TAT-1 was the first submarine transatlantic telephone cable system. It was laid between Oban and Clarenville, Newfoundland. Two cables were laid between 1956 with one cable for each direction, it was inaugurated on September 25, 1956. The cable was able to carry 35 simultaneous telephone calls. A 36th channel was used to carry up to 22 telegraph lines; the first transatlantic telegraph cable had been laid in 1858. It only operated for a month, but was replaced with a successful connection in 1866. A radio-based transatlantic telephone service was started in 1927, charging £9 for three minutes and handling around 300,000 calls a year. Although a telephone cable was discussed at that time, it was not practical until a number of technological advances arrived in the 1940s; the developments that made TAT-1 possible were coaxial cable, polyethylene insulation reliable vacuum tubes for the submerged repeaters and a general improvement in carrier equipment. Transistors were not used; the agreement to make the connection was announced by the Postmaster General on December 1, 1953.
The project was a joint one between the General Post Office of the UK, the American Telephone and Telegraph company, the Canadian Overseas Telecommunications Corporation. The share split in the scheme was 40% British, 50% American, 10% Canadian; the total cost was about £120 million. There were to be one for each direction of transmission; each cable was produced and laid in three sections, two shallow-water armored sections, one continuous central section 1,500 nautical miles long. The electronic repeaters were designed by the Bell Telephone Laboratories of the United States and they were flexible and were inserted into the cable at 37-nautical-mile intervals – a total of 51 repeaters in the central section; the armored cables were manufactured southeast of London, at a factory in Erith, owned by Submarine Cables Ltd.. The cables were laid over the summers of 1955 and 1956, with the majority of the work done by the cable ship HMTS Monarch. At the land-end in Gallanach Bay near Oban, the cable was connected to coaxial carrying the transatlantic circuits via Glasgow and Inverness to the International Exchange at Faraday Building in London.
At the cable landing point in Newfoundland the cable joined at Clarenville crossed the 300-mile Cabot Strait by another submarine cable to Sydney Mines, Nova Scotia. From there the communications traffic was routed to the US border by a microwave radio relay link, in Brunswick, Maine the route joined the main US network and branched to Montreal to connect with the Canadian network. Opened on September 25, 1956, TAT-1 carried 588 London-US calls and 119 London-Canada calls in the first 24 hours of public service; the original 36 channels were 4 kHz. The increase to 48 channels was accomplished by narrowing the bandwidth to 3 kHz. An additional three channels were added by use of C Carrier equipment. Time-assignment speech interpolation was implemented on the TAT-1 cable in June 1960 and increased the cable's capacity from 37 to 72 speech circuits. TAT-1 carried the Moscow-Washington hotline between the American and Soviet heads of state, although using a teleprinter rather than voice calls as written communications were regarded as less to be misinterpreted.
The link became operational on 13 July 1963 and was principally motivated as a result of the Cuban Missile Crisis where it took the US, for example, nearly 12 hours to receive and decode the initial settlement message that contained approx. 3,000 words. By the time the message was decoded and interpreted, an answer had been prepared, another–more aggressive—message had been received. In May 1957, TAT-1 was used to transmit a concert by the singer and civil rights activist, Paul Robeson performing in New York to St Pancras Town Hall in London and Wales. Due to McCarthyism, Robeson's passport had been withdrawn by the United States authorities in 1950. Unable to accept numerous invitations to perform abroad, he stated "We have to learn the hard way that there is another way to sing"; the 15 minute connection, which required a music quality circuit, cost £300. After the success of TAT-1, a number of other TAT cables were laid and TAT-1 was retired in 1978; the TAT-1 was named an IEEE Milestone in 2006.
Transatlantic telephone cable HAW-1 TAT-1 Opening Ceremony Includes transcript of the official first telephone call over the cable. Reminiscences of TAT-1 by Jeremiah Hayes 50th Anniversary of laying TAT-1 BBC News 50th Anniversary of laying TAT-1 Scotsman http://gadgets.boingboing.net/2009/04/17/gallery-an-illustrat.html
Saint-Hilaire-de-Riez is a commune in the Vendée department in the Pays de la Loire region in western France. Communes of the Vendée department INSEE Official site
1992 Summer Olympics
The 1992 Summer Olympic Games known as the Games of the XXV Olympiad, was an international multi-sport event celebrated in Barcelona, Spain from July 25 to August 9, 1992. Beginning in 1994, the International Olympic Committee decided to hold the games in alternating even-numbered years; the games were the first to be unaffected by boycotts since 1972 and the first summer games since the end of the Cold War. The Unified Team topped the medal table, winning 112 overall medals. Barcelona is the second-largest city in Spain, the hometown of then-IOC president Juan Antonio Samaranch; the city was a host for the 1982 FIFA World Cup. On October 17, 1986, Barcelona was selected to host the 1992 Summer Games over Amsterdam, The Netherlands. With 85 out of 89 members of the IOC voting by secret ballot, Barcelona won a majority of 47 votes. Samaranch abstained from voting. In the same IOC meeting, France, won the right to host the 1992 Winter Games. Barcelona had bid for the 1936 Summer Olympics, but they lost to Berlin.
At the Opening Ceremony Greek mezzo-soprano Agnes Baltsa sang "Romiossini" as the Olympic flag was paraded around the stadium. Alfredo Kraus sang the Olympic Hymn in both Catalan and Spanish as the flag was hoisted; the Olympic flame cauldron was lit by a flaming arrow, shot by Paralympic archer Antonio Rebollo. The arrow had been lit by the flame of the Olympic Torch. Rebollo shot above the cauldron; the arrow landed outside the stadium. This was the original design of the lighting scheme, to avoid any chance that the arrow would land in the stadium if Rebollo missed his target. South Africa was allowed to compete in the Olympic Games for the first time since the 1960 Summer Olympics, after a long suspension for its apartheid policy. After a close race in the Women's 10,000 metres event, white South African runner Elana Meyer and black Ethiopian runner Derartu Tulu ran a victory lap together, hand-in-hand. Following its reunification in 1990, Germany sent a single, unified Olympic team for the first time since the 1964 Summer Olympics.
As the Soviet Union was dissolved in 1991, the Baltic nations of Estonia and Lithuania, sent their own teams for the first time since 1936. Other former Soviet republics preferred to compete as the Unified Team; this team consisted of present-day Armenia, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Moldova, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan. The team finished first in the medal standings; the separation of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia led to the Olympic debuts of Croatia and Bosnia and Herzegovina. Due to United Nations sanctions, athletes from the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia were not allowed to participate with their own team. However, some individual athletes competed under the Olympic flag as Independent Olympic Participants. In basketball, the admittance of NBA players led to the formation of the "Dream Team" of the United States, featuring Michael Jordan, Magic Johnson, Larry Bird and other NBA stars. Prior to 1992, only European and South American professionals were allowed to compete, while the Americans used college players.
The Dream Team won the gold medal and was inducted as a unit into the Basketball Hall of Fame in 2010. Fermín Cacho won the 1,500 metres in his home country, earning Spain's first-ever Olympic gold medal in a running event. Chinese diver Fu Mingxia, age 13, became one of the youngest Olympic gold medalists of all time. In men's artistic gymnastics, Vitaly Scherbo from Belarus, won six gold medals, including four in a single day. Scherbo tied Eric Heiden's record for individual gold medals at a single Olympics, winning five medals in an individual event. In women's artistic gymnastics, Tatiana Gutsu took gold in the All-Around competition edging the United States' Shannon Miller. Russian swimmers dominated the men’s freestyle events, with Alexander Popov and Yevgeny Sadovyi each winning two events. Sadovyi won in the relays. Evelyn Ashford won her fourth Olympic gold medal in the 4×100-metre relay, making her one of only four female athletes to have achieved this in history; the young Krisztina Egerszegi of Hungary won three individual swimming gold medals.
In women's 200 metre breaststroke, Kyoko Iwasaki of Japan won a gold medal at age of 14 years and six days, making her the youngest-ever gold medalist in swimming competitions at the Olympics. Algerian athlete Hassiba Boulmerka, criticized by Muslim groups in Algeria who thought she showed too much of her body when racing, received death threats and was forced to move to Europe to train, won the 1,500 metres holding the African women's record in this distance. After being demonstrated in six previous Summer Olympic Games, baseball became an Olympic sport. Badminton and women's judo became part of the Olympic program, while slalom canoeing returned to the Games after a 20-year absence. Roller hockey, Basque pelota, taekwondo were all demonstrated at the 1992 Summer Olympics. Several of the U. S. men's volleyball gold medal team from the 1988 Olympics returned to vie for another medal. In the preliminary round, they lost a controversial match to Japan, sparking them to shave their heads in protest.
This notably included player Steve
SAT-3/WASC or South Atlantic 3/West Africa Submarine Cable is a submarine communications cable linking Portugal and Spain to South Africa, with connections to several West African countries along the route. It forms part of the SAT-3 / WASC/SAFE cable system; the SAT-3/WASC/SAFE system provides a path between Asia and Europe for telecommunications traffic, an alternative to the cable routes that pass through the Middle East, such as SEA-ME-WE 3 and FLAG. SAT-3 has a capacity of 340 Gbit/s; the SAT-3 system together with SAFE was built by a consortium of operators. As of 2006, major investors included France Telecom, Nitel. Prices for SAT-3 bandwidth in the African countries it serves are high in large part because operators have monopoly control of access; the lowest rates occur in Ghana, where the Ghana Internet Service Providers Association organized a two-year negotiation with and court fight against Ghana Telecom. SEACOM president Brian Herlihy states that the owners of the SAT-3 cable have cut prices by 50% since the 2007 announcement of Seacom, in order to compete with the arrival of Seacom in East Africa.
The SAT-3 has landing points in European countries: Sesimbra, Portugal Chipiona, Spain Alta Vista, Canary Islandsand in Africa: Dakar, Senegal Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire Accra, Ghana Cotonou, Benin Lagos, Nigeria Douala, Cameroon Libreville, Gabon Cacuaco, Angola Melkbosstrand, South Africa meeting SAFEAlthough Telecom Namibia holds ownership in SAT-3/WASC, Namibia has no landing point. Namibian internet users have no access to SAT-3/WASC, because Telecom Namibia would have to purchase capacity from Telkom SA, due to Telkom SA's high prices has so far refused to do so; the cable itself consists of four fibers, using Erbium-doped fiber amplifier repeaters and wavelength division multiplexing. SAT-3/WASC/SAFE began operations in 2001, providing the first links to Europe for West African internet users and, for South Africans, taking up service from SAT-2, reaching maximum capacity. SAT-2 had been brought into service in the early 1990s as a replacement for the original undersea cable SAT-1, constructed in the 1960s.
In November 2007, no internet access was available through SAT-3 for about seven days in parts of central Africa. A government official from Cameroon blamed a technical failure at the underwater SAT-3 high sea fibre optic terminal, about forty kilometres from Douala. Many ISPs in Cameroon had transitioned their connections from independent satellite connections to SAT-3 in mid-2007 creating serious communication difficulties during the seven days. In late July 2009, SAT-3 cable damage caused internet blackouts in multiple west African countries including Benin, Togo and Nigeria. Togo and Niger were "completely offline" and Benin was able to "reroute its net traffic through neighboring countries." However, the three nations were able to use alternative satellite links in order to maintain some Internet communication with the rest of the world. Nigeria suffered a 70% loss of bandwidth that caused problems in banking and other mobile networks. President of the Nigeria Internet Group, Lanre Ajayi, said, " a critical national resource because of its importance to the economy and to security."
Two weeks may pass. List of international submarine communications cables Individual cable systems off the coast of Africa include:Atlantis-2 Argentina linked to Portugal EASSy East Africa Cable linking South Africa and East African nations. LION Main One Portugal linked to West Africa SAT-2 Portugal linked to South Africa SEACOM East coast of Africa GLO-1 Nigeria to the UK ACE South Africa linked to France WACS South Africa linked to the United Kingdom Official SAT-3/WASC/SAFE Homepage The Sat3 Fibre - a Monopoly That Stands in the Way of Cheaper International Bandwidth What Must Happen when SAT3’s Monopoly Comes to an End
SAex is a proposed submarine communications cable linking South Africa to the United States with branches to Namibia, Saint Helena, Brazil. The project was announced in 2011 by eFive Telecoms Ltd, who led the project during the early feasibility studies. In November 2013 South Atlantic Express Cable Company Ltd took over responsibility and was renamed to SimplCom South Africa Ltd after SimplCom Inc. acquired a controlling shareholding in the former. In April, 2011 the Bank of China announced that it was interested in investing 60% of the funds required for the project while the Industrial Development Corporation of South Africa had expressed interest in providing funding; as of May 2014 the project had funding interest from numerous private and public financial institutions. In June 2011 the project was expected to cost R3 billion to complete. A revised configuration, technological improvements and lower costs of technology are expected to reduce the projected capacity prices of the original design.
As of October 2018, Desktop surveying had begun. SAEx is conceived as a system to link the developing economies of Southern Africa and South America independently of traditional hubs and so to contribute to a link between BRICS economic regions without recourse to traditional northern hemisphere hubs, it will form a sub-sea route from Indian Ocean network nodes in the Gulf region and Eastern Asia to South America and the USA while avoiding geological and geopolitical hazards present on other paths, such as the oceanic trenches of the Pacific Ocean, the Red Sea, the Suez Canal and the Mediterranean Sea and transits through unstable countries and unreliable overland transit networks. Internet traffic bounded from South Africa to the Americas routes through Europe; the SAex cable if constructed, will reduce latency and bandwidth costs associated with the distance that internet traffic has to travel by providing the shortest route possible from South Africa to the Americas. The initial design capacity of the cable will be over 10,000 kilometres in length.
It will consist of four fibre pairs, each capable of carrying 10 TBit/s of data using 100 GBit/s wavelength technology. The branch to Namibia will stretch over 1,050 km while that to Saint Helena will have a length of less than 50 km. According to a memorandum of understanding closed in April 2010 Main One and SEACOM will interconnect their cables with SAex and so form a pan-African fibre-optic ring. Through SEACOM the cable could supply India with bandwidth towards the Americas by onward connectivity to the United States through the existing GlobeNet cable system. At Yzerfontein SAEx would be able to interconnect to WACS while at Mtunzini SAFE, EASSy and SEACOM could provide onward connectivity to Asia, East Africa and India; the cable system is expected to be operational in 2020. There were no plans to land the cable and install a landing station in Saint Helena. If this were done, the cable could supply the island's population with sufficient bandwidth to leverage the benefits of today's information society.
Since January 2012 a campaign called Move This Cable launched by A Human Right, a San Francisco-based NGA working on initiatives to ensure all people are connected to the Internet, has been lobbying for a branch of the SAex cable to land on the remote island of Saint Helena in order to provide high-speed Internet access to the island's small population of 4,200 people and so to foster socio-economic development. On October 6, 2012, eFive agreed to reroute the cable through Saint Helena after successful lobbying efforts. Islanders have sought the assistance of the UK Department for International Development and Foreign and Commonwealth Office in funding the £10m required to install a branch from an underwater OADM branching unit on the main cable to the island; the UK Government have announced that a review of the island's economy would be required before such funding would be agreed to. On 27 October 2017 St Helena Government announced that it had signed a memorandum of understanding for a branch from the SAex cable to the island to be delivered in early 2020 which would be funded by the European Development Fund.
In November 2011 former eFive CEO Mulaudzi stated that having the first-mover advantage was vital for the project since there is no need for two separate cable systems connecting Angola with Brazil. On Friday, 23 March 2012, the president of Angola Cables, António Nunes and the president of Telebrás, Caio Bonilha, signed a deal to construct a cable of about 6000 km length linking Fortaleza in Brazil with the Angolan capital Luanda named South Atlantic Cable System. IHS Global Insight lists four concurrent projects to lay new undersea cables between South America and Africa. Due to this competing project in 2014 the SAex' design was modified to now include a branch to Namibia instead of a dedicated fiber pair running from Fortaleza to Angola forking off mid-Atlantic. In October 2014 Angola Cables announced that South Atlantic Cable System would be completed by end of 2016, taking the first mover advantage; as of October 2017 the SAex is planned to land at the following locations: Mtunzini, South Africa Yzerfontein, South Africa Saint Helena, British overseas territory of Saint Helena and Tristan da Cunha Fortaleza, Brazil Virginia Beach, United States Mtunzini, South Africa East London, South Africa Port Elizabeth, South Africa Melkbosstrand, South Africa Saint He
Conil de la Frontera
Conil de la Frontera is a town on the Atlantic coast in the southern part of Spain, with around 22,000 inhabitants. It has six beaches: Playa La Fontanilla, Playa El Roqueo, Playa Fuente del Gallo, Playa Punta Lejos, Playa Cala del Aceite and Playa los Bateles. Playa los Bateles is the most popular in the summer. Conil de la Frontera is a vacation town and the most of the tourists are Spanish although you also hear German as well in town; every Friday you can visit the market on Avda. de la Música, which includes culture and history. The market includes lots of little trinkets and handmade clothes; the beach has volleyball nets and lots and lots of sand
Barcelona is a city in Spain. It is the capital and largest city of the autonomous community of Catalonia, as well as the second most populous municipality of Spain. With a population of 1.6 million within city limits, its urban area extends to numerous neighbouring municipalities within the Province of Barcelona and is home to around 4.8 million people, making it the sixth most populous urban area in the European Union after Paris, Madrid, the Ruhr area and Milan. It is one of the largest metropolises on the Mediterranean Sea, located on the coast between the mouths of the rivers Llobregat and Besòs, bounded to the west by the Serra de Collserola mountain range, the tallest peak of, 512 metres high. Founded as a Roman city, in the Middle Ages Barcelona became the capital of the County of Barcelona. After merging with the Kingdom of Aragon, Barcelona continued to be an important city in the Crown of Aragon as an economic and administrative centre of this Crown and the capital of the Principality of Catalonia.
Barcelona has a rich cultural heritage and is today an important cultural centre and a major tourist destination. Renowned are the architectural works of Antoni Gaudí and Lluís Domènech i Montaner, which have been designated UNESCO World Heritage Sites; the headquarters of the Union for the Mediterranean are located in Barcelona. The city is known for hosting the 1992 Summer Olympics as well as world-class conferences and expositions and many international sport tournaments. Barcelona is one of the world's leading tourist, trade fair and cultural centres, its influence in commerce, entertainment, fashion and the arts all contribute to its status as one of the world's major global cities, it is a major cultural and economic centre in southwestern Europe, 24th in the world and a financial centre. In 2008 it was the fourth most economically powerful city by GDP in the European Union and 35th in the world with GDP amounting to €177 billion. In 2012 Barcelona had a GDP of $170 billion. In 2009 the city was ranked one of the world's most successful as a city brand.
In the same year the city was ranked Europe's fourth best city for business and fastest improving European city, with growth improved by 17% per year, the city has been experiencing strong and renewed growth for the past three years. Since 2011 Barcelona has been a leading smart city in Europe. Barcelona is a transport hub, with the Port of Barcelona being one of Europe's principal seaports and busiest European passenger port, an international airport, Barcelona–El Prat Airport, which handles over 50 million passengers per year, an extensive motorway network, a high-speed rail line with a link to France and the rest of Europe; the name Barcelona comes from the ancient Iberian Barkeno, attested in an ancient coin inscription found on the right side of the coin in Iberian script as, in ancient Greek sources as Βαρκινών, Barkinṓn. Some older sources suggest that the city may have been named after the Carthaginian general Hamilcar Barca, supposed to have founded the city in the 3rd century BC, but there is no evidence that Barcelona was a Carthaginian settlement, or that its name in antiquity, had any connection with the Barcid family of Hamilcar.
During the Middle Ages, the city was variously known as Barchinona, Barçalona and Barchenona. Internationally, Barcelona's name is wrongly abbreviated to'Barça'. However, this name refers only to the football club; the common abbreviated form used by locals is Barna. Another common abbreviation is'BCN', the IATA airport code of the Barcelona-El Prat Airport; the city is referred to as the Ciutat Comtal in Catalan, Ciudad Condal in Spanish, owing to its past as the seat of the Count of Barcelona. The origin of the earliest settlement at the site of present-day Barcelona is unclear; the ruins of an early settlement have been found, including different tombs and dwellings dating to earlier than 5000 BC. The founding of Barcelona is the subject of two different legends; the first attributes the founding of the city to the mythological Hercules. The second legend attributes the foundation of the city directly to the historical Carthaginian general, Hamilcar Barca, father of Hannibal, who named the city Barcino after his family in the 3rd century BC, but there is no historical or linguistic evidence that this is true.
In about 15 BC, the Romans redrew the town as a castrum centred on the "Mons Taber", a little hill near the contemporary city hall. Under the Romans, it was a colony with the surname of Faventia, or, in full, Colonia Faventia Julia Augusta Pia Barcino or Colonia Julia Augusta Faventia Paterna Barcino. Pomponius Mela mentions it among the small towns of the district as it was eclipsed by its neighbour Tarraco, but it may be gathered from writers that it grew in wealth and consequence, favoured as it was with a beautiful situation and an excellent harbour, it enjoyed immunity from imperial burdens. The city minted its own coins. Important Roman vestiges are displayed in Plaça del Rei underground, as a part of the Barcelona City History Museum; some remaining fragments of the Roman walls have been incorporated into the cathedral. The cathedral known as the Basilica La Seu, is said to have been founded in 343; the city