Mandeville is the capital and largest town in the parish of Manchester in the county of Middlesex, Jamaica. In 2005, the town had an estimated population of 50,000, including the immediate suburbs within a radius of 16 km the total population is about 72,000, it is located on an inland plateau at an altitude of 628 m, is 103 km west of Kingston. It is the only parish capital of Jamaica not located on a major river. Mandeville has a town square, parish church and clock tower, many large, elegant early nineteenth-century houses line the winding streets in the town centre. In the suburbs of the town many large houses have been built by returning residents from North America and the United Kingdom on an ad hoc basis. Developers have complemented these with large housing developments, some of which are constructed as gated communities. Prominent suburbs and surrounding areas include Ingleside, Knockpatrick, Waltham, Caledonia Meadows, Newport, Spur Tree, French Park, Swabys Hope, Lincoln and Marshalls Pen.
Mandeville is a major commercial centre, is the location of Northern Caribbean University, a Seventh-day Adventist institution of higher learning. Mandeville is the chief town of Manchester parish, Jamaica's mountain resort the island's largest hill town and the fifth largest urban center; the mayor of Mandeville is Brenda Ramsay. The town was laid out in 1816, named after Viscount Mandeville, the eldest son of the Duke of Manchester, governor of Jamaica. Many of the original buildings can still be seen such as the courthouse, an impressive building of cut limestone with a horseshoe staircase and a raised portico supported by Doric columns and built in 1820; the staircase was added in about 1900. Many of Jamaica's oldest businesses were started in Mandeville, its golf club, founded as the Manchester Golf Club in 1868, was the first golf course in the Caribbean. The first "free library" in Jamaica was established in 1938, is the oldest Parish Library; the growth of the town was given a substantial stimulus when the Alcan Bauxite Company in a joint venture with the Jamaican Government opened its Kirkvine works nearby at Williamsfield in 1957.
It built houses at Mandeville for its mostly expatriate staff. The high wages lured many educated Jamaicans there. Subsequently, the town has seen an influx of Jamaican residents returning from abroad. Annastasia Baker, UK based Gospel, R&B, soul singer and songwriter Kimour Bruce, sprinter Kemoy Campbell, distance runner William "Bunny Rugs" Clarke, frontman for the Reggae/R&B band Third World Charmaine Crooks, Olympic athlete Paul R. Cunningham, Jamaican American surgeon Heavy D, rapper Colin Heron, first-class cricketer Jacob Miller, reggae musician Alfred George Nash, civil engineer and legislator Lovel Palmer and international footballer Sheryl Lee Ralph and singer Manchester Local Sustainable Development Plan The Mandeville Weekly News Paper
Digital object identifier
In computing, a Digital Object Identifier or DOI is a persistent identifier or handle used to identify objects uniquely, standardized by the International Organization for Standardization. An implementation of the Handle System, DOIs are in wide use to identify academic and government information, such as journal articles, research reports and data sets, official publications though they have been used to identify other types of information resources, such as commercial videos. A DOI aims to be "resolvable" to some form of access to the information object to which the DOI refers; this is achieved by binding the DOI to metadata about the object, such as a URL, indicating where the object can be found. Thus, by being actionable and interoperable, a DOI differs from identifiers such as ISBNs and ISRCs which aim only to identify their referents uniquely; the DOI system uses the indecs Content Model for representing metadata. The DOI for a document remains fixed over the lifetime of the document, whereas its location and other metadata may change.
Referring to an online document by its DOI is supposed to provide a more stable link than using its URL. But every time a URL changes, the publisher has to update the metadata for the DOI to link to the new URL, it is the publisher's responsibility to update the DOI database. If they fail to do so, the DOI resolves to a dead link leaving the DOI useless; the developer and administrator of the DOI system is the International DOI Foundation, which introduced it in 2000. Organizations that meet the contractual obligations of the DOI system and are willing to pay to become a member of the system can assign DOIs; the DOI system is implemented through a federation of registration agencies coordinated by the IDF. By late April 2011 more than 50 million DOI names had been assigned by some 4,000 organizations, by April 2013 this number had grown to 85 million DOI names assigned through 9,500 organizations. A DOI is a type of Handle System handle, which takes the form of a character string divided into two parts, a prefix and a suffix, separated by a slash.
Prefix/suffixThe prefix identifies the registrant of the identifier, the suffix is chosen by the registrant and identifies the specific object associated with that DOI. Most legal Unicode characters are allowed in these strings, which are interpreted in a case-insensitive manner; the prefix takes the form 10. NNNN, where NNNN is a series of at least 4 numbers greater than or equal to 1000, whose limit depends only on the total number of registrants; the prefix may be further subdivided with periods, like 10. NNNN. N. For example, in the DOI name 10.1000/182, the prefix is 10.1000 and the suffix is 182. The "10." Part of the prefix distinguishes the handle as part of the DOI namespace, as opposed to some other Handle System namespace, the characters 1000 in the prefix identify the registrant. 182 is item ID, identifying a single object. DOI names can identify creative works in both electronic and physical forms and abstract works such as licenses, parties to a transaction, etc; the names can refer to objects at varying levels of detail: thus DOI names can identify a journal, an individual issue of a journal, an individual article in the journal, or a single table in that article.
The choice of level of detail is left to the assigner, but in the DOI system it must be declared as part of the metadata, associated with a DOI name, using a data dictionary based on the indecs Content Model. The official DOI Handbook explicitly states that DOIs should display on screens and in print in the format doi:10.1000/182. Contrary to the DOI Handbook, CrossRef, a major DOI registration agency, recommends displaying a URL instead of the specified format This URL is persistent, so it is a PURL — providing the location of an HTTP proxy server which will redirect web accesses to the correct online location of the linked item; the CrossRef recommendation is based on the assumption that the DOI is being displayed without being hyperlinked to its appropriate URL – the argument being that without the hyperlink it is not as easy to copy-and-paste the full URL to bring up the page for the DOI, thus the entire URL should be displayed, allowing people viewing the page containing the DOI to copy-and-paste the URL, by hand, into a new window/tab in their browser in order to go to the appropriate page for the document the DOI represents.
Major applications of the DOI system include: scholarly materials through CrossRef, a consortium of around 3,000 publishers. Research datasets through DataCite, a consortium of leading research libraries, technical information providers, scientific data centers. Permanent global identifiers for commercial video content through the Entertainment ID Registry known as EIDR. In the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development's publication service OECD iLibrary, each table or graph
Integrated Authority File
The Integrated Authority File or GND is an international authority file for the organisation of personal names, subject headings and corporate bodies from catalogues. It is used for documentation in libraries and also by archives and museums; the GND is managed by the German National Library in cooperation with various regional library networks in German-speaking Europe and other partners. The GND falls under the Creative Commons Zero licence; the GND specification provides a hierarchy of high-level entities and sub-classes, useful in library classification, an approach to unambiguous identification of single elements. It comprises an ontology intended for knowledge representation in the semantic web, available in the RDF format; the Integrated Authority File became operational in April 2012 and integrates the content of the following authority files, which have since been discontinued: Name Authority File Corporate Bodies Authority File Subject Headings Authority File Uniform Title File of the Deutsches Musikarchiv At the time of its introduction on 5 April 2012, the GND held 9,493,860 files, including 2,650,000 personalised names.
There are seven main types of GND entities: LIBRIS Virtual International Authority File Information pages about the GND from the German National Library Search via OGND Bereitstellung des ersten GND-Grundbestandes DNB, 19 April 2012 From Authority Control to Linked Authority Data Presentation given by Reinhold Heuvelmann to the ALA MARC Formats Interest Group, June 2012