United States Air Force
The United States Air Force is the aerial and space warfare service branch of the United States Armed Forces. It is one of the five branches of the United States Armed Forces, one of the seven American uniformed services. Formed as a part of the United States Army on 1 August 1907, the USAF was established as a separate branch of the U. S. Armed Forces on 18 September 1947 with the passing of the National Security Act of 1947, it is the youngest branch of the U. S. Armed Forces, the fourth in order of precedence; the USAF is the largest and most technologically advanced air force in the world. The Air Force articulates its core missions as air and space superiority, global integrated intelligence and reconnaissance, rapid global mobility, global strike, command and control; the U. S. Air Force is a military service branch organized within the Department of the Air Force, one of the three military departments of the Department of Defense; the Air Force, through the Department of the Air Force, is headed by the civilian Secretary of the Air Force, who reports to the Secretary of Defense, is appointed by the President with Senate confirmation.
The highest-ranking military officer in the Air Force is the Chief of Staff of the Air Force, who exercises supervision over Air Force units and serves as one of the Joint Chiefs of Staff. Air Force components are assigned, as directed by the Secretary of Defense, to the combatant commands, neither the Secretary of the Air Force nor the Chief of Staff of the Air Force have operational command authority over them. Along with conducting independent air and space operations, the U. S. Air Force provides air support for land and naval forces and aids in the recovery of troops in the field; as of 2017, the service operates more than 5,369 military aircraft, 406 ICBMs and 170 military satellites. It has a $161 billion budget and is the second largest service branch, with 318,415 active duty airmen, 140,169 civilian personnel, 69,200 reserve airmen, 105,700 Air National Guard airmen. According to the National Security Act of 1947, which created the USAF: In general, the United States Air Force shall include aviation forces both combat and service not otherwise assigned.
It shall be organized and equipped for prompt and sustained offensive and defensive air operations. The Air Force shall be responsible for the preparation of the air forces necessary for the effective prosecution of war except as otherwise assigned and, in accordance with integrated joint mobilization plans, for the expansion of the peacetime components of the Air Force to meet the needs of war. §8062 of Title 10 US Code defines the purpose of the USAF as: to preserve the peace and security, provide for the defense, of the United States, the Territories and possessions, any areas occupied by the United States. The stated mission of the USAF today is to "fly and win...in air and cyberspace". "The United States Air Force will be a trusted and reliable joint partner with our sister services known for integrity in all of our activities, including supporting the joint mission first and foremost. We will provide compelling air and cyber capabilities for use by the combatant commanders. We will excel as stewards of all Air Force resources in service to the American people, while providing precise and reliable Global Vigilance and Power for the nation".
The five core missions of the Air Force have not changed since the Air Force became independent in 1947, but they have evolved, are now articulated as air and space superiority, global integrated intelligence and reconnaissance, rapid global mobility, global strike, command and control. The purpose of all of these core missions is to provide, what the Air Force states as, global vigilance, global reach, global power. Air superiority is "that degree of dominance in the air battle of one force over another which permits the conduct of operations by the former and its related land, sea and special operations forces at a given time and place without prohibitive interference by the opposing force". Offensive Counterair is defined as "offensive operations to destroy, disrupt, or neutralize enemy aircraft, launch platforms, their supporting structures and systems both before and after launch, but as close to their source as possible". OCA is the preferred method of countering air and missile threats since it attempts to defeat the enemy closer to its source and enjoys the initiative.
OCA comprises attack operations, sweep and suppression/destruction of enemy air defense. Defensive Counter air is defined as "all the defensive measures designed to detect, identify and destroy or negate enemy forces attempting to penetrate or attack through friendly airspace". A major goal of DCA operations, in concert with OCA operations, is to provide an area from which forces can operate, secure from air and missile threats; the DCA mission comprises both passive defense measures. Active defense is "the employment of limited offensive action and counterattacks to deny a contested area or position to the enemy", it includes both ballistic missile defense and air-breathing threat defense, encompasses point defense, area defense, high-value airborne asset defense. Passive defense is "measures taken to reduce the probability of and to minimize the effects of damage caused by hostile action without the intention of taking the initiative", it includes warning.
St. John's University, Shanghai
St. John's University was an Anglican university in Shanghai. Founded in 1879 by American missionaries, it was one of the oldest and most prestigious universities in China regarded as the Harvard of China. After the founding of the People's Republic of China, the Communist government closed the university in 1952, most of its faculty members and library collections were transferred to the East China Normal University, its Board of Governors moved the university to Hong Kong, founding Chung Chi College, a part of Chinese University of Hong Kong. The university was founded in 1879 as "St. John's College" by William Jones Boone and Joseph Schereschewsky, Bishop of Shanghai, by combining two pre-existing Anglican colleges in Shanghai; the architect for the college's original quadrangle of buildings was Newark, New Jersey architect William Halsey Wood. The first president was Yen Yun-ching. During the early period of St. John's College, Lydia Mary Fay, a missionary of the Protestant Episcopal China Mission, helped to set up Duane Hall, a secondary school which became part of St. John's College.
St. John's began with 39 students and taught in Chinese. In 1891, it changed to teaching with English as the main language; the courses began to focus on natural philosophy. In 1905, St. John's College became St. John's University and became registered in Washington D. C. in the United States. It thus had the status of a domestic university and American graduates of St. John's could proceed directly to graduate schools in the United States; as a result, the university attracted some of the brightest and wealthiest students in Shanghai at the time. It was the first institution to grant bachelor's degrees in China, starting in 1907; the university was located at 188 Jessfield Road, on a bend of the Suzhou Creek in Shanghai and was designed to incorporate Chinese and Western architectural elements. In 1925, some academics and students left St. John formed the Kwang Hua University. In 1951, Kwang Hua was incorporated into East China Normal University; the university survived the Chinese Civil War. However, in 1952 the Communist government adopted a policy of creating specialist universities in the Soviet style of the time.
Under this policy, St John's was broken up. Most of its faculties were incorporated into the East China Normal University; the medical school was incorporated into Shanghai Second Medical College, which became the School of Medicine, Shanghai Jiao Tong University in 2005. The campus became the site of the East China University of Law. Raymond Chow, filmmaker. Thomas Dao, physician who developed breast cancer treatment alternatives. Chung Sze Yuen, senior Hong Kong politician. Francis Hsu, former Catholic bishop of Hong Kong. Hu Peiquan, engineering mechanician and aerospace engineer. Wellington Koo, former president of the Republic of China, foreign minister, former judge and vice-president of the International Court of Justice. Jiang Shaoji, a famous internist and gastroenterologist in China. Jing Shuping, founder of Minsheng Bank, China's first owned bank. Lin Yutang, writer. Liu Tonghua, academician of the Chinese Academy of Engineering. Liu Yichang, writer. Lu Ping, Chinese politician in charge of the handover of Hong Kong and Macau.
I. M. Pei, architect. Meng Xiancheng, the first president of East China Normal University. Ngan Shing-kwan, Hong Kong transport and property tycoon. Qian Liren, Chinese politician and diplomat Shi Jiuyong, former President of the International Court of Justice. T. V. Soong, brother to the Soong sisters, Premier of the Republic of China. K. H. Ting, Anglican bishop and former national leader of Protestants in the People's Republic of China. Vivian Shun-wen Wu, businesswoman Yen Chia-kan, former Vice President and President of the Republic of China. Rong Yiren, "Red Capitalist", the founder of CITIC Group, Vice President of the People's Republic of China. Zhang Boling founder of Nankai University and the Nankai system of schools. Zhou Youguang, linguist. Zhu Qizhen, former Vice Foreign Minister, Chinese Ambassador to the USA and Chair of the Foreign Affairs Committee of the National Peoples Congress of China Cheng Youshu and poet Chen Chi-lu, Minister of Council of Cultural Affairs of the Republic of China Liu Hongsheng, prominent industrialist, known as the "King of Matches" Francis Lister Hawks Pott, President of St. John's College 1888 to 1896, President of St. John's University from 1896 to 1941 William Z.
L. Sung was the Vice President of St. John's University under Francis Lister Hawks Pott and the first Chinese born Acting president during WWII, he was accused of collaboration with the Japanese after the war and acquitted. He was helped lead the first two delegations from China to the 1936 Olympics, he emigrated to the US and became a priest in the Episcopal church working as a Chaplin with the Diocese of California. An undergraduate Alumni. William Payne Roberts and acting president in the absence of Pott David Z. T. Yin, Rector of the University, was a distinguished Chinese scholar who had represented the YMCA in Shanghai at the turn of the century. To keep the school's traditions alive, SJU alumni founded three academic institutions around the world bearing the name of St. John's: In Taiwan, St. John's University was established in 1967, In Vancouver, St. John's College at the University of British Columbia was established in 1997, In Shanghai, St. John's College at the East China Normal University will
The Northern Expedition was a military campaign launched by the National Revolutionary Army of the Kuomintang known as the "Chinese Nationalist Party", against the Beiyang government and other regional warlords in 1926. The purpose of the campaign was to reunify China, which had become fragmented in the aftermath of the Revolution of 1911; the expedition was led by Generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek, was divided into two phases. The first phase ended in a 1927 political split between two factions of the KMT: the right-leaning Nanjing faction, led by Chiang, the left-leaning faction in Wuhan, led by Wang Jingwei; the split was motivated by Chiang's purging of communists within the KMT, which marked the end of the First United Front. In an effort to mend this schism, Chiang Kai-shek stepped down as the commander of the NRA in August 1927, went into exile in Japan; the second phase of the Expedition began in January 1928. By April 1928, the nationalist forces had advanced to the Yellow River. With the assistance of allied warlords including Yan Xishan and Feng Yuxiang, nationalist forces secured a series of decisive victories against the Beiyang Army.
As they approached Beijing, Zhang Zuolin, leader of the Manchuria-based Fengtian clique, was forced to flee, was assassinated shortly thereafter by the Japanese. His son, Zhang Xueliang, took over as the leader of the Fengtian clique, in December 1928, announced that Manchuria would accept the authority of the nationalist government in Nanjing. With the final piece of China under KMT control, the Northern Expedition concluded and China was reunified, heralding the start of the Nanjing decade. In the 1920s, the Beiyang government based in Beijing was internationally recognised as the legitimate Chinese government. Much of the country, was not under its control, being ruled by a patchwork of warlords; the Kuomintang, based in Guangzhou, aspired to be the party of national liberation. Since the conclusion of the Constitutional Protection Movement in 1922, the KMT had been bolstering its ranks to prepare for an expedition against the northern warlords in Beijing, with the goal of reunifying China.
This preparation involved improving both the political and military strength of the KMT. Before his death in March 1925, Sun Yat-sen, the founder of the Republic of China and co-founder of the KMT, was supportive of Sino-Soviet co-operation, which had involved forming the First United Front with the Communist Party of China; the military arm of the KMT was the National Revolutionary Army. Chiang Kai-shek, who had emerged as Sun's protégé as early as 1922, was appointed commandant of the Whampoa Military Academy in 1924, emerged as a contender for the position of Sun's successor in the aftermath of his death. On 30 May 1925, Chinese students in Shanghai gathered at the International Settlement, held demonstrations in opposition to foreign interference in China. With the support of the KMT, they called for the boycott of foreign goods and an end to the Settlement, governed by the British and Americans; the Shanghai Municipal Police operated by the British, opened fire on the crowd of demonstrators.
This incident sparked outrage throughout China, culminating in the Canton–Hong Kong strike, which began on 18 June, proved a fertile recruiting ground for the CPC. Concerns about the rising power of the leftist faction, the effect of the strike on the Guangzhou government's ability to raise funds, dependent on foreign trade, led to increasing tensions within the United Front. Amidst this backdrop, vying for the position of KMT leader, began to consolidate power in preparation for an expedition against the northern warlords. On 20 March 1926, he launched a bloodless purge of hardline communists who were opposed to the proposed expedition from the Guangzhou administration and its military, known as the Canton Coup. At the same time, Chiang made conciliatory moves toward the Soviet Union, attempted to balance the need for Soviet and CPC assistance in the fight against the warlords with his concerns about growing communist influence within the KMT. In the aftermath of the coup, Chiang negotiated a compromise whereby hardline members of the rightist faction, such as Wu Tieh-cheng, were removed from their posts in compensation for the purged leftists.
By doing so, Chiang was able to prove his usefulness to the CPC and their Soviet sponsor, Joseph Stalin. Soviet aid to the KMT government would continue, as would co-operation with the CPC. A fragile coalition between KMT rightists, centrists led by Chiang, KMT leftists, the CPC managed to hold together, laying the groundwork for the Northern Expedition. In 1926, there were three major coalition of warlords across China that were hostile to the KMT government in Guangzhou; the forces of Wu Peifu occupied northern Hunan and Henan provinces. The coalition of Sun Chuanfang was in control of Fujian, Jiangsu and Jiangxi provinces; the most powerful coalition, led by Zhang Zuolin, head of the Beiyang government and the Fengtian clique, was in control of Manchuria and Zhili. To face the Northern Expedition, Zhang Zuolin assembled the "National Pacification Army", an alliance of the warlords of northern China. Amidst heavy fighting along the border between KMT-held territory and that of the allied forces of the Fengtian and Zhili cliques, the nationalist government appointed Chiang Kai-shek commander-in-chief of the NRA on 5 June 1926.
Chiang would accept this post in a ceremony on 9 July, which marked the formal start of the Northern Expedition, although military clashes had been ongoing
The Soong sisters were three Shanghainese Chinese women who were, along with their husbands, amongst China's most significant political figures of the early 20th century. They each played a major role in influencing their husbands, along with their own positions of power changed the course of Chinese history, their father was American-educated Methodist minister Charlie Soong, who made a fortune in banking and printing. Their mother was Ni Kwei-tseng, whose mother, Lady Xu, was a descendant of Ming dynasty mathematician and Jesuit convert Xu Guangqi. All three sisters attended Wesleyan College in Macon, United States. Mei-ling, left Wesleyan and graduated from Wellesley College in Massachusetts, their three brothers were all high-ranking officials in the Republic of China government, one of whom was T. V. Soong. Throughout their lifetimes, each one of the sisters followed her own beliefs in terms of supporting the Kuomintang or the Communists. In the 1930s, Soong Ai-ling and Mei-ling were the two richest women in China.
In 1937, when the Second Sino-Japanese war broke out, all three of them got together after a 10-year separation in an effort to unite the KMT and CPC against the Imperial Japanese army. Soong Ai-ling devoted herself to social work such as helping wounded soldiers and orphans, she donated five ambulances and 37 trucks to the army in Shanghai and the air force, along with 500 leather uniforms. When the Japanese occupied Nanjing and Wuhan, the three sisters moved to Hong Kong. In 1940, they returned to Chongqing and established the Chinese Industrial Cooperatives, which opened job opportunities for people through weaving and other crafts; the sisters visited schools, orphanages, air raid shelters and aided war torn communities along the way. While both parties failed to unite at the most critical time in the 1940s, the sisters made a valiant effort in financing and assisting in all national activities, their marriages and alleged motivations have been summarized in the Maoist saying "One loved money, one loved power, one loved her country" referring to Ai-ling, Mei-ling, Ching-ling in that order.
The Soong Sisters, the award-winning 1997 Hong Kong film depicting the lives of the sisters. The Soong Sisters, a 1941 book by Emily Hahn; the Soong Dynasty, a 1985 book by Sterling Seagrave, ISBN 978-0-283-99238-4. Four big families of the Republic of China History of the Republic of China Kuomintang Soong Dynasty by Sterling Seagrave, Sidg. & J, 1985, ISBN 978-0-283-99238-4 Soong Sisters at the Wesleyan College website
International Standard Book Number
The International Standard Book Number is a numeric commercial book identifier, intended to be unique. Publishers purchase ISBNs from an affiliate of the International ISBN Agency. An ISBN is assigned to each variation of a book. For example, an e-book, a paperback and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN; the ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, 10 digits long if assigned before 2007. The method of assigning an ISBN is nation-based and varies from country to country depending on how large the publishing industry is within a country; the initial ISBN identification format was devised in 1967, based upon the 9-digit Standard Book Numbering created in 1966. The 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO 2108. Published books sometimes appear without an ISBN; the International ISBN agency sometimes assigns such books ISBNs on its own initiative.
Another identifier, the International Standard Serial Number, identifies periodical publications such as magazines and newspapers. The International Standard Music Number covers musical scores; the Standard Book Numbering code is a 9-digit commercial book identifier system created by Gordon Foster, Emeritus Professor of Statistics at Trinity College, for the booksellers and stationers WHSmith and others in 1965. The ISBN identification format was conceived in 1967 in the United Kingdom by David Whitaker and in 1968 in the United States by Emery Koltay; the 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO 2108. The United Kingdom continued to use the 9-digit SBN code until 1974. ISO has appointed the International ISBN Agency as the registration authority for ISBN worldwide and the ISBN Standard is developed under the control of ISO Technical Committee 46/Subcommittee 9 TC 46/SC 9; the ISO on-line facility only refers back to 1978.
An SBN may be converted to an ISBN by prefixing the digit "0". For example, the second edition of Mr. J. G. Reeder Returns, published by Hodder in 1965, has "SBN 340 01381 8" – 340 indicating the publisher, 01381 their serial number, 8 being the check digit; this can be converted to ISBN 0-340-01381-8. Since 1 January 2007, ISBNs have contained 13 digits, a format, compatible with "Bookland" European Article Number EAN-13s. An ISBN is assigned to each variation of a book. For example, an ebook, a paperback, a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN; the ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, 10 digits long if assigned before 2007. An International Standard Book Number consists of 4 parts or 5 parts: for a 13-digit ISBN, a prefix element – a GS1 prefix: so far 978 or 979 have been made available by GS1, the registration group element, the registrant element, the publication element, a checksum character or check digit. A 13-digit ISBN can be separated into its parts, when this is done it is customary to separate the parts with hyphens or spaces.
Separating the parts of a 10-digit ISBN is done with either hyphens or spaces. Figuring out how to separate a given ISBN is complicated, because most of the parts do not use a fixed number of digits. ISBN is most used among others special identifiers to describe references in Wikipedia and can help to find the same sources with different description in various language versions. ISBN issuance is country-specific, in that ISBNs are issued by the ISBN registration agency, responsible for that country or territory regardless of the publication language; the ranges of ISBNs assigned to any particular country are based on the publishing profile of the country concerned, so the ranges will vary depending on the number of books and the number and size of publishers that are active. Some ISBN registration agencies are based in national libraries or within ministries of culture and thus may receive direct funding from government to support their services. In other cases, the ISBN registration service is provided by organisations such as bibliographic data providers that are not government funded.
A full directory of ISBN agencies is available on the International ISBN Agency website. Partial listing: Australia: the commercial library services agency Thorpe-Bowker.
Republic of China (1912–1949)
The Republic of China controlled the Chinese mainland between 1912 and 1949. It was established in January 1912 after the Xinhai Revolution, which overthrew the Qing dynasty, the last imperial dynasty of China, its government moved to Taipei in December 1949 due to the Kuomintang's defeat in the Chinese Civil War. The Republic's first president, Sun Yat-sen, served only before handing over the position to Yuan Shikai, leader of the Beiyang Army, his party led by Song Jiaoren, won the parliamentary election held in December 1912. Song Jiaoren was assassinated shortly after and the Beiyang Army led by Yuan Shikai maintained full control of the Beiyang government. Between late 1915 and early 1916, Yuan Shikai tried to reinstate the monarchy before abdicating due to popular unrest. After Yuan Shikai's death in 1916, members of cliques in the Beiyang Army claimed their autonomy and clashed with each other. During this period, the authority of the Beiyang government was weakened by a restoration of the Qing dynasty.
In 1921, Sun Yat-sen's Kuomintang established a rival government in Canton City, Canton Province, together with the fledgling Communist Party of China. The economy of North China, overtaxed to support warlord adventurism, collapsed between 1927 and 1928. General Chiang Kai-shek, who became KMT leader after Sun Yat-sen's death, started the Northern Expedition military campaign in 1926 to overthrow the Beiyang government, completed in 1928. In April 1927, Chiang established a nationalist government in Nanking, massacred communists in Shanghai, which forced the CPC into armed rebellion, marking the beginning of the Chinese Civil War. There were industrialization and modernization, but conflict between the Nationalist government in Nanking, the CPC, remnant warlords, the Empire of Japan. Nation-building took a backseat to the Second Sino-Japanese War when the Imperial Japanese Army launched an offensive against China in 1937 that turned into a full-scale invasion. After the surrender of Japan at the end of World War II in 1945, the Chinese Civil War resumed in 1946 between the KMT and CPC, with both sides receiving foreign assistance due to the Cold War from the USA and USSR, respectively.
During this period, the 1946 Constitution of the Republic of China replaced the 1928 Organic Law as the Republic's fundamental law. Near the end of the Chinese Civil War in 1949, the Chinese Communist Party established the People's Republic of China, overthrowing the nationalist government on the Chinese mainland; the Government of the Republic of China moved from Nanking to Taipei in 1949, controlling only the Taiwan area after 1949. The official name of the state in the mainland was the "Republic of China". Shortly after the ROC's establishment in 1912, while it was still located on the Chinese mainland, the government used the short form "China" to refer to itself, which derives from zhōng and guó, a term which developed under the Zhou dynasty in reference to its royal demesne, the name was applied to the area around Luoyi during the Eastern Zhou and to China's Central Plain before being used as an occasional synonym for the state during the Qing era; the ROC used alternate names throughout its existence were Republican China or Republican Era, as well as the Beiyang government, the Nationalist government.
A republic was formally established on 1 January 1912 following the Xinhai Revolution, which itself began with the Wuchang Uprising on 10 October 1911 overthrowing the Qing dynasty and ending over two thousand years of imperial rule in China. From its founding until 1949 it was based on mainland China. Central authority waxed and waned in response to warlordism, Japanese invasion, a full-scale civil war, with central authority strongest during the Nanjing Decade, when most of China came under the control of the Kuomintang under an authoritarian one-party military dictatorship. At the end of World War II in 1945, the Empire of Japan surrendered control of Taiwan and its island groups to the Allies, Taiwan was placed under the Republic of China's administrative control; the communist takeover of mainland China in the Chinese Civil War in 1949 left the ruling Kuomintang with control over only Taiwan, Kinmen and other minor islands. With the 1949 loss of mainland China in the civil war, the ROC government retreated to Taiwan and the KMT declared Taipei the provisional capital.
The Communist Party of China took over all of mainland China and founded the People's Republic of China in Beijing. In 1912, after over two thousand years of imperial rule, a republic was established to replace the monarchy; the Qing dynasty that preceded the republic experienced a century of instability throughout the 19th century, suffered from both internal rebellion and foreign imperialism. The ongoing instability led to the outburst of Boxer Rebellion in 1900, whose attacks on foreigners led to the invasion by the Eight Nation Alliance. China signed the Boxer Protocol and paid a large indemnity to the foreign powers: 450 million taels of fine silver. A program of institutional reform proved too late. Only the lack of an alternative regime prolonged its existence until 1912; the establishment of the Chinese Republic developed out of the Wuchang Uprising against the Qing government on 10 October 1911. That date is now celebrated annually as the ROC's national day known as the "Double Ten Day".
On 29 December 1911, Sun Yat-sen was elected president b
History of the Republic of China
The History of the Republic of China begins after the Qing dynasty in 1912, when the formation of the Republic of China as a constitutional republic put an end to 4,000 years of Imperial rule. The Qing dynasty, ruled from 1644–1912; the Republic had experienced many trials and tribulations after its founding which included being dominated by elements as disparate as warlord generals and foreign powers. In 1928, the Republic was nominally unified under the Kuomintang —Chinese Nationalist Party—after the Northern Expedition, was in the early stages of industrialization and modernization when it was caught in the conflicts among the Kuomintang government, the Communist Party of China, converted into a nationalist party. Most nation-building efforts were stopped during the full-scale Second Sino-Japanese War / War of Resistance against Japan from 1937 to 1945, the widening gap between the Kuomintang and the Communist Party made a coalition government impossible, causing the resumption of the Chinese Civil War, in 1946, shortly after the Japanese surrender to the Americans and the Western Allies in September 1945.
A series of political and military missteps led to the KMT's defeat and its retreat to Taiwan in 1949, where it established an authoritarian one-party state continuing under Generalissimo/President Chiang Kai-shek. This state considered itself to be the continuing sole legitimate ruler of all of China, referring to the communist government or "regime" as illegitimate, a so-called "People's Republic of China" declared in Beijing by Mao Zedong in 1949, as "mainland China", "Communist China, or "Red China". Although supported for many years decades by many nations with the support of the United States who established a 1954 Mutual Defense treaty, as the decades passed, since political liberalization began in the late 1960s, the PRC was able after a constant yearly campaign in the United Nations to get approval in 1971, to take the seat for "China" in the General Assembly, more be seated as one of the five permanent members of the Security Council. After recovering from this shock of rejection by its former allies and liberalization in the late 1970s from the Nationalist authoritarian government and following the death of Chiang Kai-shek, the Republic of China has transformed itself into a multiparty, representative democracy on Taiwan and given more representation to those native Taiwanese, whose ancestors predate the 1949 mainland evacuation.
The last days of the Qing dynasty in the late 19th and early 20th centuries were marked by civil unrest and foreign invasions. Various internal rebellions caused millions of deaths, conflicts with foreign Western European powers always resulted in humiliating unequal treaties that exacted costly reparations and compromised the country's territorial integrity. In addition, there were sentiments that political power should return to the majority Han Chinese from the minority Manchus from the northeastern province of Manchuria. Responding to these civil failures and discontent, the Qing Imperial Court attempted to reform the Imperial Government in various ways, such as the decision to draft a constitution in 1906, the establishment of provincial legislatures in 1909, the preparations for electing a national parliament in 1910. However, many of these measures were opposed by the conservatives of the Qing Court, many reformers were either imprisoned or executed outright; the failures of the Imperial Court to enact such political liberalization and modernization caused the reformists to take the road of revolution.
There were many revolutionary groups, but the most organized one was founded by Sun Yat-sen, a republican and anti-Qing activist who became popular among overseas Chinese and Chinese students abroad in Japan. In 1905 Sun founded the Tongmenghui in Tokyo with Huang Xing, a popular leader of the Chinese revolutionary movement in Japan, as his deputy; this movement, generously supported by overseas Chinese funds gained political support with regional military officers and some of the reformers who had fled China after the Hundred Days' Reform. Sun's political philosophy was conceptualized in 1897, first enunciated in Tokyo in 1905 and modified through the early 1920s, it centered on the Three Principles of the People: "nationalism and people's livelihood". The principle of nationalism called for overthrowing the Manchus and ending foreign hegemony over China; the second principle, was used to describe Sun's goal of a popularly elected republican form of government. People's livelihood referred to as socialism, was aimed at helping the common people through regulation of the ownership of the means of production and land.
The Republican Era of China began with the outbreak of revolution on 10 October 1911, in Wuchang, the capital of Hubei Province, among discontented modernized army units whose anti-Qing plot had been uncovered. This would be known as the Wuchang Uprising, celebrated as Double Tenth Day in Taiwan, it had been preceded by organized protests inside China. The revolt spread to neighboring cities, Tongmenghui members throughout the country rose in support of the Wuchang revolutionary forces. On October 12 the Revolutionaries succeeded in capturing Hanyang. However, the euphoria engendered by this victory was short-lived. On October 27, Yuan Shikai was reappointed by the Qing Court to lead the New Army, loyalist forces under Feng Guozhang and Duan Qirui moved south to retake Wuhan. After heavy fighting in November, the out-manned and out-gunned Revolutionary Army was drive