Terry Alan Crews is an American actor, activist and former American football player. Crews played Julius Rock on the UPN/CW sitcom Everybody Hates Chris and Nick Kingston-Persons in the TBS sitcom Are We There Yet? He hosted the game show Who Wants to Be a Millionaire and starred in the BET reality series The Family Crews, he appeared in films such as Friday After Next, White Chicks and the Expendables series. Since 2013, he has played NYPD Sergeant Terry Jeffords in the sitcom Brooklyn Nine-Nine, he is set to host America's Got Talent in 2019, following his involvement in the same role for the program's spin-off series America's Got Talent: The Champions from January 2019. Crews played as a defensive end and linebacker in the National Football League for the Los Angeles Rams, San Diego Chargers, Washington Redskins, as well as in the World League of American Football with Rhein Fire, college football at Western Michigan University. Crews, a public advocate for women's rights and activist against sexism, has shared stories of the abuse his family endured at the hands of his violent father.
He was included among the group of people named as Time Magazine's Person of the Year in 2017 for going public with stories of sexual assault. Terry Alan Crews was born on July 30, 1968 in Flint, the son of Patricia and Terry Crews, he grew up in a strict Christian household in Flint and was raised by his mother. His father was an alcoholic, abusive to his mother. After earning his high school diploma from Flint Southwestern, he received a Chrysler-sponsored art scholarship at the Interlochen Center for the Arts in Interlochen, followed by an Art Excellence scholarship and a full athletic scholarship for football at Western Michigan University in Kalamazoo, Michigan; as a defensive end for the WMU Broncos, Crews earned All-Conference honors and won the 1988 Mid-American Conference Championship. Crews was drafted by the Los Angeles Rams in the 11th round of the 1991 NFL Draft, his career included stints with the Rams, the San Diego Chargers, the Washington Redskins, the Philadelphia Eagles. After retiring from the NFL in 1997, Crews moved to Los Angeles to pursue an acting career.
He had held a long-standing ambition to work in the film industry, but up until had no plans to pursue acting wanting to be involved in some way. A year earlier, he had co-written and co-produced the independent feature film Young Boys Incorporated. A self-funded production filmed in Detroit with an anti-drug message, the film drew on his own observations, as well as those of his friends and family. Despite describing it as a "horrible" film, he credits the experience with getting him interested in the industry. In 1999, Crews auditioned for a role as a character athlete in the syndicated game show Battle Dome, which became his first acting part, he played T-Money for two seasons until its cancellation in 2001. The audition process and the opportunity to perform in front of an audience made him realize that he wanted to pursue acting as a career. However, he failed to land another acting job for the following two years. Appearances in commercials and music videos soon followed, his breakout role came in Friday After Next starring Ice Cube, for whom Crews had worked as on-set security.
Having never taken acting classes, instead he asked himself what the audience wanted, he believes this brought him success. He now believes acting is what he was born to do and would not wish to have any other career, despite the physically demanding nature of the work. Based on his performance in White Chicks, Adam Sandler changed a role in The Longest Yard to give it to Crews, who had auditioned for another part in the film, his role as Julius Rock, the father on the UPN/CW sitcom on Everybody Hates Chris, brought Crews wider public recognition, the show aired for four seasons from 2005 until 2009. Since Everybody Hates Chris, Crews has had main roles as husband and father Nick Kingston-Persons in the TBS sitcom Are We There Yet?, which aired for three seasons from 2010 to 2013, as NYPD Sergeant Terry Jeffords in the ensemble cast of the Fox sitcom Brooklyn Nine-Nine, which premiered in 2013 and ran for five seasons before it was picked up for a sixth season by NBC in 2018. Crews has appeared in comedic roles, such as President Camacho in Idiocracy, but he found success in action roles beginning with his part as Hale Caesar in The Expendables series, which saw him make his first appearance in a film sequel.
Although he has managed to sustain an athletic physique in his career as an actor, Crews has avoided being type-cast as a muscle bound action hero, has attained critical success through exploiting the contrast of his elaborate character comedy with his physique, which extends to the point of mocking the stereotype of the gym obsessed body builder. This contrast has led to sustained work as part of various humorous Old Spice TV commercials. Crews has lent his voice to animations such as American Dad! and Cloudy With a Chance of Meatballs 2. Crews found he enjoyed the work and sought out more of it, finding satisfaction in how it carries his spirit into the animation. In 2010 to 2011, Crews starred in his own reality series on BET, The Family Crews, about his everyday life with his family, it ran for two seasons. From 2014 to 2015, he hosted the syndicated game show, he has been the American host of Netflix's Ultimate Beastmaster. Crews cites the many similarities between acting and professional football, including the structure and expectations, as helping his transition between the two careers.
He credits Reginald Hubbard with mentoring him in h
Gyeonggi-do is the most populous province in South Korea. Its name, Gyeonggi means "the area surrounding the capital", thus Gyeonggi-do can be translated as "province surrounding Seoul". The provincial capital is Suwon. Seoul—South Korea's largest city and national capital—is in the heart of the province but has been separately administered as a provincial-level special city since 1946. Incheon—South Korea's third-largest city—is on the coast of the province and has been administered as a provincial-level metropolitan city since 1981; the three jurisdictions are collectively referred to as Sudogwon and cover 11,730 km2, with a combined population of 25.5 million—amounting to over half of the entire population of South Korea. Gyeonggi-do has been a politically important area since 18 BCE, when Korea was divided into three nations during the Three Kingdoms period. Since King Onjo, the founder of Baekje, founded the government in Wiryeseong of Hanam, the Han River Valley was absorbed into Goguryeo in the mid-fifth century, became Silla's territory in the year 553.
Afterward, the current location of Gyeonggi-do, one of the nine states of Later Silla, was called Hansanju. The Gyeonggi region started to rise as the central region of Goryeo as King Taejo of Goryeo set up the capital in Gaesong. Since 1018, this area has been called "Gyeonggi." During the Joseon, founded after the Goryeo, King Taejo of Joseon set the capital in Hanyang, while restructuring Gyeonggi's area to include Gwangju, Suwon and Anseong, along with the southeast region. Since the period of King Taejong and Sejong the Great, the Gyeonggi region has been similar to the current administrative area of Gyeonggi-do. In 1895 the 23-Bu system, which reorganized administrative areas, was effected; the Gyeonggi region was divided into Hanseong, Chungju and Kaesong. During the Japanese colonial period, Hanseong-bu was incorporated into Gyeonggi-do. On October 1, 1910, it was renamed Keijo and a provincial government was placed in Keijo according to the reorganization of administrative districts. After liberation and the foundation of two Korean governments, Gyeonggi-do and its capital, were separated with partial regions of Gyeonggi-do being incorporated into Seoul thereafter.
Additionally, Kaesong became North Korean territory, the only city to change control after the countries were divided at the 38th parallel, now part of North Korea's North Hwanghae Province. In 1967 the seat of the Gyeonggi provincial government was transferred from Seoul to Suwon. After Incheon separated from Gyeonggi-do in 1981, Gyeonggi regions such as Ongjin County and Ganghwa County were incorporated into Incheon in 1995. Gyeonggi-do is the western central region of the Korean Peninsula, vertically situated in Northeast Asia and is between east longitude of 126 and 127, north latitude of 36 and 38, its dimension is 10 % of 10,171 square kilometres. It is in contact with 86 kilometres of cease-fire line to the north, 413 kilometres of coastline to the west, Gangwon-do to the east, Chungcheongbuk-do and Chungcheongnam-do to the south, has Seoul, the capital of the Republic of Korea, in its center, its provincial government is in Suwon, but some of its government buildings are in Uijeongbu for the administrative conveniences of the northern region.
The climate of Gyeonggi-do is the continental climate, which has a severe differentiation of temperature between summer and winter, has distinctions of four seasons. Spring is warm, summer is hot and humid, autumn is cool, winter is cold and snowy; the annual average temperature is between 11–13 °C, where the temperature in the mountainous areas to the northeast is lower and the coastal areas to the southwest is higher. For January's average temperature, the Gyeonggi Bay is −4 °C, the Namhangang Basin is −4 to −6 °C, the Bukhangang and Imjingang Basins are −6 to −8 °C, it becomes higher in temperature differentiation from coastal to inland areas. Summer has a lower local differentiation compared to winter; the inland areas are hotter than the Gyeonggi Bay area, the hottest area is Pyeongtaek, making the average temperature of August 26.5 °C. The annual average precipitation is around 1,100 millimetres, with a lot of rainfall, it is dry during winter. The northeastern inland areas of Bukhangang and the upper stream of Imjingang has a precipitation of 1,300–1,400 millimetres, whereas the coastal area has only 900 millimetres of precipitation.
The topography of Gyeonggi-do is divided into southern and northern areas by the Han River, which flows from east to west. The area north to the Han River is mountainous, while the southern area is plain; the configuration of Gyeonggi-do is represented by Dong-go-seo-jeo, where the Gwangju Mountain Range and the Charyeong Mountain Range spreads from the east and drops in elevation in the west. The fields of Gimpo and Pyeongtaek extend to the west. Gyeonggi-do boasts beautiful nature stocked with rivers, lakes and seas, its representative rivers are the Hangang and Anseongcheon, which flow into the Yellow Sea, with Gyeonggi Plain, Yeonbaek Plain and Anseong Plain forming a fertile field area around the rivers. The Gwangju Mountain Range and the Charyeong Mountain Range stre
Shinhan Bank, is a bank headquartered in Seoul, South Korea. It was the first bank in Korea, established under the name Hanseong Bank in 1897; the bank was reestablished in 1982. It is part of the Shinhan Financial Group, along with Jeju Bank. Chohung Bank merged with Shinhan Bank on April 1, 2006. Shinhan Bank started as a small enterprise with a capital stock of KRW 25.0 billion, 279 employees, three branches on July 7, 1982. Today, it has transformed itself into a large bank, boasting total assets of KRW 176.9 trillion, equity capital of KRW 9.7 trillion, 10,741 employees, 1,026 branches as of 2006. As of June 30, 2016, Shinhan Bank had total assets of KRW 298.945 trillion, total deposits of KRW 221.047 trillion and loans of KRW 212.228 trillion. Shinhan Bank is the main subsidiary of Shinhan Financial Group Shinhan Bank is the descendant of Hanseong Bank, the first modern bank in Korea, it was established by Kim Jong-Han in 1897, but began operating around 1900. It was located in a small house with only two rooms.
One room was for the president, Yi Jae-Won, the other room was for the staff. The bank operated by borrowing money from Japanese banks at low interest rates and loaning it out for twice the rate to the Korean market; the Bank was successful because despite lending out money at twice the rate it borrowed it at, the bank's interest rates were still far lower than what could be obtained elsewhere in Korea at that time. In an anecdotal story the bank's first property to use as collateral on a loan happened to be a donkey; the bank staff were challenged to care for their collateral as the loan was out. Economy of South Korea List of banks in South Korea List of Korea-related topics List of South Korean companies Shinhan Bank official website Shinhan Financial Group official website Yahoo! Finance page for Shinhan Bank Yahoo! Finance page for Shinhan Bank
South Korea the Republic of Korea, is a country in East Asia, constituting the southern part of the Korean Peninsula and lying to the east of the Asian mainland. The name Korea is derived from Goguryeo, one of the great powers in East Asia during its time, ruling most of the Korean Peninsula, parts of the Russian Far East and Inner Mongolia, under Gwanggaeto the Great. South Korea has a predominantly mountainous terrain, it comprises an estimated 51.4 million residents distributed over 100,363 km2. Its capital and largest city is Seoul, with a population of around 10 million. Archaeology indicates that the Korean Peninsula was inhabited by early humans starting from the Lower Paleolithic period; the history of Korea begins with the foundation of Gojoseon in 2333 BCE by the mythic king Dangun, but no archaeological evidence and writing was found from this period. The Gija Joseon was purportedly founded in 11th century BCE, its existence and role has been controversial in the modern era; the written historical record on Gojoseon was first mentioned in Chinese records in the early 7th century BCE.
Following the unification of the Three Kingdoms of Korea under Unified Silla in CE 668, Korea was subsequently ruled by the Goryeo dynasty and the Joseon dynasty. It was annexed by the Empire of Japan in 1910. At the end of World War II, Korea was divided into Soviet and U. S. zones of occupations. A separate election was held in the U. S. zone in 1948 which led to the creation of the Republic of Korea, while the Democratic People's Republic of Korea was established in the Soviet zone. The United Nations at the time passed a resolution declaring the ROK to be the only lawful government in Korea; the Korean War began in June 1950. The war lasted three years and involved the U. S. China, the Soviet Union and several other nations; the border between the two nations remains the most fortified in the world. Under long-time military leader Park Chung-hee, the South Korean economy grew and the country was transformed into a G-20 major economy. Military rule ended in 1987, the country is now a presidential republic consisting of 17 administrative divisions.
South Korea is a developed country and a high-income economy, with a "very high" Human Development Index, ranking 22nd in the world. The country is considered a regional power and is the world's 11th largest economy by nominal GDP and the 12th largest by PPP as of 2010. South Korea is a global leader in the industrial and technological sectors, being the world's 5th largest exporter and 8th largest importer, its export-driven economy focuses production on electronics, ships, machinery and robotics. South Korea is a member of the ASEAN Plus mechanism, the United Nations, Uniting for Consensus, G20, the WTO and OECD and is a founding member of APEC and the East Asia Summit; the name Korea derives from the name Goryeo. The name Goryeo itself was first used by the ancient kingdom of Goguryeo in the 5th century as a shortened form of its name; the 10th-century kingdom of Goryeo succeeded Goguryeo, thus inherited its name, pronounced by the visiting Persian merchants as "Korea". The modern spelling of Korea first appeared in the late 17th century in the travel writings of the Dutch East India Company's Hendrick Hamel.
Despite the coexistence of the spellings Corea and Korea in 19th century publications, some Koreans believe that Imperial Japan, around the time of the Japanese occupation, intentionally standardised the spelling on Korea, making Japan appear first alphabetically. After Goryeo was replaced by Joseon in 1392, Joseon became the official name for the entire territory, though it was not universally accepted; the new official name has its origin in the ancient country of Gojoseon. In 1897, the Joseon dynasty changed the official name of the country from Joseon to Daehan Jeguk; the name Daehan, which means "Great Han" derives from Samhan, referring to the Three Kingdoms of Korea, not the ancient confederacies in the southern Korean Peninsula. However, the name Joseon was still used by Koreans to refer to their country, though it was no longer the official name. Under Japanese rule, the two names Han and Joseon coexisted. There were several groups who fought for independence, the most notable being the Provisional Government of the Republic of Korea.
Following the surrender of Japan, in 1945, the Republic of Korea was adopted as the legal English name for the new country. Since the government only controlled the southern part of the Korean Peninsula, the informal term South Korea was coined, becoming common in the Western world. While South Koreans use Han to refer to the entire country, North Koreans and ethnic Koreans living in China and Japan use the term Joseon as the name of the country; the Korean name "Daehan Minguk" is sometimes used by South Koreans as a metonym to refer to the Korean ethnicity as a whole, rather than just the South Korean state. The history of Korea begins with the founding of Joseon in 2333 BCE by Dangun, according to Korea's foundation mythology. Gojoseon expanded until it controlled parts of Manchuria. Gija Joseon was purportedly founded in the 12th century BC, but its existence and role have been controversial in the modern era. In 108 BCE, the Han dynasty defeated Wiman Joseon and installed four commanderies in the n
The U Line is a driverless automatic, grade-separated light rail or light metro line in Uijeongbu, Seoul Capital Area, South Korea. The "U" stands for the city Uijeongbu; the line uses 208 Véhicule Automatique Léger trains built by Siemens Transportation Systems. The system is similar to the Toulouse Metro in France; the line offers a transfer to Line 1 at Hoeryong Station. Single rides cost. During rush hours trains come every 3 and a half minutes with trains coming every 6 to 10 minutes during all other hours. Trains are from 5 am until 12:30 am. From Balgok Station to Tapseok Station, the U Line will take riders 19 minutes and 54 seconds, versus a car, at 31 minutes 6 seconds, or a public bus, taking 40 minutes and 6 seconds. Two extensions are planned. After four and a half years of operating at a continual loss, a debt of 240 billion won prompted board members of the Uijeongbu Light Rail Transit Company to file for bankruptcy in late 2016. If the Seoul Central District Court agrees to the filing operation reverts to the city government.
On January 5, 2017, Uijeongbu Mayor Ahn Byung-yong promised. 1995 December – Initial planning 2004 August – GS Construction Consortium is picked 2005 October – Operating company is established 2007 July – Construction groundbreaking ceremony 2007 August – Full construction begins 2011 Summer – All track has been laid 2011 Fall – Signal work completion 2012 February to June- Testing of system 2012 June 29–30 – Free rides prior to official opening 2012 July 1 – Revenue service begins 2014 December 6 – Joins metropolitan unity fare allowing transfers to other lines and buses. Fares start from 1,350, with a flat 300 won extra charge if transferring from Line 1; the U Line is physically connected to the Seoul Metropolitan Subway system and allows payment via the T-money smart card. It allows transfer to other lines and buses since 6 December 2014. Discounts are available for youth and free rides exist for those over 65 years of age. There is no station numbered U116. Subways in South Korea Seoul Metropolitan Subway U Line – official website Uijeongbu VAL system at UrbanRail.
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Seoul Capital Area
The Seoul Capital Area, Sudogwon or Gyeonggi region is the metropolitan area of Seoul and Gyeonggi-do located in north-west South Korea. It is ranked as the fifth largest metropolitan area in the world, its area is about 11,704 km2. It forms the cultural, financial and residential center of South Korea; the largest city is Seoul, with a population of 10 million people, followed by Incheon, with 3 million inhabitants. The Capital Area occupies a plain in the Han River valley, it contains some of the most fertile land on the Korean peninsula, although little of it is now used for agriculture. The Gimpo Plain, one of the country's larger expanses of level arable land, covers much of the area of the cities of Gimpo and Bucheon; the Capital Area has been home to a Korean capital for around 2,000 years. Its central location and gentle landscape have given it a central role in the country's affairs; the first capital to be constructed in the region was that of Baekje, one of the Three Kingdoms of Korea.
The country's first capital was named Wiryeseong. This is believed to have been constructed near the modern-day boundary of Gwangju City. However, Baekje was unable to hold this territory, surrendered the Han River valley to Goguryeo in the 5th century; the land was taken over by Silla in the 6th century, at which point it came to play a critical role in helping Silla to establish ties with China. After the fall of Silla, Taejo of Goryeo established the capital of his kingdom in Kaesŏng, now just north of the Demilitarized Zone. During the Mongol invasions of Korea in the 12th century, the seat of government shifted to Ganghwa Island, now just south of the DMZ in Incheon metropolitan city, where the Mongol naval attacks were repelled for about a decade before the king voluntarily surrendered to stop the carnage the Mongols committed in the peninsula, in order to lure the king out. After the fall of Goryeo Dynasty in 1392, the newly founded Joseon Dynasty had its capital, less than 100 km south of the old dynasty's capital, Kaesŏng.
Hanyang was chosen to be the new capital for mountains surrounding it making it safe from enemies, for the Han River, separating the north and south parts of the city that let the trade business flourish. During the new dynasty's rule, extensive road systems, administrative buildings, royal palaces, new ports were built attracting wealth from all over the kingdom. During the Korean Empire period, Hanseong's public transportation was improved with the installation of streetcars and manually drawn trolleys similar to taxis. Horse carriage systems similar to the ones in Europe were established. Following the Japanese annexation of Korea in 1910, Hanseong was renamed Keijo and served as colonial Korea's capital. Upon Korea's liberation from Japan in 1945, the former colonial capital was renamed Seoul and became capital of South Korea. In the Korean War, the Capital Area became the focus of battles so destructive that most of Seoul and the surrounding regions were eradicated. Seoul was hit hard, since it exchanged hands four times during the course of the war.
During the latter half of the 20th century, the Capital Area began to develop as South Korea's economic wealth expanded. Population expanded fourfold since the Korean War. In 2001, the new Incheon International Airport took over all international flights to Seoul. Covering only about 12% of the country's area, the Seoul Capital Area is home to more than 48.2% of the national population, is the world's fifth largest urban area. This percentage has risen since the mid-20th century, the trend is expected to continue. More than half of the people who move from one region to another are moving to the capital area. By 2020, it is projected that more than 52% of South Korea's population will live within the area, or 26,310,000 people. However, the Seoul Capital Area reached 25,620,000 people by 2015, bringing the chance of reaching a population of 26.31 Million in less than 5 years. In 2016, Seoul Capital Area's gross regional product was ₩810,287 billion, generating 49.5% of the country's total gdp.
It is the fourth largest urban economy in the world after Tokyo, New York City and Los Angeles, the region hosts headquarters of 59 Forbes Global 2000 companies. As the economy of Seoul Capital Area transformed to knowledge economy from the manufacturing-based economy of the 20th century, there are a number of high-tech business parks in Seoul Capital Area, such as Digital Media City and Pangyo Techno Valley; the South Korean government is now implementing a plan to create several centers for economic activities in the Capital Area. According to the plan, for example, Seoul is a'Northeast Asia's Financial and Business Hub', southwestern coast, with Incheon and Suwon, is'International logistics and High-tech Industrial Belt'; the Seoul Capital Area is home to the most affluent and livable cities and apartments in Korea but there are significant discrepancies between cities and districts between those built in the older and newer generations. Newer areas with more modern and luxurious apartments and infrastructure are more expensive, along with proximity to Gangnam District, the commercial center of the region.
Various agencies have been set up to deal with the intergovernmental problems of the region. Proposals for consolidating some or all of the cities of the capital area into a handful of metropolitan cities have thus
Seoul the Seoul Special City, is the capital and largest metropolis of South Korea. With surrounding Incheon metropolis and Gyeonggi province, Seoul forms the heart of the Seoul Capital Area. Seoul is ranked as the fourth largest metropolitan economy in the world and is larger than London and Paris. Strategically situated on the Han River, Seoul's history stretches back over two thousand years, when it was founded in 18 BCE by the people of Baekje, one of the Three Kingdoms of Korea; the city was designated the capital of Korea under the Joseon dynasty. Seoul is surrounded by a mountainous and hilly landscape, with Bukhan Mountain located on the northern edge of the city; as with its long history, the Seoul Capital Area contains five UNESCO World Heritage Sites: Changdeok Palace, Hwaseong Fortress, Jongmyo Shrine and the Royal Tombs of the Joseon Dynasty. More Seoul has been a major site of modern architectural construction – major modern landmarks include the N Seoul Tower, the 63 Building, the Lotte World Tower, the Dongdaemun Design Plaza, Lotte World, Trade Tower, COEX, the IFC Seoul.
Seoul was named the 2010 World Design Capital. As the birthplace of K-pop and the Korean Wave, Seoul received over 10 million international visitors in 2014, making it the world's 9th most visited city and 4th largest earner in tourism. Today, Seoul is considered a leading and rising global city, resulting from the South Korean economic boom - referred to as the Miracle on the Han River - which transformed it into the world's 7th largest metropolitan economy with a GDP of US$635.4 billion in 2014 after Tokyo, New York City and Los Angeles. International visitors reach Seoul via AREX from the Incheon International Airport, notable for having been rated the best airport for nine consecutive years by the Airports Council International. In 2015, it was rated Asia's most livable city with the second highest quality of life globally by Arcadis, with the GDP per capita in Seoul being $39,786. Inhabitants of Seoul are faced with a high cost of living, for which the city was ranked 6th globally in 2017.
Seoul is an expensive real estate market, ranked 5th in the world for the price of apartments in the downtown center. With major technology hubs centered in Gangnam and Digital Media City, the Seoul Capital Area is home to the headquarters of 15 Fortune Global 500 companies, including Samsung, LG, Hyundai. Ranked sixth in the Global Power City Index and Global Financial Centres Index, the metropolis exerts a major influence in global affairs as one of the five leading hosts of global conferences. Seoul has hosted the 1986 Asian Games, 1988 Summer Olympics, 2002 FIFA World Cup, more the 2010 G-20 Seoul summit; the city has been known in the past by the names Wiryeseong, Hanseong, Keijō. During Japan's annexation of Korea, "Hanseong" was renamed "Keijō" by the Imperial authorities to prevent confusion with the hanja'漢', which refers to Han people or the Han dynasty and in Japanese is a term for "China", its current name originated from the Korean word meaning "capital city", believed to have descended from an ancient word, which referred to Gyeongju, the capital of Silla.
Ancient Gyeongju was known in documents by the Chinese-style name Geumseong, but it is unclear whether the native Korean-style name Seorabeol had the same meaning as Geumseong. Unlike most place names in Korea, "Seoul" has no corresponding hanja. On January 18, 2005, the Seoul government changed its official Chinese name from the historic Hancheng, still in common use, to Shou'er. Settlement of the Han River area, where present-day Seoul is located, began around 4000 BCE. Seoul is first recorded as the capital of Baekje in the northeastern Seoul area. There are several city walls remaining in the area. Pungnaptoseong, an earthen wall located southeast Seoul, is believed to have been at the main Wiryeseong site; as the Three Kingdoms competed for this strategic region, control passed from Baekje to Goguryeo in the 5th century, from Goguryeo to Silla in the 6th century. In the 11th century Goryeo, which succeeded Unified Silla, built a summer palace in Seoul, referred to as the "Southern Capital".
It was only from this period. When Joseon replaced Goryeo, the capital was moved to Seoul, where it remained until the fall of the dynasty; the Gyeongbok Palace, built in the 14th century, served as the royal residence until 1592. The other large palace, constructed in 1405, served as the main royal palace from 1611 to 1872. After Joseon changed her name to the Korean Empire in 1897, Hwangseong designated Seoul; the city was surrounded by a massive circular stone wall to provide its citizens security from wild animals and attacks. The city has grown beyond those walls and although the wall no longer stands, the gates remain near the downtown district of Seoul, including most notably Sungnyemun and Heunginjimun (commonly known as Dong