Île-de-France tramway Line 4
Île-de-France tramway Line 4 called the T4, is an 8-kilometre long tram-train line operated by the SNCF. It was inaugurated 20 November 2006, runs between Aulnay-sous-Bois and Bondy in the Seine-Saint-Denis department of Île-de-France, it is the result of the transformation and installation of a double-track on the Bondy to Aulnay-sous-Bois line, or ligne des Coquetiers, which opened in 1875. It thus became the first French tram-train line, an event whose true significance emerged during plans to expand it into a tramway and integrate it into the urban transport network. Line 4 of the Île-de-France tramway was known as the Bondy à Aulnay-sous-Bois rail line, or ligne des Coquetiers, has linked the Nord and Est rail networks between Aulnay-sous-Bois and Bondy since 1875; the "Egg Cup Line" fell into disuse because of the line's limited area and lacklustre service, which caused many traffic problems at its rail crossings. In 1993, the SNCF implemented some changes to reduce closure times at rail crossings and increase train frequency during rush hour.
However, they failed to make the line more appealing to potential users, who remained uninterested because of its insufficient service level and the excessive length of the train's route. The line was thus shut down in December 2003 for major renovations to transform it into a hybrid between a train and an urban tramway: the tram-train; the development of the tram-train concept inspired plans to reinvigorate the ligne des Coquetiers using this system that seemed ideal. It solved, it reduced disruptions in the urban landscape and expanded the use of trams in urban transportation all while increasing service. This technology was adopted, in 2001 the SNCF called for European tenders for the trains and cars. In 2003 the draft was approved by the STIF, SNCF, RFF; the work aimed to: increase service throughout the day until 8 P. M. with trains scheduled every six minutes Monday to Saturday and every nine minutes on Sundays and statutory holidays. Between 8 P. M. and 10 P. M. trains were to be scheduled every nine minutes and every twelve minutes from 10 P.
M. until the end of service. Service was to be decreased for six weeks during the summer, from 14 July to 31 August; the evolution toward urban transport modes was accompanied by physical modifications to the rail line by: doubling the track between Gargan and Aulnay-sous-Bois, rebuilding the overpass on RN 3, enlarging the Rougemont Bridge on the de l'Ourcq Canal. Only Gargan Station services trains since it houses the line's operations centre, where a central track leads to train storage. Construction began in June 2004; the entire track was removed and reinstalled, the stations' platforms were demolished and rebuilt, the 25 kV catenary was rewired, the Gargan-Aulnay section was made into a double-track. To do so, the Rougemont Bridge on the de l’Ourcq Canal was widened, in June 2005 the RN3 overpass, built in 1932 as a single line, had a walkway installed. Six months in January 2006, the biggest operation took place in front of many onlookers: the new double-track overpass' walkway was installed overnight after traffic was blocked on the ex-RN3.
That same summer, the first train cars were sent by oversize load and put on the line for technical and safety tests. The T4 project was a part of the twelfth State-Region contract agreement. Financing for the transformation of the ligne des Coquetiers into the T4 Line, which totalled 52.72 million euros, was shared between: the Île-de-France Regional Council: 46.94%. The SNCF paid for the fifteen cars that were needed to operate on the line: a total of 68 million euros; the annual cost of running the line is 11.2 million euros, which are provided by the STIF. Line 4 of the Île-de-France tramway was inaugurated on Saturday, 18 November 2006, was free of charge the entire weekend, its true commercial operation began the morning of 20 November 2006. The T4 is France's first tram-train line, it is the first of its kind to be operated by the SNCF. Unlike the other Île-de-France tramway lines, which are operated by the RATP, this line is operated by the SNCF, which may seem surprising; the SNCF left the ligne des Coteux, in disrepair and unprofitable, to the RATP during the 1990s.
The SNCF's policy was to concentrate on heavy fluxes of passengers and thus on heavy rail transit. The success of tramway networks and the increasing popularity of peri-urban transportation made the SNCF change its focus. There are no plans to extend the line to Noisy-le-Sec; this would allow
Eastern Suburbs & Illawarra Line
"Illawarra railway line, Sydney" redirects to here (Eastern Suburbs & Illawarra Line while Illawarra railway line redirects to South Coast railway line, New South WalesThe Eastern Suburbs & Illawarra Line is a commuter railway line in the eastern and southern suburbs of Sydney and is a part of the Sydney Trains network. The line was constructed in the 1880s to Wollongong to take advantage of agricultural and mining potentials in the Illawarra area. In March 1926 it became the first railway in New South Wales to run electric train services. Today the railway consists of three connected lines: the original Illawarra line from the Sydney CBD to Waterfall the Cronulla line from Sutherland to Cronulla which opened in 1939 replacing an earlier tram service the Eastern Suburbs line from the Sydney CBD to Bondi Junction which opened in 1979Operationally and the entire line from the Illawarra Junction at Redfern to its terminus in Bomaderry on the South Coast was known as the Illawarra Line. However, since 1989 CityRail has marketed the suburban services to Waterfall and Cronulla as the Illawarra line and interurban services south to Wollongong and Bomaderry as the South Coast Line.
The line is coloured an azure blue on other promotional materials. The Suburbs Line runs between Bondi Junction in Sydney's east and Eveleigh, just south of the Sydney central business district, it is underground, consists of 7 kilometres of bored tunnels and 1.5 kilometres of cut and cover tunnels, with only 2 kilometres above ground. In the Eastern Suburbs, three tunnels proceed in a westerly direction from Bondi Junction via Edgecliff and Kings Cross. Between Bondi Junction and Edgecliff there is a short open-air cutting in Woollahra, between Edgecliff and Kings Cross there is a short viaduct over Rushcutters Bay. From Kings Cross, the line proceeds west towards the Sydney Central Business District on a viaduct that passes over the suburb of Woolloomooloo and the Eastern Distributor; the line passes into a tunnel underneath the Art Gallery of New South Wales to a station underneath Martin Place. Turning south, the line proceeds through Town Hall and Redfern stations, before emerging behind the Eveleigh Railway Workshops.
The line is double track throughout, with turnback sidings at Martin Place and Bondi Junction for citybound trains, at Central for trains from Bondi Junction. The Illawarra Line travel on the'Illawarra' tracks. A dive tunnel allows Intercity services from the South Coast Line to cross underneath the main suburban lines to access Central station; the Illawarra lines are connected at this point to the Illawarra Relief Lines which emerge from underground and lead to the Eastern Suburbs Line. From Illawarra Junction, four tracks head south through Erskineville and St Peters to Sydenham station. The'main' pair of tracks are used by Eastern Suburbs & Illawarra Line and South Coast Line trains and the'local' pair by Bankstown Line and peak hour Airport, Inner West & South Line trains. At Sydenham, the Bankstown railway line branches off, but trains from the Airport, Inner West & South Line continue along the Illawarra line until Wolli Creek, where a junction to the East Hills line exists. South of Wolli Creek station, a crossover allows trains from the'main' pair of tracks to switch to the'local' pair.
This is used by peak hour all-stations Eastern Suburbs & Illawarra Line trains. The four track section ends at Hurstville; the line continues as two tracks south towards Sutherland, crossing the Georges River via the Como railway bridge between Oatley and Como. At Sutherland the Cronulla line branches in an easterly direction; the main line heads in a southerly direction, parallel to the Princes Highway to the west and bordering the Royal National Park on its eastern side until Waterfall, the last suburb in the Sydney metropolitan area. The track continues south from here as the South Coast Line through the Royal National Park towards the Illawarra region; the Illawarra line route was approved by the New South Wales Government in 1880. This route originated near the inner-city locality of Macdonaldtown and ran to Kiama via the locality of "Bottle Forest", a distance of 109 kilometres; the route selected comprises the present-day route of the Macdonaldtown to Waterfall section of the Eastern Suburbs & Illawarra Line.
On 6 April 1881, Governor Augustus Loftus assented to Act 44 Vic. No. 28, which provided £1,020,000 for the construction of this railway, proposed that the first section of 37 kilometres, constituting the present suburban route, be completed by 30 September 1884. Concerns were raised about the new route's viability, most over the cost of tunnelling between Waterfall and Otford to reach Wollongong. Work was suspended past the 24 kilometre point at Como, Government surveyors were instructed to re-survey a route via the Port Hacking River, surveyed in 1873, their work allayed concerns about the new route: although the new route had more tunnelling and sharp curves, the total cost of the "Bottle Forest" route was estimated at £130,175 less than the original Port Hacking route. The Minister for Works agreed on this new route, although construction was again halted when the contractors refused to recommence work on the disputed section. With new contractors hired, the line was complete to Hurstville by 15 October 1884, Waterfall by 9 March 1886, the whole line to Kiama was opened in Wollongong on 22 June 1887.
According to the official papers on the line's construction, when the line first opened for trains between Sydney and Sut
The G7e or more appropriately the G7e/T2, G7e/T3, G7e/T4 Falke torpedoes were, with the exception of the T4 model, the standard torpedoes for Germany during World War II. All of the G7e models shared standardized dimensions for all German torpedoes designed for use by U-boats during World War II, they measured 53.3 cm in diameter, 7.16 m in length, carried a Schießwolle 36 warhead of 280 kg. All were powered by 100 hp electric motors and lead-acid batteries which needed constant maintenance to maintain their reliability. Additionally, the batteries of these torpedoes needed to be preheated to a temperature of 30 °C to operate with maximum speed and range, though this was a non-issue as U-boats had the element of surprise and had the advantage of firing the first shot; the T2 model of the G7e went in service with German U-boat fleets in 1936. In stark contrast with the G7a steam-driven torpedo, the T2 left no visible stream of bubbles to alert ships that they were under attack, was silent. In all other respects, the T2 was functional and performed marginally when compared to the G7a.
Its range was much less than the G7a's: at only 3000 m. Poor range and speed were not the T2's only problems. Both of its detonators were flawed; the magnetic influence mechanism, designed to allow the torpedo to run under the keel of a ship and detonate, breaking the ship's back, was inconsistent. This led the BdU to order. However, the contact pistol of the T2 malfunctioned. Captain Wilhelm Zahn of U-56 was so depressed by the evident futility of his efforts that he needed to be relieved of duty by Admiral Karl Dönitz in order to compose himself, while the civilian Naval Ordnance Corps, responsible for torpedo development and maintenance, continued to insist the U-boat captains were somehow at fault. Estimates of the failure rate of T2 torpedoes for one reason or another range between 20% and 40%; these technical defects lead to the circumstance that attacks on at least one battleship, seven heavy cruiser, seven destroyer and some cargo ships were not successful. The German Navy, after much prodding by German U-boat Command, invested resources into correcting the T2's flaws.
It improved, by the end of the Norwegian Campaign problems with the contact exploder and depth-keeping gear had been solved, with significant strides made in improving the magnetic proximity feature. At the same time, the T2's range was increased from 3000 m to 5000 m and 7500 m. By that time, the T2 was being phased out of production. Improvements in the design of the G7e/T2 were incorporated into the production of the next model of electric torpedo for Germany's U-boat fleet. Introduced in 1942, the T3 represented a vast improvement over the early T2; the faulty exploders from the T2 were scrapped in favor of a new design. The T3 could achieve 30 kt. With the improved design of the T3 and the new exploder, the G7a steam torpedo was superseded and was used for the remainder of the war. Using the T3's perfected proximity feature, U-boat captains could fire under the keel of a ship and break the back of their targets with a single torpedo, increasing the overall effectiveness of the U-boat fleet.
The T3 could be fitted with both the LuT pattern running systems for convoy attacks. Though many opportunities had been missed due to the defects of the T2 torpedo, with the new T3 U-boats were deadlier than ever; the T4 Model was the adjunct of the earlier T3 model in nearly every way. The T4 was not an ordinary straight-running torpedo, however, it ran at 20 kt for 7500 m and was introduced in March 1943. Early in 1933 Germany started testing of acoustic homing mechanisms for torpedoes. From the outset of submarine warfare, submariners had dreamed of being able to aim and fire torpedoes without surfacing or using a periscope; the periscope gives away the location of a submarine, a hull-penetrating periscope weakens a submarine's pressure hull and limits the depths to which it can dive. U-boats had to come to shallow depths to use their periscopes about 15 m, leaving them exposed to bombing, depth charging, gunfire. With the introduction of Falke, U-boats could remain more submerged and fire at convoys with nothing to give away their position but the noise of their screws.
Rather than aiming with a periscope, the torpedo could be aimed at a sound contact as detected by a U-boat's hydrophones, the homing mechanism could be trusted to find the target without the need for precise aiming. Falke worked much like a normal straight-running torpedo for the first 400 m of its run, after which its acoustic sensors became active and searched for a target; the sensitive sound-sensing equipment in Falke required the torpedo be as quiet as possible, hence it ran at only 20 knots. Falke was intended to home on merchant targets, however, so its slow speed was not a great hindrance. Only known to have been fired in action by three U-boats, U-221, U-603 and U-758, although regarded as successful, resulting in the sinking of several merchants, i
The Thaden T-4 Argonaut was a 1930s American four-seat all-metal cabin monoplane built by the Thaden Metal Aircraft Company of San Francisco, California. The T-4 was the third and last design of the Thaden Metal Aircraft Company, formed by Herbert von Thaden, a former United States Army Signal Corps pilot and engineer, to work on developing the first American all-metal aircraft; the T-4 was a high-wing monoplane powered by a 300 hp Wright Whirlwind radial engine. It had a fixed conventional landing gear with a tailwheel. Two aircraft were built. Data from Jane's all the World's Aircraft 1931, AerofilesGeneral characteristics Crew: 1 Capacity: 3 pax Length: 32 ft 10 in Wingspan: 45 ft Height: 9 ft Wing area: 277.4 sq ft Empty weight: 2,366 lb Gross weight: 3,800 lb Fuel capacity: 96 US gal fuel tank capacity. Air-cooled radial piston engine, 300 hp Propellers: 2-bladed Hamilton Standard fixed-pitch metal propellerPerformance Maximum speed: 135 mph Cruise speed: 110 mph Landing speed: 59 mph Range: 600 mi Rate of climb: 920 ft/min Wing loading: 13.88 lb/sq ft Power/mass: 12.67 lb/hp Thaden T-1 Thaden T-2 Notes
In molecular biology, CD4 is a glycoprotein found on the surface of immune cells such as T helper cells, monocytes and dendritic cells. It was discovered in the late 1970s and was known as leu-3 and T4 before being named CD4 in 1984. In humans, the CD4 protein is encoded by the CD4 gene. CD4 + T helper cells are white blood cells, they are referred to as CD4 cells, T-helper cells or T4 cells. They are called helper cells because one of their main roles is to send signals to other types of immune cells, including CD8 killer cells, which destroy the infectious particle. If CD4 cells become depleted, for example in untreated HIV infection, or following immune suppression prior to a transplant, the body is left vulnerable to a wide range of infections that it would otherwise have been able to fight. Like many cell surface receptors/markers, CD4 is a member of the immunoglobulin superfamily, it has four immunoglobulin domains that are exposed on the extracellular surface of the cell: D1 and D3 resemble immunoglobulin variable domains.
D2 and D4 resemble immunoglobulin constant domains. The immunoglobulin variable domain of D1 adopts an immunoglobulin-like β-sandwich fold with seven β-strands in 2 β-sheets, in a Greek key topology. CD4 interacts with the β2-domain of MHC class II molecules through its D1 domain. T cells displaying CD4 molecules on their surface, are specific for antigens presented by MHC II and not by MHC class I. MHC class I contains Beta-2 microglobulin; the short cytoplasmic/intracellular tail of CD4 contains a special sequence of amino acids that allow it to recruit and interact with the tyrosine kinase Lck. CD4 is a co-receptor of the T cell receptor and assists the latter in communicating with antigen-presenting cells; the TCR complex and CD4 each bind to distinct regions of the antigen-presenting MHCII molecule - α1/β1 and β2, respectively. In CD4 the interaction involves its extracellular D1 domain; the resulting close proximity between the TCR complex and CD4 allows the tyrosine kinase Lck bound to the cytoplasmic tail of CD4 to tyrosine-phosphorylate the Immunoreceptor tyrosine activation motifs on the cytoplasmic domains of CD3 to amplify the signal generated by the TCR.
Lck is essential for the activation of many molecular components of the signaling cascade of an activated T cell. Depending on the signal, different types of T helper cells result. Phosphorylated ITAM motifs on CD3 recruit and activate SH2 domain-containing protein tyrosine kinases such as Zap70 to further mediate downstream signalling through tyrosine phosphorylation, leading to transcription factor activation including NF-κB and consequent T cell activation. CD4 has been shown to interact with SPG21, Lck and Protein unc-119 homolog. HIV-1 uses CD4 to gain entry into host T-cells and achieves this through its viral envelope protein known as gp120; the binding to CD4 creates a shift in the conformation of gp120 allowing HIV-1 to bind to a co-receptor expressed on the host cell. These co-receptors are chemokine receptors CCR5 or CXCR4. Following a structural change in another viral protein, HIV inserts a fusion peptide into the host cell that allows the outer membrane of the virus to fuse with the cell membrane.
HIV infection leads to a progressive reduction in the number of T cells expressing CD4. Medical professionals refer to the CD4 count to decide when to begin treatment during HIV infection, although recent medical guidelines have changed to recommend treatment at all CD4 counts as soon as HIV is diagnosed. A CD4 count measures the number of T cells expressing CD4. While CD4 counts are not a direct HIV test—e.g. They do not check the presence of viral DNA, or specific antibodies against HIV—they are used to assess the immune system of a patient. National Institutes of Health guidelines recommend treatment of any HIV-positive individuals, regardless of CD4 count Normal blood values are expressed as the number of cells per microliter of blood, with normal values for CD4 cells being 500–1200 cells/mm3. Patients undergo treatments when the CD4 counts reach a level of 350 cells per microliter in Europe but around 500/μL in the US. Medical professionals refer to CD4 tests to determine efficacy of treatment.
Viral load testing provides more information about the efficacy for therapy than CD4 counts. For the first 2 years of HIV therapy, CD4 counts may be done every 3–6 months. If a patient's viral load becomes undetectable after 2 years CD4 counts might not be needed if they are above 500/mm3. If the count remains at 300–500/mm3 the tests can be done annually, it is not necessary to schedule CD4 counts with viral load tests and the two should be done independently when each is indicated. CD4 continues to be expressed in most neoplasms derived from T helper cells, it is therefore possible to use CD4 immunohistochemistry on tissue biopsy samples to identify most forms of peripheral T cell lymphoma and related malignant conditions. The antigen has been associated with a number of autoimmune diseases such as vitiligo and type I diabetes mellitus. T-cells play a large part in autoinflammatory diseases; when testing a drug's efficacy or studying diseases, it is helpful to quantify the amount of T-cells. on fresh-frozen tissue with CD4+, CD8+, CD3+ T-cell markers.
CD4+ T cells and antitumor immunity CD1+Ant
Transformers: Age of Extinction
Transformers: Age of Extinction is a 2014 American science fiction action film based on the Transformers toy line. It is the fourth installment of the live-action Transformers film series and a stand-alone sequel to 2011's Dark of the Moon, taking place five years after its events. Like its predecessors, it was directed by Michael Bay and written by Ehren Kruger, with Steven Spielberg and Bay as executive producers, it stars Mark Wahlberg, Stanley Tucci, Kelsey Grammer, Nicola Peltz, Jack Reynor, Sophia Myles, Bingbing Li, Titus Welliver, T. J. Miller with Peter Cullen reprising as the voice of Optimus Prime, it is the first film in the series not to feature the human cast from the previous three films, but features a new cast of human characters and many new Transformers, including the Dinobots. Returning Transformers include Optimus Prime, Ratchet, Brains and Megatron; the film was released on June 27, 2014, in IMAX and 3D. Transformers: Age of Extinction received negative reviews from critics, many of whom considered it poorly directed, badly acted written and full of product placement, but received some praise for its action sequences, effects, musical score and the performances of Wahlberg, Tucci and Cullen.
The film received seven nominations at the 35th Golden Raspberry Awards, including Worst Picture and Worst Prequel, Rip-off or Sequel, with Bay and Grammer winning the awards for Worst Director and Worst Supporting Actor, respectively. Despite poor reviews, it was a massive box office success, grossing over $1.104 billion worldwide, making it the highest-grossing film of 2014, the second-highest-grossing film in the Transformers series, the 19th film to gross over $1 billion, the 23rd-highest-grossing film of all time. It was the sole film to gross over $1 billion in 2014. A sequel, The Last Knight, was released on June 21, 2017, with Wahlberg and Cullen returning, Bay directing. Sixty-five million years ago, an alien race known as the “Creators” used devices called Seeds to terraform Planet Earth, covering it with an alloy called Transformium. In the present day, geologist Darcy Tyril excavates the Transformium for K. S. I. Industries, which uses it to build man-made Transformer drones. Five years after the Battle of Chicago, humans have begun to view the Transformers as a threat, leading the U.
S. government to terminate all human-Autobot joint programs. Although the public believes the Autobots have been granted sanctuary, they are being hunted by a rogue CIA black ops division known as Cemetery Wind, led by opportunistic government official Harold Attinger, who believes all Transformers should be exterminated regardless of their faction, they are aided by Lockdown, a Cybertronian bounty hunter working for the Creators, promising to give Attinger a Seed if his division manages to capture Optimus Prime. Cemetery Wind locates Ratchet in Mexico City and Lockdown kills him when he refuses to give up the whereabouts of Optimus Prime. Optimus, damaged in Mexico City and disguised as an old Marmon 97 semi-truck, is discovered in an abandoned theater by Cade Yeager, a financially struggling Texan inventor, brings him back to his farm. While his teenage daughter Tessa and business partner Lucas Flannery encourage him to turn Optimus over to the authorities after realizing what he is, Cade instead fixes Optimus, hoping to understand his technology and unexpectedly revives him.
Still skeptical of Optimus, Lucas calls Cemetery Wind, who attacks and destroys the farm, but Optimus and Tessa's boyfriend, Irish rally car driver Shane Dyson, come to the family's aid. While on the run from Cemetery Wind and Lockdown, Lucas is killed by one of Lockdown's grenades. Escaping into the desert, they take refuge in an abandoned gas station. Optimus gains an alternate form after scanning a passing Western Star 5700 XE Phantom Custom truck with the original red and blue paint with flames and summons the surviving Autobots – Bumblebee, who has assumed an alternate form, Hound and Crosshairs – who have come to distrust humans due to Cemetery Wind hunting them down. Using a CIA drone which he stole during the home invasion, Cade discovers K. S. I.'s involvement in the attacks on the Autobots. Optimus vows to kill Attinger for his actions against his brethren. Infiltrating K. S. I.'s headquarters in Chicago, Cade discovers the remains of Autobots and Decepticons are being melted down to make the drones.
Joshua Joyce, the ambitious company CEO, is in league with Attinger to revolutionize global defenses and improve human society using the Seed. He has captured Brains and used him and data from Megatron's head to create the drones and prototype Transformer soldiers Galvatron and Stinger. In a fit of rage, the Autobots storm the building, during which Bumblebee regains his original form by scanning a passing 2014 Chevrolet Camaro, where they rescue Brains and destroy the laboratory, but they soon leave after Joshua announces that they are no longer needed. Attinger forces Joshua to deploy Stinger to attack the Autobots. During the battle, Galvatron's behavior becomes erratic when it starts destroying vehicles, when it fights Optimus it speaks to him. Lockdown arrives and abducts Optimus while Galvatron and Stinger retreat. While Lockdown's large prison spacecraft hovers over Chicago to hand over the Seed, Cade and the Autobots use the opportunity to sneak on board and rescue Optimus and Tessa, hijacking a smaller ship containing a group of Autobots called the Dinobots, just before Lockdown leaves Earth.
The Autobots reveal to Cade that "Galvatron" is in fact Megatron, who gave
Volkswagen Transporter (T4)
The Volkswagen Transporter, marketed in North America as the Volkswagen Eurovan, is a van produced by the German manufacturer Volkswagen Commercial Vehicles between 1990 and 2003, succeeding the Volkswagen Type 2 and superseded by the Volkswagen Transporter. Introduced in 1990, the T4 was the first Volkswagen van to have a front-mounted, water-cooled engine. Prompted by the success of similar moves with their passenger cars, Volkswagen had toyed in the late 1970s with the idea of replacing their air-cooled, rear-engined T2 vans with a front-engined, water-cooled design; the reasons for deciding in 1980 to instead introduce a new rear-engined T3 are unclear. Thus, the introduction of a front-engined layout was delayed until the arrival of the T4. After a run of nearly 14 years, T4 production ceased in 2003, making it second only to the T1 for length of production in its home market. Part of the success of the T4 was its versatility, it was available in many forms and sizes as standard and formed the basis of many specialist vehicles, from buses to campervans to ambulances.
Two standard wheelbases were available. Panel Van - without any windows behind the b-pillar. High-tops were only manufactured on the LWB chassis, although campervan conversions have pop-top or high-tops added to both SWB and LWB chassis. Vans have either a single, roof-hinged "tailgate" or two "barn" doors at the rear and either a single or twin sliding doors. There was one major facelift to the T4, in 1996; this was needed to fit the six-cylinder VR6 engine into the T4's engine bay. Only Caravelles and Multivans were available with the longer nose, since these were the only models available with the VR6 engine; the commercial variants continued to be produced with the shorter nose until 2003. However and other specialist vehicles produced between 1996 and 2003 may have either the short or the long nose, depending on which model was used as the base vehicle. In keeping with the Type 2's naming convention, the short and long-nose versions are informally known as T4a and T4b, respectively; the T4 was available with a permanent 4WD system that uses a Viscous coupling unit as a centre differential to regulate the distribution of torque to the rear axle.
These models are called "syncro" and were available with the 2.4D, 2.5Tdi and 2.5 petrol engines on all body types and both wheelbases. Some syncro models have a mechanically locking rear differential. Since the rear differential precludes the placement of the spare wheel in the usual place under the body, syncro vans either store it inside the body or on an external, hinged bracket; the T4 is a popular base for building a small to medium-sized camper and day-vans, both as self-build projects and for professional conversions. Volkswagen themselves sold campervan versions of the T4, made by and named after their contractor, Westfalia-Werke. Indirect injectionTurbocharged Direct Injection Due to its versatility, as well as popularity as a campervan, the Volkswagen Transporter has an extensive following amongst enthusiasts. Meetings are held throughout the year in countries across Europe and there are several Internet forums dedicated to T4 owners and enthusiasts. In May 2010, the German enthusiasts of the T4 held a celebration of the 20th anniversary of the production of the first T4.
Several hundred T4s took part with vans from as far afield as Russia, Spain, central Europe and the Nordic countries. The Transporter T4 was exported to North America from 1992 until 2003 under the moniker Eurovan. In the United States, the short wheelbase Eurovan 5-cylinder passenger models were only sold for model year 1993. Smaller than a standard American delivery van, but larger than an American or Japanese passenger minivan, Volkswagen played up its size with the slogan, "EuroVan: There's nothing mini about it". Volkswagen only imported them to the U. S. market for one year because sales in the United States were disappointing, but sales continued in Canada and Mexico. Volkswagen reintroduced the Eurovan passenger models in the United States for model year 1999 with a VR6 engine as standard, discontinued it again with worldwide T4s after 2003; the manual gearbox was not offered in North America with the VR6 engine. Volkswagen imported the short wheelbase Eurovan 5-cylinder petrol engine passenger models to Canada from 1991 to 1996.
The 77 hp 2.4 litre diesel engine was optional in Canada between 1993 and 1996. The long wheelbase version was on offer in 1992 only as a 10 seaters CL or GL model trim. Kombi and crewcab pickup versions were available in 1992. A panel version was sold from 1993 to 1997; the Eurovan Camper by Winnebago was introduced to the United States and Canada in 1995 with the five-cylinder engine, upgraded to the VR6 for the 1997-2003 models. These were only available on the longer 3,320 mm wheelbase T4; these small pop top camper vans have developed a cult following. Winnebago built three small Class C motorhomes with the forward cab of the T4/Eurovan called the Rialt