B1 is a medical-based Paralympic classification for blind sport. Athletes in this classification are or totally blind, it is used by a number of blind sports including para-alpine skiing, para-Nordic skiing, blind cricket, blind golf, five-a-side football and judo. Some other sports, including adaptive rowing and swimming, have equivalents to this class; the B1 classification was first created by the IBSA in the 1970s, has remained unchanged since despite an effort by the International Paralympic Committee to move towards a more functional and evidence-based classification system. Classification is handled on the international level by the International Blind Sports Federation but it sometimes handled by national sport federations. There are exceptions for sports like athletics and cycling, where classification is handled by their own governing bodies. Equipment utilized by competitors in this class may differ from sport to sport, may include sighted guides, guide rails, beeping balls and clapsticks.
There may be some modifications related to equipment and rules to address needs of competitors in this class to allow them to compete in specific sports. Some sports do not allow a guide, whereas cycling and skiing require one. B1 is a disability sport classification for people; the International Blind Sports Federation defines this classification as visual acuity poorer than LogMAR 2.60. The Canadian Paralympic Committee defined this classification as "No functional vision." This classification is borrowed by some other sports, including blind golf who define the class as "No light perception in either eye, up to light perception but inability to recognise the shape of a hand at any distance or in any direction."Para-alpine skiing specific versions of this definition include one by the Australian Paralympic Committee which defined this classification as this classification in alpine skiing as "Athletes blind or who have some light perception but can't see the shape of a hand at any distance from their face."
The International Paralympic Committee defined this classification for alpine skiing as "No light perception in either eye, up to light perception but inability to recognise the shape of a hand at any distance or in any direction."This classification has parallels in other sports. The comparative classification in adaptive rowing is LTA-B1. In para-equestrian, Grade 3 is equivalent to B1; the para-equestrian classification definition is different from the IBSA one, with BBC Sport defining Grade 3 as, "Grade 3 incorporates Cerebral Palsy, Les Autres, Spinal Cord Injury and blind athletes with good balance, leg movement and co-ordination." The B1 equivalent for swimming is S11, while for athletics, the equivalent classification is T11. IBSA handles classification for a number of sports internationally including five-a-side football and judo. Part of being classified involves assessing vision for factors including visual acuity, contrast sensitivity, color vision, motion detections and visual field.
Assessment into this class by the IBSA involves the athlete filling out a consent form, submitting a photograph, scheduling an appointment with a classifier for evaluation. During the evaluation, the competitor may be accompanied by another person to assist them in communicating with the classifiers. If necessary, the person can bring a translator; the medical assessment is conducted. There are several status groups used by classifiers; these include confirmed for competitors who have a visual impairment unlikely to change, review for competitors who have vision that may fluctuate, new for competitors who have never been classified before, not eligible for competitors who have a visual impairment, not severe enough and not to deteriorate in the future to the point where they could be eligible. Classification is handled on a national and sport level. Australians seeking classification for blind sports can be classified by an IBSA classifier or by an Australian Paralympic Committee vision impairment classifier.
In the United Kingdom, blind sport is handled by British Blind Sport, recognised nationally by Sport England. In the United States, governance related to this classification is handled by the United States Association for Blind Athletes. Not all sports use IBSA classifiers. For adaptive rowing, classification assignment may be handled by the Fédération Internationale des Sociétés d'Aviron, cycling by the Union Cycliste Internationale, para-equestrian, by the Fédération Équestre Internationale. Swimming classification is handled by IPC Swimming, while in athletics, classification assignment for this class is handled by the IPC; this classification traces its history to the early history of blind sport. There was a belief that those with vision impairment, less severe had a competitive advantage over competitors who had more severe impairment. Classification was developed by the IBSA to insure more competition across the different bands of visual acuity. In 1976, the International Sports Organization for the Disabled developed a blind classification system.
Parallel to this, IBSA and national blind sport associations were developing their own classification system, with the IBSA one based on visual acuity in place by 1980. The rise of the IBSA classification system for blind sport meant the ISOD classification system failed to gain traction in blind sports competition; the IBSA classification system has remained unchanged since it was put in place as the International Paralympic Committee attempted to move towards a more functional disability and evidence based system that does
Tramways in Île-de-France
The Île-de-France tramways consists of a network of modern tram lines in the Île-de-France region of France. Ten lines are operational, with extensions and additional lines in the planning and construction stage. Although the system runs in the suburban regions of Paris, lines T3a and T3b run within Paris city limits, line T2 does so for part of its route. While the lines operate independently of each other and are unconnected, some connections do exist: between lines T2 and T3a, T3a and T3b, T1 and T5, T1 and T8 and T8 and T11 Express. However, the final design of the entire planned tram network is integrated. All lines are operated by the Régie Autonome des Transports Parisiens, which operates the Paris Métro and most bus services in the Paris immediate area. Furthermore, while most lines use conventional steel-wheel rolling stock, two lines use rubber-tired trams. Moreover, line T4, which uses tram-train technology, is operated by the French national rail operator SNCF as part of its Transilien regional rail network.
Line T11 Express, which uses tram-train technology, is operated by SNCF's subsubsidiary Transkeo. From 1855 to 1938, Paris was served by an extensive tramway network, predating the metro by nearly a half-century. In 1925 the network had a 1,111 km length, with 122 lines. In the 1930s, the oil and automobile industry lobbies put pressure on the Paris Police Prefecture to remove tram tracks and make room for cars; the last of these first generation tram lines inside of Paris, that connected Porte de Saint-Cloud to Porte de Vincennes, was closed in 1937, the last line in the entire Paris agglomeration, running between Le Raincy and Montfermeil, ended its service on 14 August 1938. Horse-powered, Paris trams used steam, pneumatic engines electricity; the funicular that operated in Belleville from 1891 to 1924 is sometimes erroneously thought of as a tramway, but was a cable car system. The first of the new generation of trams in Paris, the actual line T1, opened in 1992, with Line T2 opening in 1997 and Lines T3 and T4 in 2006.
Lines T5 and T7, opened in 2013 while T6 and T8 opened in 2014. T11 opened in 2017, while T9 & T10, held back into paper projects for many years, are still under preparative works, now joined by lines T12 & T13, the last parts of the former Grande Ceinture line that aren't covered by T11. Line T1 connects Asnières and Gennevilliers to Noisy-le-Sec, parallel to the Paris city's northern limit, it opened in 1992 from Saint Denis' train/RER station to Bobigny — Pablo Picasso subway station, where is located the Prefecture for the Seine-Saint-Denis department. The extension from Bobigny to Noisy-le-Sec was completed in December 2003. An extension west to Asnières and Gennevilliers, connecting to western branch of subway line 13, opened in November 2012, a continuation towards Nanterre is planned. An eastwards extension to Montreuil and to the Val de Fontenay RER station is planned. Line T2 connects the bridge of Bezons to the Porte de Versailles via La Défense and Issy-les-Moulineaux business districts.
It opened in 1997 between La Défense and Issy Val-de-Seine train stations on a former SNCF line, the Moulineaux line. An extension south, from Issy Val-de-Seine to Porte de Versailles opened in 2009, while the second extension, to the north this time, opened in 2012 from La Défense to Pont de Bezons. Line T3 is the first modern tramway line to enter Paris itself, it is divided into two sections, called T3a and T3b, separated at the Porte de Vincennes in order not to cut the road traffic there, despite rail and electrical infrastructure being present and operational. The line is known as the tramway des Maréchaux because it follows the boulevards des maréchaux, a series of boulevards that encircle Paris along the route of the former Thiers Wall; the boulevards are, with three exceptions. T3a connects Boulevard Victor – Pont du Garigliano RER station in the western part of the 15th arrondissement with Porte de Vincennes metro station in the 12th arrondissement. T3b connects Porte de Vincennes with Porte de la Chapelle in the 18th arrondissement, this with an extension to Porte d'Asnières built and set to open in November 2018.
Line T4 is an 8-kilometre, 11-stop tram-train line, operating in part on SNCF lines, connecting Bondy Train/RER station with Aulnay-sous-Bois Train/RER station. It opened on November 18, 2006. Unlike the other tramways in Île-de-France, T4 is operated by SNCF. A new branch of this tram-train line, heading east towards Montfermeil. Tramway T5 is a Translohr tram-on-tyres running along a segregated "track" on the busy Route Nationale 1, replacing the busy bus lines 168 and 268; the 6.6-kilometre route serves 16 stops between Saint-Denis, Pierrefitte-sur-Seine and Garges-lès-Gonesse. It has an interchange with T1 at its southerly terminus marché de Saint-Denis and with RER D at its northern terminus, the Garges-Sarcelles RER station. Line T5 opened in July 2013. Tramway line 6 is a 14-kilometre Translohr tram-on-tyres serving 21 stations, from C
Siding or wall cladding is the protective material attached to the exterior side of a wall of a house or other building. Along with the roof, it forms the first line of defense against the elements, most sun, rain/snow and cold, thus creating a stable, more comfortable environment on the interior side; the siding material and style can enhance or detract from the building's beauty. There is a wide and expanding variety of materials to side with, both natural and artificial, each with its own benefits and drawbacks. Masonry walls as such do not require siding. Walls that are internally framed, whether with wood, or steel I-beams, must always be sided. Most siding consists of pieces of weather-resistant material that are smaller than the wall they cover, to allow for expansion and contraction of the materials due to moisture and temperature changes. There are various styles of joining the pieces, from board and batton, where the butt joints between panels is covered with a thin strip of wood, to a variety of clapboard called lap siding, in which planks are laid horizontally across the wall starting from the bottom, building up, the board below overlapped by the board above it.
These techniques of joinery are designed to prevent water from entering the walls. Siding that does not consist of pieces joined together would include stucco, used in the Southwest, it is applied over a lattice, just like plaster. However, because of the lack of joints, it cracks and is susceptible to water damage. Rainscreen construction is used to improve siding's ability to keep walls dry. Thatch is an ancient and widespread building material used on roofs and walls. Thatch siding is made with dry vegetation such as water reeds, or combed wheat reed; the materials are weaved in patterns designed to deflect and direct water. Wood siding is versatile in style and can be used on a wide variety of building structures, it can be stained in any color palette desired. Though installation and repair is simple, wood siding requires more maintenance than other popular solutions, requiring treatment every four to nine years depending on the severity of the elements to which it is exposed. Ants and termites are a threat to many types of wood siding, such that extra treatment and maintenance that can increase the cost in some pest-infested areas.
Wood is biodegradable. However, most paints and stains used to treat wood are not environmentally friendly and can be toxic. Wood siding can provide some minor insulation and structural properties as compared to thinner cladding materials. Wood shingles or irregular cedar "shake" siding was used in early New England construction, was revived in Shingle Style and Queen Anne style architecture in the late 19th century. Wood siding in overlapping horizontal rows or "courses" is called clapboard, weatherboard, or bevel siding, made with beveled boards, thin at the top edge and thick at the butt. In colonial North America, Eastern white pine was the most common material. Wood siding can be made of rot-resistant woods such as redwood or cedar. Jointed horizontal siding may be tongue and grooved. Drop siding comes in a wide variety including Dutch Lap and log siding. Vertical siding may have a cover over the joint: board and batten, popular in American wooden Carpenter Gothic houses. Plywood sheet siding is sometimes used on inexpensive buildings, sometimes with grooves to imitate vertical shiplap siding.
One example of such grooved plywood siding is the type called Texture 1-11 T1-11 or T111. There is a product known as reverse board-and-batten RBB that looks similar but has deeper grooves; some of these products may be thick enough and rated for structural applications if properly fastened to studs. Both T-11 and RBB sheets are quick and easy to install as long as they are installed with compatible flashing at butt joints. Slate shingles may be simple in form but many buildings with slate siding are decorative. Wood clapboard is imitated using vinyl siding or uPVC weatherboarding, it is produced in units twice as high as clapboard. Plastic imitations of wood shingle and wood shakes exist. Since plastic siding is a manufactured product, it may come in unlimited color styles. Vinyl sidings would fade and buckle over time, requiring the siding to be replaced. However, newer vinyl options have resist damage and wear better. Vinyl siding is sensitive to direct heat from barbecues or other sources. Unlike wood, vinyl siding does not provide additional insulation for the building, unless an insulation material has been added to the product.
It has been criticized by some fire safety experts for its heat sensitivity. This sensitivity makes it easier for a house fire to jump to neighboring houses in comparison to materials such as brick, metal or masonry. Vinyl siding has a potential environmental cost. While vinyl siding can be recycled, it cannot be burned. If dumped in a landfill, plastic siding does not break down quickly. Vinyl siding is considered one of the more unattractive siding choices by many. Although newer options and proper installation can eliminate this complaint, vinyl siding has visible seam lines between panels and do not have the quality appea
Type 11 light machine gun
The Type 11 light machine gun was a light machine gun used by the Imperial Japanese Army in the interwar period and during World War II. Combat experience in the Russo-Japanese War of 1904–1905 had convinced the Japanese of the utility of machine guns to provide covering fire for advancing infantry; this was reinforced by the first-hand observations of European combat tactics by Japanese military attachés during the First World War, the Army Technical Bureau was tasked with the development of a lightweight machine gun, which could be transportable by an infantry squad. The resultant “Type 11 light machine gun” was the first light machine gun to be mass-produced in Japan and the oldest Japanese light machine gun design to see service in the Pacific War, it was superseded by the Type 96 light machine gun in 1936. The Type 11 light machine gun was a design by famed arms designer Kijirō Nambu, based on a modification of the French Hotchkiss M1909 Benét–Mercié machine gun, it was an air-cooled, gas-operated design, using the same 6.5×50mm Arisaka cartridges as the Type 38 infantry rifle.
A feature of the Type 11 machine gun is its detachable hopper. Instead of a belt or box magazine, the Type 11 was designed to hold up to six of the same cartridge clips used on the Type 38 rifle; the five-round clips were stacked lying flat above the receiver, secured by a spring arm, the rounds were stripped from the lowest clip one at a time, with the empty clip thrown clear and the next clip automatically falling into place as the gun was fired. The system had the advantage that any squad member could supply ammunition and that the hopper could be replenished at any time; the short barrel produced excessive flash with standard ammunition. A new loading was introduced for this reason, which had a lower muzzle velocity, but burned much more in the Type 11 short barrel and produced much less flash as a result; this new round was called the 6.5×50mm Arisaka genso round, the cartons identified by a circled "G". The inherent disadvantage of the hopper was that the open feeder box allowed dust and grit to enter the gun, liable to jam in muddy or dirty conditions due to issues with poor dimensional tolerances, which gave the weapon a bad reputation with Japanese troops.
Another issue was that the weight of the rifle cartridges in the side-mounted hopper unbalanced the weapon when loaded. To compensate, the buttstock was designed in a way that it bent to the right, leading to the Chinese nickname for the weapon "bent buttstock". Reloading the weapon during an assault charge proved impossible due to the clip feeding system. Type 89 "flexible" – two Type 11 actions mounted on a flexible mounting for anti-aircraft use and as a rear-defense aerial gun; the machine gun was chambered for the 7.7x58mmSR Type 89 cartridge. It was equipped with a metallic Y-shaped stock and two spade grips, the barrels had no cooling fins, it was fed from two 45-round quadrant-shaped pan magazines. The double-barrelled machine gun had a rate of fire of around 1,400 rpm. Type 91 -- was a modified Type 11 for use on armoured vehicles; the machine gun was equipped with an angled pistol grip, the stock and bipod were removed. Additionally, the machine gun was equipped with two brackets for mounting a 1.5x30 scope manufactured by Tomioka Kogaku.
Te-4 – a modified Type 11, designed to replace the Type 89 "flexible" due to the excessive weight of the latter. It used a different flexible mounting, had a shorter wooden stock and a straight pistol grip with an enlarged trigger guard, the barrel had no cooling fins, it was fed from 70-round pan magazine. It is uncertain whether the Te-4 was made by splitting the Type 89 "flexible" or was a direct derivative of Type 11; the Type 11 came into active service in 1922, some 29,000 were produced by the time production stopped in 1941. It was the primary Japanese light machine gun through the Manchurian Incident and in the early stages of the Second Sino-Japanese War. Although superseded by the Type 96 light machine gun in production in 1936, it remained in service with front-line combat through the end of World War II. Many were used against the Japanese. Both sides used Type 11 machine guns during the Chinese Civil War and North Korea used Type 11 and Type 91 during the Korean War; the Viet Minh used the Type 11 during the First Indochina War, as did the Viet Cong during the Vietnam War
The Non-Maneuverable Canopy Personnel Parachute System is the newest personnel parachute system to be adopted by the United States armed forces and the Canadian Army. The T-11 replaces the T-10, introduced in 1955; the T-11 includes a redesigned main and reserve parachute and an integrated harness assembly, suitable for a wider range of soldier weights than the previous system. The main canopy is a modified version of a cross/cruciform platform; the canopy has an increased inflated diameter of 14 percent and a 28 percent increase in surface area, when compared with the T-10D assembly. The T-11 main canopy utilizes a unique deployment sequence to reduce the opening shock and canopy oscillation; the T-11 is designed to have an average rate of descent of 19 feet per second for the 95th percentile service member, compared with 24 feet per second with the T-10C. This reduction is intended to result in lower landing injury rates for jumpers; the reserve canopy is a derivative of the British Low Level Parachute aero-conical design that includes apex scoop pockets at the top of the reserve canopy and skirt assist lines at the system’s hem to promote fast opening of the reserve system during low-speed malfunctions.
Unlike the current reserve parachute system, the T-11R reserve uses an omni-directional, center-pull deployment system. The T-11 harness is designed to displace opening shock forces of the reserve parachute along the long axis of the jumper’s body; the main canopy and harness weighs 38 pounds, the reserve assembly 15 pounds, for a total of 53 pounds. The main canopy is 30.6 feet inflated diameters at the hem. The reserve canopy has a 24 feet nominal diameter; the T-11 parachute is in use by the Canadian Army. It is being adopted by the Finnish Defence Forces, first in Europe. During testing led by the US Army's Airborne and Special Operations Test Directorate, the 2nd Brigade Special Troops Battalion of the 82nd Airborne Division conducted the first mass tactical drop using the T-11 parachute. On July 12, 2011, the U. S. Army temporarily suspended use of all T-11 parachutes following a malfunction-related fatality at Fort Bragg, North Carolina. Incident investigators found potential issues with the packing, quality control and function of T-11 parachutes.
Secretary of the Army John McHugh ordered that usage of the T-11 be suspended until a further investigation was completed and any necessary changes made. This ban was lifted on August 4, 2011. On May 30, 2014 another fatality occurred involving the T-11 parachute during a nighttime jump at the Fort Bragg, North Carolina, Holland Drop Zone; the investigation found that the main contributing factor in the accident was the jumpmaster's failure to check the paratrooper's equipment prior to the jump, the Army implemented policy changes as a result. On July 14, 2016, Sgt. Arturo Godinez Valenzuela, 31, a paratrooper from the Mexican Army, died using the T-11 parachute in an 82nd Airborne Division training exercise at Fort Bragg; the cause of death was multiple blunt force injuries during a high-elevation fall. This article incorporates public domain material from the United States Army website https://peosoldier.army.mil/newpeo/Equipment/Temp.asp?id=CIE_T11. Article from Russian journal "Foreign military reviews" №10, 2007г
The T-11 known as DC310, is a microprocessor that implements the PDP-11 instruction set architecture developed by Digital Equipment Corporation. The T-11 was code-named "Tiny", it was developed for embedded systems and was the first single-chip microprocessor developed by DEC. It was sold and was used by DEC in disk controllers, auxiliary processors and in the Atari System 2 arcade game system, it operated at 2.5 MHz, used a 5 V power supply and dissipated less than 1.2 W. It contains 13,000 transistors, uses NMOS logic, was fabricated in a NMOS process. A clone of the T-11 was manufactured in the Soviet Union under the designation KR1807VM1. Olsen, R. Dobberpuhl, D.. "A 13,000 transistor NMOS microprocessor". International Solid-State Circuits Conference Digest of Technical Papers. Pp. 108–109
Île-de-France tramway Line 11 Express
Tramway line T11 Express is a suburban tram-train line in France. The line is planned to be 28 kilometres long, from Sartrouville to Noisy-le-Sec, from the northwestern to the northeastern suburbs of Paris, it will have interchanges with existing SNCF Transilien train lines, metro, Réseau Express Régional lines A, B, C, D and E. There will be eight interchange stations; the project, granted approval in May 2008, was planned by Syndicat des transports d'Île-de-France but jointly managed by SNCF and Réseau Ferré de France. The parisian tramway line 11 will be built in two phases. First phase, from Epinay-sur-Seine to Le Bourget train/RER stations, opened on June 30, 2017, for a total travel time of 15 minutes, an average speed of around 50 km/h and sections allowing maximum speed of 100 km/h; the remaining sections of the route will open by 2023. The total line's overall cost is estimated to be around €1.5 billion. Grande Ceinture line Chemin de fer de Petite Ceinture Grande ceinture Ouest