United States Attorney General
The United States Attorney General is the chief lawyer of the federal government of the United States, head of the United States Department of Justice per 28 U. S. C. § 503, oversees all governmental legal affairs. Under the Appointments Clause of the United States Constitution, the officeholder is nominated by the President of the United States and appointed with the advice and consent of the United States Senate; the U. S. Constitution provides that civil officers of the United States, which would include the U. S. Attorney General, may be impeached by Congress for treason, bribery or high crimes and misdemeanors; the United States Attorney General may be removed at will by the President of the United States under the Supreme Court decision Myers v. United States, which found that executive branch officials may be removed without the consent of any entity. In cases of the federal death penalty, the power to seek the death penalty rests with the U. S. Attorney General; the current Attorney General is William Barr.
Congress passed the Judiciary Act of 1789 which, among other things, established the Office of the Attorney General. The original duties of this officer were "to prosecute and conduct all suits in the Supreme Court in which the United States shall be concerned, to give his advice and opinion upon questions of law when required by the President of the United States, or when requested by the heads of any of the departments"; the Department of Justice was established in 1870 to support the Attorney General in the discharge of their responsibilities. The Attorney General, the Secretary of State, the Secretary of the Treasury, the Secretary of Defense are regarded as the four most important Cabinet officials in the United States because of the significance and age of their respective departments, it is the practice for the Attorney General, along with many other public officials, to give resignation with effect on the Inauguration Day of a new President. The Deputy Attorney General, required to tender their resignation, is requested to stay on and act as Attorney General pending the confirmation by the Senate of the new Attorney General.
For example, on the inauguration of President Donald Trump on January 20, 2017, the tenure of the Attorney General Loretta Lynch was brought to an end, the Deputy Attorney General Sally Yates, who had tendered her resignation, was asked to stay on and be Acting Attorney General until the confirmation of the new Attorney General Jeff Sessions, nominated for the office in November 2016 by then-President-elect Donald Trump. Parties Federalist Democratic-Republican Democratic Whig Republican Status As of April 2019, there are ten, living former US Attorneys General, the oldest being Ramsey Clark; the most recent Attorney General to die was Janet Reno on November 7, 2016. William Barr, who served from 1991-1993, returned to the post and is serving, excluding him from this list. U. S. C. Title 28, §508 establishes the first two positions in the line of succession, while allowing the Attorney General to designate other high-ranking officers of the Department of Justice as subsequent successors. Furthermore, an Executive Order defines subsequent positions, the most recent from March 31, 2017, signed by President Donald Trump.
The current line of succession is: United States Deputy Attorney General United States Associate Attorney General Other Officers designated by the Attorney General: Solicitor General of the United States Assistant Attorney General, Antitrust Division Assistant Attorney General, Civil Division Assistant Attorney General, Civil Rights Division Assistant Attorney General, Criminal Division Assistant Attorney General, National Security Division Assistant Attorney General and Natural Resources Division Assistant Attorney General, Justice Management Division Assistant Attorney General, Tax Division Assistant Attorney General, Office of Justice Programs Assistant Attorney General, Office of Legal Counsel Assistant Attorney General, Office of Legal Policy Assistant Attorney General, Office of Legislative Affairs United States Attorney for the Eastern District of Virginia United States Attorney for the Eastern District of North Carolina United States Attorney for the Northern District of Texas United States Deputy Attorney General United States Associate Attorney General United States Assistant Attorney General United States Solicitor General List of living former members of the United States Cabinet Executive Order 13787 for "Providing an Order of Succession Within the Department of Justice" Official website
World War II
World War II known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945. The vast majority of the world's countries—including all the great powers—eventually formed two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis. A state of total war emerged, directly involving more than 100 million people from over 30 countries; the major participants threw their entire economic and scientific capabilities behind the war effort, blurring the distinction between civilian and military resources. World War II was the deadliest conflict in human history, marked by 50 to 85 million fatalities, most of whom were civilians in the Soviet Union and China, it included massacres, the genocide of the Holocaust, strategic bombing, premeditated death from starvation and disease, the only use of nuclear weapons in war. Japan, which aimed to dominate Asia and the Pacific, was at war with China by 1937, though neither side had declared war on the other. World War II is said to have begun on 1 September 1939, with the invasion of Poland by Germany and subsequent declarations of war on Germany by France and the United Kingdom.
From late 1939 to early 1941, in a series of campaigns and treaties, Germany conquered or controlled much of continental Europe, formed the Axis alliance with Italy and Japan. Under the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact of August 1939, Germany and the Soviet Union partitioned and annexed territories of their European neighbours, Finland and the Baltic states. Following the onset of campaigns in North Africa and East Africa, the fall of France in mid 1940, the war continued between the European Axis powers and the British Empire. War in the Balkans, the aerial Battle of Britain, the Blitz, the long Battle of the Atlantic followed. On 22 June 1941, the European Axis powers launched an invasion of the Soviet Union, opening the largest land theatre of war in history; this Eastern Front trapped most crucially the German Wehrmacht, into a war of attrition. In December 1941, Japan launched a surprise attack on the United States as well as European colonies in the Pacific. Following an immediate U. S. declaration of war against Japan, supported by one from Great Britain, the European Axis powers declared war on the U.
S. in solidarity with their Japanese ally. Rapid Japanese conquests over much of the Western Pacific ensued, perceived by many in Asia as liberation from Western dominance and resulting in the support of several armies from defeated territories; the Axis advance in the Pacific halted in 1942. Key setbacks in 1943, which included a series of German defeats on the Eastern Front, the Allied invasions of Sicily and Italy, Allied victories in the Pacific, cost the Axis its initiative and forced it into strategic retreat on all fronts. In 1944, the Western Allies invaded German-occupied France, while the Soviet Union regained its territorial losses and turned toward Germany and its allies. During 1944 and 1945 the Japanese suffered major reverses in mainland Asia in Central China, South China and Burma, while the Allies crippled the Japanese Navy and captured key Western Pacific islands; the war in Europe concluded with an invasion of Germany by the Western Allies and the Soviet Union, culminating in the capture of Berlin by Soviet troops, the suicide of Adolf Hitler and the German unconditional surrender on 8 May 1945.
Following the Potsdam Declaration by the Allies on 26 July 1945 and the refusal of Japan to surrender under its terms, the United States dropped atomic bombs on the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki on 6 and 9 August respectively. With an invasion of the Japanese archipelago imminent, the possibility of additional atomic bombings, the Soviet entry into the war against Japan and its invasion of Manchuria, Japan announced its intention to surrender on 15 August 1945, cementing total victory in Asia for the Allies. Tribunals were set up by fiat by the Allies and war crimes trials were conducted in the wake of the war both against the Germans and the Japanese. World War II changed the political social structure of the globe; the United Nations was established to foster international co-operation and prevent future conflicts. The Soviet Union and United States emerged as rival superpowers, setting the stage for the nearly half-century long Cold War. In the wake of European devastation, the influence of its great powers waned, triggering the decolonisation of Africa and Asia.
Most countries whose industries had been damaged moved towards economic expansion. Political integration in Europe, emerged as an effort to end pre-war enmities and create a common identity; the start of the war in Europe is held to be 1 September 1939, beginning with the German invasion of Poland. The dates for the beginning of war in the Pacific include the start of the Second Sino-Japanese War on 7 July 1937, or the Japanese invasion of Manchuria on 19 September 1931. Others follow the British historian A. J. P. Taylor, who held that the Sino-Japanese War and war in Europe and its colonies occurred and the two wars merged in 1941; this article uses the conventional dating. Other starting dates sometimes used for World War II include the Italian invasion of Abyssinia on 3 October 1935; the British historian Antony Beevor views the beginning of World War II as the Battles of Khalkhin Gol fought between Japan and the fo
Queens is the easternmost of the five boroughs of New York City. It is the largest borough geographically and is adjacent to the borough of Brooklyn at the southwestern end of Long Island. To its east is Nassau County. Queens shares water borders with the boroughs of Manhattan and the Bronx. Coterminous with Queens County since 1899, the borough of Queens is the second largest in population, with an estimated 2,358,582 residents in 2017 48% of them foreign-born. Queens County is the second most populous county in the U. S. state of New York, behind Brooklyn, coterminous with Kings County. Queens is the fourth most densely populated county among New York City's boroughs, as well as in the United States. If each of New York City's boroughs were an independent city, Queens would be the nation's fourth most populous, after Los Angeles and Brooklyn. Queens is the most ethnically diverse urban area in the world. Queens was established in 1683 as one of the original 12 counties of New York; the settlement was named for the English queen Catherine of Braganza.
Queens became a borough during the consolidation of New York City in 1898, from 1683 until 1899, the County of Queens included what is now Nassau County. Queens has the most diversified economy of the five boroughs of New York City, it is home to John F. Kennedy International Airport and LaGuardia Airport, both among the world's busiest, which in turn makes the airspace above Queens among the busiest in the United States. Landmarks in Queens include Flushing Meadows–Corona Park; the borough has diverse housing, ranging from high-rise apartment buildings in the urban areas of western and central Queens, such as Jackson Heights, Flushing and Long Island City, to somewhat more suburban neighborhoods in the eastern part of the borough, including Douglaston–Little Neck and Bayside. European colonization brought English settlers, as a part of the New Netherland colony. First settlements occurred in 1635 followed by early colonizations at Maspeth in 1642, Vlissingen in 1643. Other early settlements included Jamaica.
However, these towns were inhabited by English settlers from New England via eastern Long Island subject to Dutch law. After the capture of the colony by the English and its renaming as New York in 1664, the area became known as Yorkshire; the Flushing Remonstrance signed by colonists in 1657 is considered a precursor to the United States Constitution's provision on freedom of religion in the Bill of Rights. The signers protested the Dutch colonial authorities' persecution of Quakers in what is today the borough of Queens. Queens County included the adjacent area now comprising Nassau County, it was an original county of New York State, one of twelve created on November 1, 1683. The county is assumed to have been named after Catherine of Braganza, since she was queen of England at the time; the county was founded alongside Kings County, Richmond County. However, the namesake is in dispute. On October 7, 1691, all counties in the Colony of New York were redefined. Queens gained South Brother Islands as well as Huletts Island.
On December 3, 1768, Queens gained other islands in Long Island Sound that were not assigned to a county but that did not abut on Westchester County. Queens played a minor role in the American Revolution, as compared to Brooklyn, where the Battle of Long Island was fought. Queens, like the rest of what became New York City and Long Island, remained under British occupation after the Battle of Long Island in 1776 and was occupied throughout most of the rest of the Revolutionary War. Under the Quartering Act, British soldiers used, as barracks, the public inns and uninhabited buildings belonging to Queens residents. Though many local people were against unannounced quartering, sentiment throughout the county remained in favor of the British crown; the quartering of soldiers in private homes, except in times of war, was banned by the Third Amendment to the United States Constitution. Nathan Hale was captured by the British on the shore of Flushing Bay in Queens before being executed by hanging in Manhattan for gathering intelligence.
From 1683 until 1784, Queens County consisted of five towns: Flushing, Jamaica and Oyster Bay. On April 6, 1784, a sixth town, the Town of North Hempstead, was formed through secession by the northern portions of the Town of Hempstead; the seat of the county government was located first in Jamaica, but the courthouse was torn down by the British during the American Revolution to use the materials to build barracks. After the war, various buildings in Jamaica temporarily served as courthouse and jail until a new building was erected about 1787 in an area near Mineola known as Clowesville; the 1850 United States Census was the first in which the population of the three western towns exceeded that of the three eastern towns that are now part of Nassau County. Concerns were raised about the condition and distance of the old courthouse, several sites were in contention for the constru
In the United States, a district attorney is the chief prosecutor for a local government area a county. The exact name of the office varies by state. Except in the smallest counties, a district attorney leads a staff of prosecutors, who are most known as deputy district attorneys; the Deputy who serves as the supervisor of the office is called the Assistant District Attorney. The majority of prosecutions will be delegated to DDAs, with the district attorney prosecuting the most important cases and having overall responsibility for their agency and its work. Depending upon the system in place, DAs may be appointed by the chief executive of the jurisdiction or elected by local voters; the district attorney, assistant district attorneys under the district attorney’s authority, are the attorneys representing a government body as prosecutors who are responsible for presenting cases against individuals and groups who are suspected of breaking the law and directing further criminal investigations and recommending the sentencing of offenders, are the only attorneys allowed to participate in grand jury proceedings.
The United States Judiciary Act of 1789, Section 35, provided for the appointment of a person in each judicial district to prosecute federal crimes and to represent the United States in all civil actions to which it was a party. There were 13 districts to cover the 11 States that had by that time ratified the constitution; each State was a district, except for Virginia which formed two. Districts were added; the statute did not confer a title upon these local agents of federal authority, but subsequent statutes and court decisions referred to them most as "district attorneys". In 1948, the Judicial Code adopted the term "United States attorneys"; this term for a prosecutor originates with the traditional use of the term "district" for multi-county prosecutorial jurisdictions in several U. S. states. For example, New York appointed prosecutors to multi-county districts prior to 1813. After those states broke up such districts and started appointing or electing prosecutors for individual counties, they continued to use the title "district attorney" for the most senior prosecutor in a county rather than switch to "county attorney".
District attorney and assistant district attorney are the most common titles for state prosecutors, are used by several major jurisdictions within the United States, such as California, Georgia, Nevada, New York, North Carolina, Oregon, Pennsylvania and Wisconsin. In St. Louis, the title is circuit attorney, while in St. Louis County, the title is prosecuting attorney. Alternative titles for the office include commonwealth's attorney, state's attorney, county attorney, circuit solicitor, or county prosecutor. In the United Kingdom, the equivalent position to a district attorney is a chief crown prosecutor, the equivalent to an assistant district attorney is a crown prosecutor; these prosecutors work under the Crown Prosecution Service in England and Wales, the Procurator Fiscal in Scotland, the Director of Public Prosecutions in Northern Ireland. In many other countries, the title of the chief prosecuting officer is Director of Public Prosecutions. In Canada, the equivalent position to a district attorney is a crown attorney, crown counsel or Crown Prosecutor depending on the province, the equivalent to an assistant district attorney is the assistant crown attorney, assistant crown counsel or assistant crown prosecutor respectively.
The assistant district attorney, or state prosecutor, is a law enforcement official who represents the state government on behalf of the district attorney in investigating and prosecuting individuals alleged to have committed a crime. In carrying out their duties to enforce state and local laws, ADAs have the authority to investigate persons, issue subpoenas, file formal criminal charges, plea bargain with defendants, grant immunity to witnesses and accused criminals. Administrative assistant district attorney, executive assistant district attorney, chief assistant district attorney, or first assistant district attorney are some of the titles given to the senior ADA leadership working under the DA; the chief ADA or first ADA, depending on the office, is considered the second-in-command, reports directly to the DA. The exact roles and job assignments for each title vary with each individual office, but include management of the daily activities and supervision of specialized divisions within the office.
A senior ADA may oversee or prosecute some of the larger crimes within the jurisdiction. In some offices, the Exec ADA has the responsibility of hiring lawyers and support staff, as well as supervising press-releases and overseeing the work of the office; some District Attorneys maintain their own law enforcement arm whose members are sworn peace officers. Depending on the jurisdiction, they are referred to as District Attorney Investigators or county detectives. List of district attorneys by county Allegheny County District Attorney Baltimore County State's Attorney Bronx County District Attorney Commonwealth's attorney Cook County State's Attorney Dallas County District Attorney Denver District Attorney's Office District Attorney of Philadelphia Essex County Prosecutor's Office King County Prosecuting Attorney Kings County District Attorney Law and order Los Angeles County District Attorney Milwaukee County District Attorney New York County District Attorney Prosecuting Attorney of Honolulu Queens County District Attorney Richmond County District Attorney San Diego County District Attor
Long Island City
Long Island City is a residential and commercial neighborhood located on the extreme western tip of Queens, New York City, at the western edge of Long Island. It is bordered by Astoria to the north; the area is part of Queens Community Board 2 to the south. Incorporated as a separate city in 1870, Long Island City was the seat of government of the Town of Newtown, before becoming part of New York City in 1898. Starting in the early 21st century, Long Island City became known for its rapid and ongoing residential growth and gentrification, its waterfront parks, its thriving arts community; the area has a high concentration of art galleries, art institutions, studio space. Long Island City is the eastern terminus of the Queensboro Bridge, the only non-tolled automotive route connecting Queens and Manhattan. Northwest of the bridge are the Queensbridge Houses, a development of the New York City Housing Authority and the largest public housing complex in the Western Hemisphere. Long Island City was a city of its own, created in 1870 from the merger of the Village of Astoria and the hamlets of Ravenswood, Hunters Point, Sunnyside, Dutch Kills, Bowery Bay and Middleton in the Town of Newtown.
At the time of its incorporation, Long Island City had between 15,000 residents. Its charter provided for an elected mayor and a ten-member Board of Alderman with two representing each of the city's five wards. City ordinances could be passed by a majority vote of the Board of Aldermen and the mayor's signature. Long Island City held its first election on July 5, 1870. Residents elected A. D. Delmars the first mayor; the first elected Board of Aldermen was Patrick Lonirgan. M. Hartshort and William Carlin; the mayor and the aldermen were inaugurated on July 18, 1870. In the 1880s, Mayor De Bevoise nearly bankrupted the Long Island City government by embezzlement, of which he was convicted. Many dissatisfied residents of Astoria circulated a petition to ask the New York State Legislature to allow it to secede from Long Island City and reincorporate as the Village of Astoria, as it existed prior to the incorporation of Long Island City, in 1884; the petition was dropped by the citizens. Long Island City continued to exist as an incorporated city until 1898, when all of Queens was annexed to New York City.
The last mayor of Long Island City was an Irish-American named Patrick Jerome "Battle-Axe" Gleason. The Common Council of Long Island City in 1873 adopted the coat of arms as "emblematical of the varied interest represented by Long Island City." It was designed by George H. Williams, of Ravenswood; the overall composition was inspired by New York City's coat of arms. The shield is rich in historic allusion, including Native American and English symbols. In 1898, Long Island City became part of New York City; the city surrendered its independence in 1898 to become part of the City of Greater New York. However, Long Island City survives as ZIP code 11101 and ZIP code prefix 111 and was a sectional center facility; the Greater Astoria Historical Society, a nonprofit cultural and historical organization documenting the Long Island City area's history, has operated since 1985. Through the 1930s, three subway tunnels, the Queens-Midtown Tunnel, the Queensboro Bridge were built to connect the neighborhood to Manhattan.
By the 1970s, the factories in Long Island City were being abandoned. In 1981, Queens West on the west side of Long Island City was developed to revitalize the area. In 2001, the neighborhood was rezoned from an industrial neighborhood to a residential neighborhood, the area underwent gentrification, with developments such as Hunter's Point South being built in the area. Since there has been substantial commercial and residential growth in Long Island City, with 41 new residential apartment buildings being built just between 2010 and 2017. A resident of nearby Woodside proposed establishing a Japantown in Long Island City in 2006, though this did not occur. In addition to the Hunters Point Historic District and Queensboro Bridge, the 45th Road – Court House Square Station, Long Island City Courthouse Complex, United States Post Office are listed on the National Register of Historic Places. New York City designated landmarks include the Pepsi-Cola sign along the East River, designated in April 2016.
Based on data from the 2010 United States Census, the population of the combined Queensbridge-Ravenswood-Long Island City neighborhood was 20,030, a decrease of 1,074 from the 21,104 counted in 2000. Covering an area of 540.94 acres, the neighborhood had a population density of 37.0 inhabitants per acre. The racial makeup of the neighborhood was 14.7% White, 25.9% African American, 0.3% Native American, 15.5% Asian, 0.0% Pacific Islander, 1.2% from other races, 1.9% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 40.5% of the population. Long Island City is split between Community Board 1 to the north of Queens Plaza and Community Board 2 south of Queens Plaza; the entirety of Community Board 1, which comprises northern Long Island City and Astoria, had 199,969 inhabitants as of NYC Health's 2018 Community Health Profile, with an average life expectancy of 83.4 years. T
Fordham University School of Law
Fordham University School of Law is a professional graduate school of Fordham University. The school is located in the borough of Manhattan in New York City, is one of eight ABA-approved law schools in that city. In 2013, 91% of the law school's first-time test takers passed the bar exam, placing the law schools' graduates as fifth-best at passing the New York bar exam among New York's 15 law schools. According to Fordham University School of Law's 2014 ABA-required disclosures, 67.8% of the Class of 2014 obtained full-time, long-term, JD-required employment nine months after graduation. The 2018 Academic Ranking of World Universities ranked Fordham Law School as 27th best in the world. According to the information reported to the American Bar Association, 1,151 J. D. students attended Fordham Law in 2015-2016. There are 195 part-time students. Fordham Law offers Master of Laws degrees in the following specializations: Banking, Corporate, & Finance Law. S. Law. LL. M. Students can take a second concentration after finishing the first one by enrolling in a third semester.
Fordham University offers a "3-3 Program" that allows students to earn a Bachelor of Arts or Bachelor of Science and a Juris Doctor in six years of study: three at Fordham College and three at Fordham Law. Fordham Law offers three joint degrees in conjunction with Fordham University's other graduate schools: J. D./M. A. in International Political Economy and Development. D./M. B. A.. D./M. S. W.. The School offers a Master of Studies in Law degree with specializations in Corporate Compliance and Fashion Law, as well as a Doctor of Juridical Science degree, full-time, research-based and culminates in a dissertation of at least 50,000 words. Founded in 1905, Fordham Law commemorated its Centennial during the 2005-2006 academic year, capped the year-long celebration with an alumni gala on Ellis Island on September 28, the school's official birthday; the school used the occasion of its Centennial to launch a new fundraising drive in 2005, in just one year had raised more than $10 million thanks in large part to the more than 100 "Centennial Founders" who each contributed $100,000 or more.
The current dean of Fordham Law School is Matthew Diller. In the 2016 edition of U. S. News & World Report's "Best Graduate Schools," Fordham Law was ranked 34th, it has the highest ranked part-time law program in New York state Additionally, five specialty programs were nationally ranked: Dispute Resolution, 13th. According to the American Universities Admission Program's LL. M Rankings, the Fordham Law LL. M program was ranked 6th nationally in 2012. According to The National Law Journal, Fordham Law ranks 20th in percentage of class of 2014 graduates hired by "NLJ 250" firms and 23rd in the number of alumni promoted to partner. In 2015, 85.2% of the law school's first-time test takers passed the bar exam, placing the law school graduates as fourth-most successful New York State bar exam takers among New York's 15 law schools. In a national study of the scholarly impact of law school faculty, Fordham Law’s tenured professors were tied for 35th; the study looks at citations of faculty articles from 2010 through 2014.
In a survey conducted by Vault in 2017, Fordham Law comes 8th in terms of big law placement and 9th when class size was factored in. Located in New York's downtown Financial District, Fordham Law is located on the West Side of Manhattan, as part of Fordham University's Lincoln Center campus; as part of the university's Lincoln Center Master Plan, unveiled in 2005, a new law school building was built. The building took three years to complete, following the groundbreaking on May 2, 2011; the new law school building is part of the university's Phase 1 redevelopment of its Lincoln Center Campus. The 22-story building was designed by Pei Cobb Freed & Partners to serve a dual-purpose for Fordham University: a nine-story pedestal houses the law school, a 12-story tower serves as an undergraduate residence hall; the law school portion of the building was dedicated on September 18, 2014. Former New York City mayor Michael R. Bloomberg delivered the keynote address and U. S. Supreme Court Associate Justice Sonia Sotomayor gave a speech before presiding over the ribbon-cutting ceremony.
Fordham offers an extensive legal writing program, with many course offerings beyond the first year. All legal writing courses are taught by adjunct professors; the Clinical education program at Fordham Law is ranked 22nd nationally by U. S. News & World Report in its 2016 edition of America's Best Graduate Schools. At Fordham, clinical education is available but not required. Students are selected for clinics via a competitive application process. Fordham students have an opportunity to enroll in clinics following their first year, after taking the Fundamental Lawyering Skills course. 17 clinics are offered: Fordham's clinics represent clients as "Lincoln Square Legal Services," a small law firm housed within the school. The Crowley Program in International Human Rights, named after the late Professor Joseph R. Crowley, was founded in 1997, it is a program of study in international human rights law undertaken in the 2L year, culminating in a two-week overseas fact-finding mission in the summer.
Students in the program are known as Crowley Scholars. The Leitner Center for International Law a
New York City Criminal Court
The Criminal Court of the City of New York is a court of the New York State Unified Court System in New York City that handles misdemeanors and lesser offenses, conducts arraignments and preliminary hearings in felony cases. It is a single citywide court; the Deputy Chief Administrative Judge for the New York City Courts is responsible for overseeing the day-to-day operations of the NYC trial-level courts, works with the Administrative Judge of the Criminal Court in order to allocate and assign judicial and nonjudicial personnel resources. One hundred and seven judges may be appointed by the Mayor to 10-year terms, but most of those appointed have been transferred to other courts by the Office of Court Administration. Most people who are arrested and prosecuted in New York City will appear before a Criminal Court judge for arraignment; the New York Criminal Procedure Law is the primary criminal procedure law. Felonies are heard by the Supreme Court; some violations and other issues are adjudicated by other city and state administrative courts, e.g. Krimstock hearings are conducted by the city Office of Administrative Trials and Hearings, parking violations are adjudicated by the city DOF Parking Violations Bureau, non-parking traffic violations are adjudicated by the state DMV Traffic Violations Bureau.
New York police officers may arrest someone they have reason to believe has committed a felony, misdemeanor, or violation, or pursuant to an arrest warrant. Those arrested are booked at "central booking" and interviewed by a representative of the Criminal Justice Agency for the purposes of recommending bail or remand at arraignment. In New York state, the time from arrest to arraignment must be within 24 hours. Police may release a person with an appearance ticket directing a defendant to appear for arraignment in the future: with a desk appearance ticket after arrest, or a universal summons without arrest. At arraignment, the accused submits a plea; the accused have a right to be represented by a lawyer, one will be appointed for them if they cannot afford one. Arraignments are held every day from 9:00 am to 1:00 am. At arraignment the prosecutor may provides defense counsel with certain "notices", such as notices about police lineups and statements made by the defendant to police. After notices are served, the prosecutor may ask the court to keep the accused in jail or released on bail.
Otherwise, the accused is released on their own recognizance. If the accused is released, the accused must appear in court every time their case is calendared, if they fail to appear the judge may forfeit their bail and issue a bench warrant for their arrest, although judges may excuse defendants from having to show up at every court appearance; the decision to set bail and the amount of bail to set are discretionary, the central issue regarding bail is insuring the defendant's future appearances in court. In practice, bail amounts are linked to charge severity rather than risk of failure to appear in court, judges overwhelmingly rely only on cash bail and commercial bail bonds instead of other forms of bail, courts inquire into the defendant's financial resources to understand what amount of bail might be securable by them. For those accused of a felony, their case is sent to a court part where felony cases await the action of the grand jury. If the grand jury finds that there is enough evidence that the accused has committed a crime, it may file an indictment.
If the accused waives their right to a grand jury, the prosecutor will file a Superior Court Information. If the grand jury votes an indictment, the case will be transferred from Criminal Court to the Supreme Court for another arraignment; this arraignment is similar to the arraignment in Criminal Court, if the accused does not submit a guilty plea, the case will be adjourned to a calendar part. Felony defendants must be released on CPL § 180.80 day if they haven't been indicted, to say that unless a grand jury has indicted the defendant and a hearing has commenced within 120 hours/5 days, or proof that the indictment was voted within 120 hours, unless the delay was due to a request of the defendant, absent a compelling reason for the prosecution's delay, the defendant must be released on their own recognizance. Plea bargain negotiations take place in the AP Parts prior to the case being in a trial-ready posture, depending upon caseloads, the judges in the AP Parts may conduct pre-trial and felony motion hearings.
The most common pre-trial evidence suppression hearings are Mapp, Huntley and Johnson hearings. Trial Parts conduct pre-trial motion hearings, including Sandoval and Molineux hearings. Once pretrial hearings are completed, the case is considered ready for trial and will be transferred to a courtroom that specializes in handling trials. A bail review in Supreme Court may be requested by misdemeanor defendants who cannot make bail at the CPL § 170.70 day appearance to be scheduled three business days late