswegians, Glasgow grew from a small rural settlement on the River Clyde to become the largest seaport in Britain. From the 18th century the city grew as one of Great Britains main hubs of transatlantic trade with North America. Glasgow was the Second City of the British Empire for much of the Victorian era and Edwardian period, in the late 19th and early 20th centuries Glasgow grew in population, reaching a peak of 1,128,473 in 1939. The entire region surrounding the conurbation covers about 2.3 million people, at the 2011 census, Glasgow had a population density of 8, 790/sq mi, the highest of any Scottish city. Glasgow hosted the 2014 Commonwealth Games and is well known in the sporting world for the football rivalry of the Old Firm between Celtic and Rangers.
Glasgow is known for Glasgow patter, a dialect that is noted for being difficult to understand by those from outside the city. Glasgow is the form of the ancient Cumbric name Glas Cau. Possibly referring to the area of Molendinar Burn where Glasgow Cathedral now stands, the Gaelic name Baile Glas Chu, town of the grey dog, is purely a folk-etymology. The present site of Glasgow has been settled since prehistoric times, it is for settlement, being the furthest downstream fording point of the River Clyde, the origins of Glasgow as an established city derive ultimately from its medieval position as Scotlands second largest bishopric. Glasgow increased in importance during the 10th and 11th centuries as the site of this bishopric, reorganised by King David I of Scotland and John, there had been an earlier religious site established by Saint Mungo in the 6th century. The bishopric became one of the largest and wealthiest in the Kingdom of Scotland, bringing wealth, sometime between 1189 and 1195 this status was supplemented by an annual fair, which survives as the Glasgow Fair.
Glasgow grew over the following centuries, the first bridge over the River Clyde at Glasgow was recorded from around 1285, giving its name to the Briggait area of the city, forming the main North-South route over the river via Glasgow Cross. The founding of the University of Glasgow in 1451 and elevation of the bishopric to become the Archdiocese of Glasgow in 1492 increased the towns religious and educational status and landed wealth. Its early trade was in agriculture and fishing, with cured salmon and herring being exported to Europe, Glasgow was subsequently raised to the status of Royal Burgh in 1611. The citys Tobacco Lords created a water port at Port Glasgow on the Firth of Clyde. By the late 18th century more than half of the British tobacco trade was concentrated on Glasgows River Clyde, at the time, Glasgow held a commercial importance as the city participated in the trade of sugar and cotton
Bertrand Arthur William Russell, 3rd Earl Russell, OM, FRS was a British philosopher, mathematician, writer, social critic, political activist and Nobel laureate. At various points in his life he considered himself a liberal, a socialist, and a pacifist and he was born in Monmouthshire into one of the most prominent aristocratic families in the United Kingdom. In the early 20th century, Russell led the British revolt against idealism and he is considered one of the founders of analytic philosophy along with his predecessor Gottlob Frege, colleague G. E. Moore, and protégé Ludwig Wittgenstein. He is widely held to be one of the 20th centurys premier logicians, with A. N. Whitehead he wrote Principia Mathematica, an attempt to create a logical basis for mathematics. His philosophical essay On Denoting has been considered a paradigm of philosophy, Russell mostly was a prominent anti-war activist, he championed anti-imperialism. Occasionally, he advocated preventive nuclear war, before the opportunity provided by the monopoly is gone.
He went to prison for his pacifism during World War I, in 1950 Russell was awarded the Nobel Prize in Literature in recognition of his varied and significant writings in which he champions humanitarian ideals and freedom of thought. Bertrand Russell was born on 18 May 1872 at Ravenscroft, Trellech and his parents and Viscountess Amberley, were radical for their times. Lord Amberley consented to his wifes affair with their childrens tutor, both were early advocates of birth control at a time when this was considered scandalous. Lord Amberley was an atheist and his atheism was evident when he asked the philosopher John Stuart Mill to act as Russells secular godfather, Mill died the year after Russells birth, but his writings had a great effect on Russells life. His paternal grandfather, the Earl Russell, had asked twice by Queen Victoria to form a government. The Russells had been prominent in England for several centuries before this, coming to power, Lady Amberley was the daughter of Lord and Lady Stanley of Alderley.
Russell often feared the ridicule of his grandmother, one of the campaigners for education of women. Russell had two siblings, brother Frank, and sister Rachel, in June 1874 Russells mother died of diphtheria, followed shortly by Rachels death. In January 1876, his father died of bronchitis following a period of depression. Frank and Bertrand were placed in the care of their staunchly Victorian paternal grandparents and his grandfather, former Prime Minister Earl Russell, died in 1878, and was remembered by Russell as a kindly old man in a wheelchair. His grandmother, the Countess Russell, was the dominant family figure for the rest of Russells childhood, the countess was from a Scottish Presbyterian family, and successfully petitioned the Court of Chancery to set aside a provision in Amberleys will requiring the children to be raised as agnostics. Her favourite Bible verse, Thou shalt not follow a multitude to do evil, the atmosphere at Pembroke Lodge was one of frequent prayer, emotional repression, and formality, Frank reacted to this with open rebellion, but the young Bertrand learned to hide his feelings
London /ˈlʌndən/ is the capital and most populous city of England and the United Kingdom. Standing on the River Thames in the south east of the island of Great Britain and it was founded by the Romans, who named it Londinium. Londons ancient core, the City of London, largely retains its 1. 12-square-mile medieval boundaries. London is a global city in the arts, education, fashion, healthcare, professional services and development, tourism. It is crowned as the worlds largest financial centre and has the fifth- or sixth-largest metropolitan area GDP in the world, London is a world cultural capital. It is the worlds most-visited city as measured by international arrivals and has the worlds largest city airport system measured by passenger traffic, London is the worlds leading investment destination, hosting more international retailers and ultra high-net-worth individuals than any other city. Londons universities form the largest concentration of education institutes in Europe. In 2012, London became the first city to have hosted the modern Summer Olympic Games three times, London has a diverse range of people and cultures, and more than 300 languages are spoken in the region.
Its estimated mid-2015 municipal population was 8,673,713, the largest of any city in the European Union, Londons urban area is the second most populous in the EU, after Paris, with 9,787,426 inhabitants at the 2011 census. The citys metropolitan area is the most populous in the EU with 13,879,757 inhabitants, the city-region therefore has a similar land area and population to that of the New York metropolitan area. London was the worlds most populous city from around 1831 to 1925, Other famous landmarks include Buckingham Palace, the London Eye, Piccadilly Circus, St Pauls Cathedral, Tower Bridge, Trafalgar Square, and The Shard. The London Underground is the oldest underground railway network in the world, the etymology of London is uncertain. It is an ancient name, found in sources from the 2nd century and it is recorded c.121 as Londinium, which points to Romano-British origin, and hand-written Roman tablets recovered in the city originating from AD 65/70-80 include the word Londinio. The earliest attempted explanation, now disregarded, is attributed to Geoffrey of Monmouth in Historia Regum Britanniae and this had it that the name originated from a supposed King Lud, who had allegedly taken over the city and named it Kaerlud.
From 1898, it was accepted that the name was of Celtic origin and meant place belonging to a man called *Londinos. The ultimate difficulty lies in reconciling the Latin form Londinium with the modern Welsh Llundain, which should demand a form *lōndinion, from earlier *loundiniom. The possibility cannot be ruled out that the Welsh name was borrowed back in from English at a date, and thus cannot be used as a basis from which to reconstruct the original name. Until 1889, the name London officially applied only to the City of London, two recent discoveries indicate probable very early settlements near the Thames in the London area
Due to General American accents being widespread throughout the United States, they are sometimes, though controversially, classified as Standard American English. The precise definition and usefulness of General American continues to be debated, the term General American was first disseminated by American English scholar George Philip Krapp, who, in 1925, described it as an American type of speech that was Western but not local in character. In 1930, American linguist John Samuel Kenyon, who popularized the term, considered it equivalent to the speech of the North, or Northern American. By 1982, according to British phonetician John C, two-thirds of the American population spoke with a General American accent. Accents that have never been included, even since the popularization in the 1930s, are the regional accents of Eastern New England, New York City. English-language scholar William A. Kretzchmar, Jr, no historical justification for this term exists, and neither do present circumstances support its use.
T implies that there is some state of American English from which other varieties deviate. On the contrary, can best be characterized as what is left over after speakers suppress the regional and social features that have risen to salience, from place to place, and even from speaker to speaker. The term Standard North American English, in an effort to incorporate Canadian speakers under the accent continuum, has very recently suggested by sociolinguist Charles Boberg. Ironically, far from being an area of non-regional English, is now a crossroads for at least four distinct regional accents. General American is commonly promoted as preferable to other regional accents, in the United States, instructional classes promising accent reduction, accent modification, or accent neutralization usually attempt to teach speech General American accent patterns. /ʍ/ is often analyzed as a consonant cluster of /hw/, General American accents are firmly rhotic, pronouncing the r sound in all environments, including after vowels, such as in pearl and court.
Americans often realize the phoneme as postalveolar, as in most varieties of English, t-glottalization, /t/ is pronounced as a glottal stop before a consonant, as in button, and sometimes at the end of a word, as in what. Flapping, /t/ and /d/ become a flap, between vowels or liquids, as in water, party and what is it. L-velarization, The distinction between an l and a dark l in the standard English of England is mostly absent in General American. Instead, all l sounds are pronounced more or less dark, some speakers vocalize /l/ to when it appears before /f v/. The following charts present the vowels that these three dialects encompass as a perceived General American sound system and this sound may be narrowly transcribed as, or, based on a specific dialect, variously as or. This phenomenon is called /æ/-tensing in phonological discourse, father–bother merger, Nearly all American accents merge the broad a in words like spa and ah with the short o of words like spot and odd, therefore and khan are homophones in General American
Rhoticity in English
The English dialects of Scotland and most of the United States and Canada preserve historical /r/, and are thus termed the rhotic varieties. In non-rhotic varieties, speakers no longer pronounce /r/ in postvocalic environments – that is, a non-rhotic speaker usually still pronounces the /r/ in the continuously spoken phrase butter and jam, since in this case the /r/ is followed by a vowel. Loss of postvocalic /r/ began sporadically in informal speech in the 15th century, in the mid-18th century it was still pronounced in most environments, but may occasionally have been deleted entirely, especially after low vowels. By the 1790s, postvocalic /r/-less pronunciation had become common in London and surrounding areas, by the early 19th century, the southern British standard was fully transformed into a non-rhotic variety, though some variation persisted as late as the 1870s. Other terms for rhotic dialects include /r/–pronouncing or r–ful, and for non-rhotic include /r/-deleting, r-dropping, r-vocalized, the earliest traces of a loss of /r/ in English appear in the early 15th century and occur before coronal consonants, especially /s/, giving modern ass, and bass. A second phase of /r/-loss began during the 15th century, and was characterized by sporadic and lexically variable deletion, such as monyng morning and cadenall cardinal.
These /r/-less spellings appear throughout the 16th and 17th centuries, but are uncommon and are restricted to private documents, no English authorities describe loss of /r/ in the standard language prior to the mid-18th century, and many do not fully accept it until the 1790s. During the mid-17th century, a number of sources describe /r/ as being weakened, the English playwright Ben Jonsons English Grammar, published posthumously in 1640, records that /r/ was sounded firme in the beginning of words, and more liquid in the middle, and ends. By the 1770s, postvocalic /r/-less pronunciation was becoming common around London even in more formal, the English actor and linguist John Walker uses the spelling ar to indicate the long vowel of aunt in his 1775 rhyming dictionary. Americans returning to England after the end of the American Revolutionary War in 1783 reported surprise at the significant changes in fashionable pronunciation. By the early 19th century, the southern British standard was fully transformed into a non-rhotic variety, like regional dialects in England, the accents of other areas in America remained rhotic in a display of linguistic lag that preserved the original pronunciation of /r/.
In most non-rhotic accents, if a word ending in r is followed closely by a word beginning with a vowel. This phenomenon is referred to as linking R, many non-rhotic speakers insert an epenthetic /r/ between vowels when the first vowel is one that can occur before syllable-final r. The typical alternative used by RP speakers is to insert a glottal stop where an intrusive R would otherwise be placed, for non-rhotic speakers, what was historically a vowel plus /r/ is now usually realized as a long vowel. This is called compensatory lengthening, lengthening that occurs after the elision of a sound, so in RP and many other non-rhotic accents card, born are pronounced, or similar. This length may be retained in phrases, so while car pronounced in isolation is, but a final schwa usually remains short, so water in isolation is. For some speakers, some long vowels alternate with an ending in schwa, so wear may be. Even General American speakers commonly drop the /r/ in non-final unstressed syllables when another syllable in the word contains /r/
Phonological history of English high front vowels
The high and mid-height front vowels of English have undergone a variety of changes over time, often varying from dialect to dialect. Middle English had a close front vowel /iː/, and two long mid front vowels, the close-mid /eː/ and the open-mid /ɛː/. The three vowels generally correspond to the modern spellings ⟨i⟩, ⟨ee⟩ and ⟨ea⟩ respectively, although other spellings are possible, the spellings that became established in Early Modern English are mostly still used today, although the qualities of the sounds have changed significantly. These /iː/ and /eː/ generally corresponded to similar Old English vowels, for other possible histories, see English historical vowel correspondences. In particular, the long vowels sometimes arose from short vowels, Middle English /ɛː/ was shortened in certain words. The words affected include several ending in d, such as bread, spread, as well as others including breath, weather. For example, bread was /brɛːd/ in earlier Middle English, in the Great Vowel Shift, the normal outcome of /iː/ was a diphthong which developed into Modern English /aɪ/, as in mine and find.
Meanwhile, /eː/ became /iː/, as in feed, while the /ɛː/ of words like meat became /eː/, the meet–meat merger or the fleece merger is the merger of the Early Modern English vowel /eː/ into the vowel /iː/. The merger was complete in standard accents of English by about 1700, as seen in the previous section, the Early Modern English vowel /eː/ developed from Middle English /ɛː/ via the Great Vowel Shift, while ENE /iː/ was usually the result of Middle English /eː/. The merger saw ENE /eː/ raised further to become identical to /iː/, hence the words meat and great now have three different vowels, although all three words once rhymed. The merger results in the lexical set, as defined by John Wells. Words in this set that had ENE /iː/ are mostly spelt ⟨ee⟩, with a single ⟨e⟩ in monosyllables or followed by a single consonant and those that had ENE /eː/ are mostly spelt ⟨ea⟩, and in borrowed words sometimes with a single ⟨e⟩ or with ⟨ei⟩ or otherwise. There are some loanwords in which /iː/ is spelt ⟨i⟩, there are still some dialects in the British Isles which do not have the merger.
Some speakers in Northern England have /iː/ or /əɪ/ in the first group of words, in Staffordshire, the distinction might rather be between /ɛi/ in the first group and /iː/ in the second group. In some varieties of Irish English, the first group has /i/ while the second preserves /eː/, a similar contrast has been reported in parts of south and west England, but it is now rarely encountered there. In some Yorkshire dialects, a distinction may be preserved within the meat set. In Alexanders book about the traditional Sheffield dialect, the spelling eigh is used for the vowel of eat and meat, however, a 1999 survey in Sheffield found the /ɛɪ/ pronunciation to be almost extinct there. In certain accents, when the vowel was followed by /r/
Daniel Jones (phonetician)
Daniel Jones was a London-born British phonetician who studied under Paul Passy, professor of phonetics at the École des Hautes Études at the Sorbonne. He was head of the Department of Phonetics at University College, in 1900, Jones studied briefly at William Tillys Marburg Language Institute in Germany, where he was first introduced to phonetics. In 1903, he received his BA degree in mathematics at Cambridge, from 1905 to 1906, he studied in Paris under Paul Passy, who was one of the founders of the International Phonetic Association, and in 1911, he married Passys niece Cyrille Motte. He briefly took lessons from the British phonetician Henry Sweet. In 1907, he became a lecturer at University College London and was afterwards appointed to a full-time position. In 1912, he became the head of the Department of Phonetics and was appointed to a chair in 1921, a post he held until his retirement in 1949. From 1906 onwards, Jones was an member of the International Phonetic Association, and was Assistant Secretary from 1907 to 1927, Secretary from 1927 to 1949.
In 1909, Jones wrote the short Pronunciation of English, a book he radically revised, the year 1917 was a landmark for Jones in many ways. He became the first linguist in the world to use the term phoneme in its current sense. It was here that the vowel diagram made a first appearance. A similar work for US English was published in 1944 by Kenyon, the problem of the phonetic description of vowels is of long standing, going back to the era of the ancient Indian linguists. Three nineteenth-century British phoneticians worked on this topic, alexander Melville Bell devised an ingenious iconic phonetic alphabet which included an elaborate system for vowels. Alexander Ellis had suggested vowel symbols for his phonetic alphabets, Henry Sweet did much work on the systematic description of vowels, producing an elaborate system of vowel description involving a multitude of symbols. Much of the inspiration for this scheme can be found in the publications of Paul Passy. In the original form of the Cardinal Vowels, Jones employed a system of description based on the supposed height of the tongue arch together with the shape of the lips.
This he reduced to a simple diagram which could be used to help visualize how vowels are articulated. Tongue height is represented on the axis and front vs. back on the horizontal axis indicates the portion of the tongue raised on the horizontal axis. Lip-rounding is built into the system, so that front vowels have spread or neutral lip postures, Jones thus arrived at a set of eight primary Cardinal Vowels, and recorded these on gramophone disc for HMV in 1917
The glottal stop is a type of consonantal sound used in many spoken languages, produced by obstructing airflow in the vocal tract or, more precisely, the glottis. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is ⟨ʔ⟩, using IPA, this sound is known as a glottal plosive. In English, the glottal stop occurs as an open juncture, for most US English speakers, a glottal stop is used as an allophone of /t/ between a vowel and m or a syllabic n except in slow speech. In British English, the stop is most familiar in the Cockney pronunciation of butter as buer. The non-phonemic glottal stop always occurs before isolated or initial vowels, features of the glottal stop, Its manner of articulation is occlusive, which means it is produced by obstructing airflow in the vocal tract. Since the consonant is oral, with no outlet, the airflow is blocked entirely. Its phonation is voiceless, which means it is produced without vibration of the cords, necessarily so, because the vocal cords are held tightly together.
It is a consonant, which means air is allowed to escape through the mouth only. Because the sound is not produced with airflow over the tongue, the airstream mechanism is pulmonic, which means it is articulated by pushing air solely with the lungs and diaphragm, as in most sounds. Although this segment is not a phoneme in English, it is present phonetically in nearly all dialects of English as an allophone of /t/ in the syllable coda. Speakers of Cockney, Scottish English and several other British dialects pronounce an intervocalic /t/ between vowels as in city. In Received Pronunciation, a stop is inserted before a tautosyllabic voiceless stop, e. g. sto’p, tha’t, kno’ck, wa’tch, lea’p, soa’k, hel’p. In many languages that do not allow a sequence of vowels, such as Persian, there are intricate interactions between falling tone and the glottal stop in the histories of such languages as Danish and Thai. In many languages, the intervocalic allophone of the glottal stop is a creaky-voiced glottal approximant.
These are only known to be contrastive in one language, Gimi, in the traditional Romanization of many languages, such as Arabic, the glottal stop is transcribed with an apostrophe, ⟨’⟩, and this is the source of the IPA character ⟨ʔ⟩. In Malay the glottal stop is represented by the letter ⟨k⟩, in Võro, other scripts have letters used for representing the glottal stop, such as the Hebrew letter aleph ⟨א⟩, and the Cyrillic letter palochka ⟨Ӏ⟩ used in several Caucasian languages. In Tundra Nenets it is represented by the letters apostrophe ⟨ʼ⟩, in Japanese, glottal stops occur at the end of interjections of surprise or anger, and are represented by the character ⟨っ⟩. In the graphic representation of most Philippine languages, the stop has no consistent symbolization
Peter Trudgill estimated in 1974 that 3% of people in Britain were RP speakers, but this rough estimate has been questioned by the phonetician J. Windsor Lewis. Since the 1960s, a greater permissiveness towards regional English varieties has taken hold in education, an individual using RP will typically speak Standard English, although the converse or inverse is not necessarily true. The standard language may be pronounced with an accent and the contrapositive is usually correct. It is very unlikely that someone speaking RP would use it to speak a regional dialect, the introduction of the term Received Pronunciation is usually credited to Daniel Jones. However, the term had actually been used earlier by Alexander Ellis in 1869 and P. S. Du Ponceau in 1818 According to Fowlers Modern English Usage. The word received conveys its meaning of accepted or approved. RP is often believed to be based on the accents of southern England and this was the most populated and most prosperous area of England during the 14th and 15th centuries.
By the end of the 15th century, Standard English was established in the City of London, some linguists have used the term RP while expressing reservations about its suitability. Other writers have used the name BBC Pronunciation. He used the term General British in his 1970s publication of A Concise Pronouncing Dictionary of American and British English, Received Pronunciation has sometimes been called Oxford English, as it used to be the accent of most members of the University of Oxford. The Handbook of the International Phonetic Association uses the name Standard Southern British, page 4 reads, Standard Southern British is the modern equivalent of what has been called Received Pronunciation. It is an accent of the south east of England which operates as a prestige norm there and in parts of the British Isles. Faced with the difficulty of defining RP, many writers have tried to distinguish between different sub-varieties, editions use the terms General and Regional. Wells refers to mainstream RP and U-RP, he suggests that Gimsons categories of Conservative and Advanced RP referred to the U-RP of the old, Wells stated, It is difficult to separate stereotype from reality with U-RP.
Upton distinguishes between RP, Traditional RP, and an older version which he identifies with Cruttendens Refined RP. An article on the website of the British Library refers to Conservative, the modern style of RP is an accent often taught to non-native speakers learning British English. Non-RP Britons abroad may modify their pronunciation to something closer to Received Pronunciation to be understood by people unfamiliar with the diversity of British accents. They may modify their vocabulary and grammar to be closer to those of Standard English for the same reason
Survey of English Dialects
The Survey of English Dialects was undertaken between 1950 and 1961 under the direction of Professor Harold Orton of the English department of the University of Leeds. It aimed to collect the full range of speech in England, standardisation of the English language was expected with the post-war increase in social mobility and the spread of the mass media. 313 localities were selected from England, the Isle of Man, priority was given to rural areas with a history of a stable population. One field worker gathering material claimed they had to dress in old clothes to gain the confidence of elderly villagers. Most of the recordings are of inhabitants discussing their local industry, but one of the recordings, the literature usually refers to the four urban sites of Hackney, Leeds and York. The survey does seem to have generally more urban-focused in West Yorkshire. Some other sites had become suburbs of towns and many of the agricultural questions brought no answer at these sites and it was originally planned to survey urban areas at a date, but this was plan was abandoned owing to a lack of financial resources. 404,000 items of information were gathered, and these were published as thirteen volumes of basic material beginning in 1962, the process took many years, and was prone to funding difficulties on more than one occasion.
This book is out of print and very rare, the basic material had been written using specialised phonetic shorthand unintelligible to the general reader, in 1975 a more accessible book, A Word Geography of England was published. Harold Orton died soon after this in March 1975, the Linguistic Atlas of England was published in 1978, edited by Orton, John Widdowson and Clive Upton. Two further publications have been produced from the material, Survey of English Dialect. A large amount of material from the survey was not published. This is preserved at the Leeds Archive of Vernacular Culture, part of the School of English of the University of Leeds, during the survey, each locality was given an identifying abbreviation, which is given in brackets. He suggested that the survey should have been The Linguistic Atlas of Working-class Rural England, similar criticisms of the sample were made by sociolinguists such as Peter Trudgill and Jack Chambers. KM Petyt has highlighted the problem of using several fieldworkers in the same survey and he gives the subtle distinction between the sounds ɔ and ɒ as an example of inconsistent recording in the survey, where some fieldworkers tended to write ɔ and others tended to write ɒ.
The German linguist Wolfgang Viereck argued that these criticisms had caused a separation between traditional dialectology and sociolinguistics. The Survey of English Dialects has criticised by more traditional dialectologists. Graham Shorrocks, whilst writing on the dialect of Bolton, criticised the lack of questions relating to syntax with five specific points, for example, there was no question to find couldnt you
Leeds /liːdz/ is a city in West Yorkshire, England. Historically in Yorkshires West Riding, the history of Leeds can be traced to the 5th century when the name referred to an area of the Kingdom of Elmet. The name has applied to many administrative entities over the centuries. It changed from being the appellation of a small borough in the 13th century, through several incarnations. In the 17th and 18th centuries Leeds became a centre for the production. During the Industrial Revolution, Leeds developed into a mill town, wool was the dominant industry but flax, iron foundries, printing. From being a market town in the valley of the River Aire in the 16th century Leeds expanded and absorbed the surrounding villages to become a populous urban centre by the mid-20th century. The city has the third largest jobs total by local authority area with 480,000 in employment and self-employment at the beginning of 2015. Leeds is ranked as a world city by the Globalization and World Cities Research Network.
Leeds is served by four universities, and has the fourth largest student population in the country and has the fourth largest urban economy. After London, Leeds is the largest legal and financial centre in the UK, with over 30 national and international banks located in the city. Leeds is the UKs third largest manufacturing centre with around 1,800 firms and 39,000 employees, the largest sub-sectors are engineering and publishing, food and drink and medical technology. Outside of London, Leeds has the third busiest railway station, Public transport and road communications networks in the region are focused on Leeds and there are a number of twinning arrangements with towns and cities in other countries. The name Leeds derives from the old Brythonic word Ladenses meaning people of the fast-flowing river and this name originally referred to the forested area covering most of the Brythonic kingdom of Elmet, which existed during the 5th century into the early 7th century. An inhabitant of Leeds is locally known as a Loiner, a word of uncertain origin, the term Leodensian is used, from the citys Latin name.
Leeds developed as a town in the Middle Ages as part of the local agricultural economy. Before the Industrial Revolution it became a centre for the manufacture of woollen cloth. Leeds handled one sixth of Englands export trade in 1770, initially in textiles, was accelerated by the building of the Aire and Calder Navigation in 1699 and the Leeds and Liverpool Canal in 1816
Phonological history of English consonants
This article describes those aspects of the phonological history of the English language which concern consonants. Reduction of /hw/ – to /h/ in a few words, but usually to /w/, reduction of /hl/, /hr/ and /hn/, with the loss of the initial /h/ in Middle English. Reduction of /hj/ to /j/ in a few American and Irish dialects, yod-dropping – the elision of /j/ in certain clusters, depending on dialect. Yod-coalescence, whereby the clusters /dj/, /tj/, /sj/ and /zj/ become, reduction of /wr/ to /r/, in words like wrap, around the 17th century. Reduction of /kn/ and /ɡn/ to /n/, in words like knot and gnome, S-cluster reduction, in some types of Caribbean English, where for example spit is pronounced pit. NG-coalescence – reduction of the cluster to, in words like hang. G-dropping – reduction of the cluster to in weak syllables, principally in the verb ending -ing. Reduction of /mb/ and /mn/ to /m/, in Middle English, affecting words like lamb, generalized final cluster reduction in African American Vernacular English and Caribbean English, where for example desk and hand may be pronounced dess and han.
Reduction of /ts/ to /s/ – a Middle English reduction that produced the sound of soft ⟨c⟩. Medial cluster reduction – elision of certain stops in medial clusters, insertion of stops after nasals in certain clusters, for example making prince sound like prints, and dreamt rhyme with attempt. Assimilation of certain consonants in clusters, especially nasals and pre-glottalization in certain environments, depending on dialect. Certain other changes occurring in AAVE, including S-cluster metathesis, the merger of /str/ and /skr/, the voiceless stops /p/, /t/, /k/ are typically aspirated when they begin a stressed syllable, becoming, as described under English phonology. There is some variation in the degree of aspiration, and in some Scottish. In certain accents, such as Geordie and in some speakers of Dublin English, /p/, /t/ and /k/ can be preaspirated when they come at the end of a word or utterance, becoming. Flapping, or tapping, is a process whereby /t/ or /d/ is pronounced as the flap in certain positions.
It may be perceived as, for example, the pronunciation of butter as budder and it occurs especially in North American English and in Australian and New Zealand English. Apart from the T-voicing that results from flapping, some dialects feature other instances of voicing or lenition of the stops /p/, /t/, in Geordie, these stops may be fully voiced in intervocalic position. These phenomena are strongly dependent on the environment and on dialect