TAT-1 was the first submarine transatlantic telephone cable system. It was laid between Oban and Clarenville, Newfoundland. Two cables were laid between 1956 with one cable for each direction, it was inaugurated on September 25, 1956. The cable was able to carry 35 simultaneous telephone calls. A 36th channel was used to carry up to 22 telegraph lines; the first transatlantic telegraph cable had been laid in 1858. It only operated for a month, but was replaced with a successful connection in 1866. A radio-based transatlantic telephone service was started in 1927, charging £9 for three minutes and handling around 300,000 calls a year. Although a telephone cable was discussed at that time, it was not practical until a number of technological advances arrived in the 1940s; the developments that made TAT-1 possible were coaxial cable, polyethylene insulation reliable vacuum tubes for the submerged repeaters and a general improvement in carrier equipment. Transistors were not used; the agreement to make the connection was announced by the Postmaster General on December 1, 1953.
The project was a joint one between the General Post Office of the UK, the American Telephone and Telegraph company, the Canadian Overseas Telecommunications Corporation. The share split in the scheme was 40% British, 50% American, 10% Canadian; the total cost was about £120 million. There were to be one for each direction of transmission; each cable was produced and laid in three sections, two shallow-water armored sections, one continuous central section 1,500 nautical miles long. The electronic repeaters were designed by the Bell Telephone Laboratories of the United States and they were flexible and were inserted into the cable at 37-nautical-mile intervals – a total of 51 repeaters in the central section; the armored cables were manufactured southeast of London, at a factory in Erith, owned by Submarine Cables Ltd.. The cables were laid over the summers of 1955 and 1956, with the majority of the work done by the cable ship HMTS Monarch. At the land-end in Gallanach Bay near Oban, the cable was connected to coaxial carrying the transatlantic circuits via Glasgow and Inverness to the International Exchange at Faraday Building in London.
At the cable landing point in Newfoundland the cable joined at Clarenville crossed the 300-mile Cabot Strait by another submarine cable to Sydney Mines, Nova Scotia. From there the communications traffic was routed to the US border by a microwave radio relay link, in Brunswick, Maine the route joined the main US network and branched to Montreal to connect with the Canadian network. Opened on September 25, 1956, TAT-1 carried 588 London-US calls and 119 London-Canada calls in the first 24 hours of public service; the original 36 channels were 4 kHz. The increase to 48 channels was accomplished by narrowing the bandwidth to 3 kHz. An additional three channels were added by use of C Carrier equipment. Time-assignment speech interpolation was implemented on the TAT-1 cable in June 1960 and increased the cable's capacity from 37 to 72 speech circuits. TAT-1 carried the Moscow-Washington hotline between the American and Soviet heads of state, although using a teleprinter rather than voice calls as written communications were regarded as less to be misinterpreted.
The link became operational on 13 July 1963 and was principally motivated as a result of the Cuban Missile Crisis where it took the US, for example, nearly 12 hours to receive and decode the initial settlement message that contained approx. 3,000 words. By the time the message was decoded and interpreted, an answer had been prepared, another–more aggressive—message had been received. In May 1957, TAT-1 was used to transmit a concert by the singer and civil rights activist, Paul Robeson performing in New York to St Pancras Town Hall in London and Wales. Due to McCarthyism, Robeson's passport had been withdrawn by the United States authorities in 1950. Unable to accept numerous invitations to perform abroad, he stated "We have to learn the hard way that there is another way to sing"; the 15 minute connection, which required a music quality circuit, cost £300. After the success of TAT-1, a number of other TAT cables were laid and TAT-1 was retired in 1978; the TAT-1 was named an IEEE Milestone in 2006.
Transatlantic telephone cable HAW-1 TAT-1 Opening Ceremony Includes transcript of the official first telephone call over the cable. Reminiscences of TAT-1 by Jeremiah Hayes 50th Anniversary of laying TAT-1 BBC News 50th Anniversary of laying TAT-1 Scotsman http://gadgets.boingboing.net/2009/04/17/gallery-an-illustrat.html
Saint-Hilaire-de-Riez is a commune in the Vendée department in the Pays de la Loire region in western France. Communes of the Vendée department INSEE Official site
SAex is a proposed submarine communications cable linking South Africa to the United States with branches to Namibia, Saint Helena, Brazil. The project was announced in 2011 by eFive Telecoms Ltd, who led the project during the early feasibility studies. In November 2013 South Atlantic Express Cable Company Ltd took over responsibility and was renamed to SimplCom South Africa Ltd after SimplCom Inc. acquired a controlling shareholding in the former. In April, 2011 the Bank of China announced that it was interested in investing 60% of the funds required for the project while the Industrial Development Corporation of South Africa had expressed interest in providing funding; as of May 2014 the project had funding interest from numerous private and public financial institutions. In June 2011 the project was expected to cost R3 billion to complete. A revised configuration, technological improvements and lower costs of technology are expected to reduce the projected capacity prices of the original design.
As of October 2018, Desktop surveying had begun. SAEx is conceived as a system to link the developing economies of Southern Africa and South America independently of traditional hubs and so to contribute to a link between BRICS economic regions without recourse to traditional northern hemisphere hubs, it will form a sub-sea route from Indian Ocean network nodes in the Gulf region and Eastern Asia to South America and the USA while avoiding geological and geopolitical hazards present on other paths, such as the oceanic trenches of the Pacific Ocean, the Red Sea, the Suez Canal and the Mediterranean Sea and transits through unstable countries and unreliable overland transit networks. Internet traffic bounded from South Africa to the Americas routes through Europe; the SAex cable if constructed, will reduce latency and bandwidth costs associated with the distance that internet traffic has to travel by providing the shortest route possible from South Africa to the Americas. The initial design capacity of the cable will be over 10,000 kilometres in length.
It will consist of four fibre pairs, each capable of carrying 10 TBit/s of data using 100 GBit/s wavelength technology. The branch to Namibia will stretch over 1,050 km while that to Saint Helena will have a length of less than 50 km. According to a memorandum of understanding closed in April 2010 Main One and SEACOM will interconnect their cables with SAex and so form a pan-African fibre-optic ring. Through SEACOM the cable could supply India with bandwidth towards the Americas by onward connectivity to the United States through the existing GlobeNet cable system. At Yzerfontein SAEx would be able to interconnect to WACS while at Mtunzini SAFE, EASSy and SEACOM could provide onward connectivity to Asia, East Africa and India; the cable system is expected to be operational in 2020. There were no plans to land the cable and install a landing station in Saint Helena. If this were done, the cable could supply the island's population with sufficient bandwidth to leverage the benefits of today's information society.
Since January 2012 a campaign called Move This Cable launched by A Human Right, a San Francisco-based NGA working on initiatives to ensure all people are connected to the Internet, has been lobbying for a branch of the SAex cable to land on the remote island of Saint Helena in order to provide high-speed Internet access to the island's small population of 4,200 people and so to foster socio-economic development. On October 6, 2012, eFive agreed to reroute the cable through Saint Helena after successful lobbying efforts. Islanders have sought the assistance of the UK Department for International Development and Foreign and Commonwealth Office in funding the £10m required to install a branch from an underwater OADM branching unit on the main cable to the island; the UK Government have announced that a review of the island's economy would be required before such funding would be agreed to. On 27 October 2017 St Helena Government announced that it had signed a memorandum of understanding for a branch from the SAex cable to the island to be delivered in early 2020 which would be funded by the European Development Fund.
In November 2011 former eFive CEO Mulaudzi stated that having the first-mover advantage was vital for the project since there is no need for two separate cable systems connecting Angola with Brazil. On Friday, 23 March 2012, the president of Angola Cables, António Nunes and the president of Telebrás, Caio Bonilha, signed a deal to construct a cable of about 6000 km length linking Fortaleza in Brazil with the Angolan capital Luanda named South Atlantic Cable System. IHS Global Insight lists four concurrent projects to lay new undersea cables between South America and Africa. Due to this competing project in 2014 the SAex' design was modified to now include a branch to Namibia instead of a dedicated fiber pair running from Fortaleza to Angola forking off mid-Atlantic. In October 2014 Angola Cables announced that South Atlantic Cable System would be completed by end of 2016, taking the first mover advantage; as of October 2017 the SAex is planned to land at the following locations: Mtunzini, South Africa Yzerfontein, South Africa Saint Helena, British overseas territory of Saint Helena and Tristan da Cunha Fortaleza, Brazil Virginia Beach, United States Mtunzini, South Africa East London, South Africa Port Elizabeth, South Africa Melkbosstrand, South Africa Saint He
SAT-3/WASC or South Atlantic 3/West Africa Submarine Cable is a submarine communications cable linking Portugal and Spain to South Africa, with connections to several West African countries along the route. It forms part of the SAT-3 / WASC/SAFE cable system; the SAT-3/WASC/SAFE system provides a path between Asia and Europe for telecommunications traffic, an alternative to the cable routes that pass through the Middle East, such as SEA-ME-WE 3 and FLAG. SAT-3 has a capacity of 340 Gbit/s; the SAT-3 system together with SAFE was built by a consortium of operators. As of 2006, major investors included France Telecom, Nitel. Prices for SAT-3 bandwidth in the African countries it serves are high in large part because operators have monopoly control of access; the lowest rates occur in Ghana, where the Ghana Internet Service Providers Association organized a two-year negotiation with and court fight against Ghana Telecom. SEACOM president Brian Herlihy states that the owners of the SAT-3 cable have cut prices by 50% since the 2007 announcement of Seacom, in order to compete with the arrival of Seacom in East Africa.
The SAT-3 has landing points in European countries: Sesimbra, Portugal Chipiona, Spain Alta Vista, Canary Islandsand in Africa: Dakar, Senegal Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire Accra, Ghana Cotonou, Benin Lagos, Nigeria Douala, Cameroon Libreville, Gabon Cacuaco, Angola Melkbosstrand, South Africa meeting SAFEAlthough Telecom Namibia holds ownership in SAT-3/WASC, Namibia has no landing point. Namibian internet users have no access to SAT-3/WASC, because Telecom Namibia would have to purchase capacity from Telkom SA, due to Telkom SA's high prices has so far refused to do so; the cable itself consists of four fibers, using Erbium-doped fiber amplifier repeaters and wavelength division multiplexing. SAT-3/WASC/SAFE began operations in 2001, providing the first links to Europe for West African internet users and, for South Africans, taking up service from SAT-2, reaching maximum capacity. SAT-2 had been brought into service in the early 1990s as a replacement for the original undersea cable SAT-1, constructed in the 1960s.
In November 2007, no internet access was available through SAT-3 for about seven days in parts of central Africa. A government official from Cameroon blamed a technical failure at the underwater SAT-3 high sea fibre optic terminal, about forty kilometres from Douala. Many ISPs in Cameroon had transitioned their connections from independent satellite connections to SAT-3 in mid-2007 creating serious communication difficulties during the seven days. In late July 2009, SAT-3 cable damage caused internet blackouts in multiple west African countries including Benin, Togo and Nigeria. Togo and Niger were "completely offline" and Benin was able to "reroute its net traffic through neighboring countries." However, the three nations were able to use alternative satellite links in order to maintain some Internet communication with the rest of the world. Nigeria suffered a 70% loss of bandwidth that caused problems in banking and other mobile networks. President of the Nigeria Internet Group, Lanre Ajayi, said, " a critical national resource because of its importance to the economy and to security."
Two weeks may pass. List of international submarine communications cables Individual cable systems off the coast of Africa include:Atlantis-2 Argentina linked to Portugal EASSy East Africa Cable linking South Africa and East African nations. LION Main One Portugal linked to West Africa SAT-2 Portugal linked to South Africa SEACOM East coast of Africa GLO-1 Nigeria to the UK ACE South Africa linked to France WACS South Africa linked to the United Kingdom Official SAT-3/WASC/SAFE Homepage The Sat3 Fibre - a Monopoly That Stands in the Way of Cheaper International Bandwidth What Must Happen when SAT3’s Monopoly Comes to an End
Telecommunication is the transmission of signs, messages, writings and sounds or information of any nature by wire, optical or other electromagnetic systems. Telecommunication occurs when the exchange of information between communication participants includes the use of technology, it is transmitted either electrically over physical media, such as cables, or via electromagnetic radiation. Such transmission paths are divided into communication channels which afford the advantages of multiplexing. Since the Latin term communicatio is considered the social process of information exchange, the term telecommunications is used in its plural form because it involves many different technologies. Early means of communicating over a distance included visual signals, such as beacons, smoke signals, semaphore telegraphs, signal flags, optical heliographs. Other examples of pre-modern long-distance communication included audio messages such as coded drumbeats, lung-blown horns, loud whistles. 20th- and 21st-century technologies for long-distance communication involve electrical and electromagnetic technologies, such as telegraph and teleprinter, radio, microwave transmission, fiber optics, communications satellites.
A revolution in wireless communication began in the first decade of the 20th century with the pioneering developments in radio communications by Guglielmo Marconi, who won the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1909, other notable pioneering inventors and developers in the field of electrical and electronic telecommunications. These included Charles Wheatstone and Samuel Morse, Alexander Graham Bell, Edwin Armstrong and Lee de Forest, as well as Vladimir K. Zworykin, John Logie Baird and Philo Farnsworth; the word telecommunication is a compound of the Greek prefix tele, meaning distant, far off, or afar, the Latin communicare, meaning to share. Its modern use is adapted from the French, because its written use was recorded in 1904 by the French engineer and novelist Édouard Estaunié. Communication was first used as an English word in the late 14th century, it comes from Old French comunicacion, from Latin communicationem, noun of action from past participle stem of communicare "to share, divide out.
Homing pigeons have been used throughout history by different cultures. Pigeon post had Persian roots, was used by the Romans to aid their military. Frontinus said; the Greeks conveyed the names of the victors at the Olympic Games to various cities using homing pigeons. In the early 19th century, the Dutch government used the system in Sumatra, and in 1849, Paul Julius Reuter started a pigeon service to fly stock prices between Aachen and Brussels, a service that operated for a year until the gap in the telegraph link was closed. In the Middle Ages, chains of beacons were used on hilltops as a means of relaying a signal. Beacon chains suffered the drawback that they could only pass a single bit of information, so the meaning of the message such as "the enemy has been sighted" had to be agreed upon in advance. One notable instance of their use was during the Spanish Armada, when a beacon chain relayed a signal from Plymouth to London. In 1792, Claude Chappe, a French engineer, built the first fixed visual telegraphy system between Lille and Paris.
However semaphore suffered from the need for skilled operators and expensive towers at intervals of ten to thirty kilometres. As a result of competition from the electrical telegraph, the last commercial line was abandoned in 1880. On 25 July 1837 the first commercial electrical telegraph was demonstrated by English inventor Sir William Fothergill Cooke, English scientist Sir Charles Wheatstone. Both inventors viewed their device as "an improvement to the electromagnetic telegraph" not as a new device. Samuel Morse independently developed a version of the electrical telegraph that he unsuccessfully demonstrated on 2 September 1837, his code was an important advance over Wheatstone's signaling method. The first transatlantic telegraph cable was completed on 27 July 1866, allowing transatlantic telecommunication for the first time; the conventional telephone was invented independently by Alexander Bell and Elisha Gray in 1876. Antonio Meucci invented the first device that allowed the electrical transmission of voice over a line in 1849.
However Meucci's device was of little practical value because it relied upon the electrophonic effect and thus required users to place the receiver in their mouth to "hear" what was being said. The first commercial telephone services were set-up in 1878 and 1879 on both sides of the Atlantic in the cities of New Haven and London. Starting in 1894, Italian inventor Guglielmo Marconi began developing a wireless communication using the newly discovered phenomenon of radio waves, showing by 1901 that they could be transmitted across the Atlantic Ocean; this was the start of wireless telegraphy by radio. Voice and music had little early success. World War I accelerated the development of radio for military communications. After the war, commercial radio AM broadcasting began in the 1920s and became an important mass medium for entertainment and news. World War II again accelerated development of radio for the wartime purposes of aircraft and land communication, radio navigation and radar. Development of stereo FM broadcasting of radio
Greenland Connect is a submarine communications cable system that connects Canada and Iceland. The cable contains two fibre pairs specified for 128*10 Gbit/s wavelength each. Initial lit capacity is 1*10 Gbit/s for each fibre pair. Two additional 10 Gbit/s Wavelength were installed in the summer of 2010; the cable has cable landing points at: Milton, Trinity Bay and Labrador, Canada Nuuk, Greenland Qaqortoq, Greenland Landeyjarsandur, South IcelandAt its endpoints, the cable is colocated with the "DANICE" cable in Iceland and the Eastlink "Trans-Gulf" cable in Newfoundland. Together these cables interconnects the networks of major carriers in North America; the operator of this cable is TELE Greenland as part of its "4,800-km fibre optic network between Iceland and Greenland and between Greenland and Newfoundland and Labrador." Cable was laid from Trinity Bay, Newfoundland to Greenland by the "Maersk Responder" supported by the "Blue Castor" during July to October 2008 and from Landeyjarsandur to Greenland by the "Ile de Sein" supported by the "Ile de Brehat" The cable was put in operation on March 23, 2009, reduced pingtimes by 500 ms in Nuuk.
In April 2016 the board of TELE-POST announced a decision for an extension of the sea cable a long the west coast of Greenland from Nuuk towards Aasiaat. In 2016 it was announced that Tele Greenland had partnered with Alcatel-Lucent and Huawei Marine to both upgrade the existing Greenland Connect cable from 1,92T to 12.8T as well as deploy a 680 km extension called Greenland Connect North. The Greenland Connect North cable has landing points at: Nuuk, Greenland Maniitsoq, Greenland Sisimiut, Greenland Aasiaat, GreenlandThe cable reached Aasiaat on 8 October 2017. Services using the new cable launched on 11 December 2017. "Tele Greenland Selects Alcatel-Lucent to Implement Euro 90 Million "Greenland Connect" Project". Alcatel-Lucent. December 7, 2007. "Province Links with Greenland". Government of Newfoundland and Labrador - Canada. July 11, 2008. "Special information for ships". TELE Greenland A/S. Archived from the original on September 14, 2008. Retrieved 2008-08-07. "INFORMATION "Greenland Connect"".
TELE Greenland A/S. n.d. Retrieved 2008-08-07. "Greenland Connect now operational". TELE Greenland A/S. n.d. Archived from the original on February 10, 2009. Retrieved 2009-04-01. "Map image of submarine communications cables to Iceland". Invest in Iceland Agency. 2007. Archived from the original on 2007-12-23. Retrieved 2009-06-23. "Submarine Cable". TELE Greenland A/S. n.d. Archived from the original on 2013-06-03. Retrieved 2013-05-09. "Du slipper nådigt fra nyt søkabelbrud". Sermitsiaq. AG. 2013-05-03. Hannigan, Martin. Update on North Atlantic Networks. UKNOF. Retrieved 2009-03-14
Orange S. A. France Télécom S. A. is a French multinational telecommunications corporation. It has 256 million customers worldwide and employs 95,000 people in France, 59,000 elsewhere, it is the twelfth largest mobile network operator in the world and the fourth largest in Europe after Vodafone, Telefónica and VEON. In 2015, the group had revenue of €40 billion; the company's head office is located in the 15th arrondissement of Paris. The current CEO is Stéphane Richard; the company is a component of the Euro Stoxx 50 stock market index. Orange has been the company's main brand for mobile, internet and IPTV services since 2006, it originated in 1994 when Hutchison Whampoa acquired a controlling stake in Microtel Communications during the early 1990s and rebranded it as "Orange". It became a subsidiary of Mannesmann in 1999 and was acquired by France Télécom in 2000; the company was rebranded as Orange in July 2013. In 1792, under the French Revolution, the first communication network was developed to enable the rapid transmission of information in a warring and unsafe country.
That was the optical telegraphy network of Claude Chappe. In 1878, after the invention of the electrical telegraph and the invention of the telephone, the French State created a Ministry of Posts and Telegraphs. Telephone Services were added to the ministry when they were nationalised in 1889. However, it was not until 1923 that the second'T' appeared and the department of P&T became PTT. In 1941, a General Direction of Telecommunications was created within this ministry. In 1944, the National Centre of Telecommunications Studies was created to develop the telecommunications industry in France. In the 1970s, France tried extra hard to make up its delay on other countries with the programme "delta LP", it was at the time. Moreover, with the help of French manufacturers, digital switching, the Minitel and the GSM standard were invented by engineers and CNET researchers. In 1982, Telecom introduced Minitel online ordering for its customers; until 1988, France Télécom was known as the direction générale des Télécommunications, a division of the Ministry of Posts and Telecommunications.
It became autonomous in 1990. This was in response to a European directive, aimed at making competition mandatory in public services from 1 January 1998; the 2 July 1990 Bill changed France Télécom into an operator of public law, with Marcel Roulet the first Chairman. Since the company has had a separate body corporate from the State and acquired financial autonomy, it was privatised by Lionel Jospin's Plural Left government starting on 1 January 1998. The French government, both directly and through its holding company ERAP, continues to hold a stake of 27% in the company. In addition, the government Conseil of Ministers names the CEO. In September 1995, Michel Bon was appointed to run France Télécom Group. In 1997, the capital of the new public company was floated whereas the dot-com bubble phenomenon made the stock exchanges bullish. A second share offering occurred in 1998. France Télécom got behind in the internationalization launched by its international competitors such as Vodafone, thus, it started looking for targets at the highest speculation rate of the dot-com bubble.
Moreover, its alliance with Deutsche Telekom based on a reciprocal capital contribution of 2% broke off when Deutsche Telekom announced that they were planning to do business with Telecom Italia without letting the French know – if this project ended up failing. In July 1991, Hutchison Telecom, a UK subsidiary of the Hong Kong-based conglomerate Hutchison Whampoa, acquired a controlling stake in Microtel Communications Ltd, who by had acquired a licence to develop a mobile network in the United Kingdom. Hutchison renamed Microtel to Orange Personal Communications Services Ltd, on 28 April 1994 the Orange brand was launched in the UK mobile phone market. A holding company structure was adopted in 1995 with the establishment of Orange plc. In April 1996, Orange went public and floated on the London Stock Exchange and NASDAQ, majority owned by Hutchison, followed by BAe. In June 1996, it became the youngest company to enter the FTSE 100, valued at £2.4 billion. In October 1999 the German conglomerate Mannesmann AG acquired Orange for a price equivalent to €7,900 per customer, i.e. US$33 billion.
Mannesmann's acquisition of Orange triggered Vodafone to make a hostile takeover bid for Mannesmann. Shortly thereafter, in February 2000, Vodafone acquired Mannesmann for US$183 billion, decided to divest Orange because the EU regulations wouldn't allow it to hold two mobile licences. In August 2000, France Télécom bought Orange plc from Vodafone for a total estimated cost of €39.7 billion. At the time, France Télécom bought stakes in several other international firms, of which some have since been sold back. Through this process, France Télécom became the fourth biggest global operator; the mobile telephone operations of Orange plc were merged with the majority of the mobile operations of France Télécom, forming the new group Orange SA. On 13 February 2001, Orange SA was listed on the Euronext Paris stock exchange with an initial public offering of 95 Euros per share, with a secondary listing in London. In May 2001, Orange SA was listed on the CAC 40, the benchmark stock market index of the top 40 French companies in terms of market capitalisation.
In June 2001 the France Telecom Mobile brands Itinéris, OLA, Mobicarte were replaced by the Orange brand. On 21 November 2003, France Telecom withdrew the 13.7% of Orange's shares traded on the Pari