Train Collectors Association
The Train Collectors Association is an international non-profit organization of people who operate and collect toy trains, toy train accessories, toy train books, toy train paper, anything else rail transport related. TCA was founded in October 1954 in Yardley, Pennsylvania and is headquartered in Strasburg, Pennsylvania; the National Toy Train Museum affiliated with TCA in included in the "List of museums in Pennsylvania". TCA owns and operates the National Toy Train Museum and the National Toy Train Library which are located at 300 Paradise Lane, Pennsylvania. All gauges of trains are operated by members. Partiality for a particular gauge is a personal preference of each member; these gauges include HO gauge, S gauge, O gauge/O scale, G gauge/G scale, Standard Gauge, 1 gauge, 2 gauge. Other small gauges include N gauge, T gauge, TT gauge. and Z gauge. In addition, all manufacturers are operated by members. Again, partiality for a particular manufacturer is at the preference of each member. Manufacturers doing business in today's market include Lionel.
Vintage manufacturers include Lionel Corporation, Ives, K-Line, Beggs, American Flyer, Marx, McCoy, Dorfan, Fandor and many others. There are more than 300 different manufacturers many of whom have items on display at the NTTM. Standards for condition and grading have been developed by TCA that are accepted by individuals and auction houses; these include condition codes for original trains, for train paper, for restored trains, for reproduction trains. These condition standards, together with the rarity of the item, will help to determine the dollar value and the collectability of a particular train or accessory. TCA issues three publications during the year, the Train Collector Quarterly, the National Headquarters News, the e*Train. Other organizations reference TCA and the York Meet in their websites. Examples are Collectors Weekly, the Toy Train Paper and Memorabilia Group and Tandem Associates Divisions and Chapters of TCA host local train meets or train shows on a schedule throughout the United States where members may buy, trade trains, or just enjoy the fellowship of collecting.
Most shows are open to the public and may include educational segments, kids activities, train doctors who can repair trains. The most prominent show, the York Train Meet, sponsored by the Eastern Division of TCA, is held over a three-day period twice a year in April and October in York, Pennsylvania; this show has 2000 tables of trains, large operating train layouts, is open to TCA members and their guests. Some local divisions and chapters assist the Boy Scouts of America with the Railroading Merit Badge. Information about the Central Indiana Chapter. Museum information video produced by the Train Collectors Association
Traumatic cardiac arrest
Traumatic cardiac arrest is a condition in which the heart has ceased to beat due to blunt or penetrating trauma, such as a stab wound to the thoracic area. It is a medical emergency. With prompt medical intervention, survival without neurological complications is rare. There are no definitive protocols in place in how to manage traumatic cardiac arrest, but certain people benefit from the use of a thoracotomy in order to gain access and repair damage from the injury. Traumatic cardiac arrest is a complex form of cardiac arrest derailing from Advanced Cardiac Life Support in the sense that the emergency team must first establish the cause of the traumatic arrest and reverse these effects, for example hypovolemia and haemorrhagic shock due to a penetrating injury
Trans-Canada Air Lines
Trans-Canada Air Lines was a Canadian airline that operated as the country's flag carrier. Its corporate headquarters were in Quebec, its first president was Gordon Roy McGregor. In English-language contexts, the airline operated as TCA from 1937 to 1965, when it was renamed Air Canada. With heavy involvement from C. D. Howe, a senior minister in the Mackenzie King cabinet, TCA was created by the Crown Corporation Canadian National Railway, launched its first flight on September 1, 1937, on a flight between Vancouver and Seattle. An air-mail contract with Canada Post was one of the methods; the creation of TCA was by CNR management who wanted to expand the company into the new field of passenger aviation, was by government direction. Prior to TCA, no large national airline existed in Canada. With war looming, other nations experiencing major increases in the creation of passenger airlines, it was necessary to have a presence; the CNR was the country's largest corporation at the time and proved an effective vehicle for the government to create a national airline.
TCA was in direct competition with passenger trains operated by parent CNR, contributed to the decline of passenger rail service as Canada entered the pioneering years of air travel. In response to CNR's creation of TCA, arch-rival Canadian Pacific Railway created Canadian Pacific Air Lines in 1942. Between 1943 and 1947, TCA operated the Canadian Government Trans-Atlantic Air Service to provide trans-Atlantic military passenger and postal delivery service using Avro Lancastrian aircraft; the record crossing was completed non-stop in 12:26 hours. CGTAS ushered in the era of commercial air travel across the North Atlantic. After the war, the Lancastrians became part of TCA and carried paying civilian passengers until they were replaced by Douglas DC-4s. Starting in 1945, TCA acquired 30 twin-engined ex-military Douglas DC-3s for use on Canadian internal services and some of these remained in service until 1963 on shorter routes. A fleet of Merlin-powered Canadair North Stars was delivered from 1947 and these commenced services to several European countries, including the United Kingdom and to cities in the USA.
The last of the North Stars was sold in 1961. The Canadair North Stars were replaced by longer range Lockheed Super Constellations from 1954 onwards, fourteen being operated on transatlantic routes extending as far as Vienna in Austria; the last Super Constellations were disposed of in 1963. A large fleet of Vickers Viscount turboprop airliners was built up from late 1954 and these were used on many intra-North American routes; the Viscount was followed by the larger Vickers Vanguard turboprop. TCA was the only airline in North America to operate the Vanguard in scheduled passenger service. In 1953 with the development of ReserVec, TCA became the first airline in the world to use a computer reservation system with remote terminals; the airline's Winnipeg maintenance shops and its first trial flight of the Viscount was documented in the 1955 film, Routine Flight. The airline acquired a fleet of Douglas DC-8 jet airliners powered by Rolls Royce Conways, the first being received on 25 May 1960; the DC-8 replaced the slower Super Constellations on TCA's scheduled services to Europe.
In 1964, an Act of Parliament proposed by Jean Chrétien changed the name of Trans-Canada Air Lines to "Air Canada", in use as the airline's French-language name, effective 1 January 1965. In 1978, Air Canada became a separate Crown corporation. Air Canada was privatized in 1989. TCA operated a network of 160 routes to destinations including: St. John's, Newfoundland Stephenville, Newfoundland Gander, Newfoundland Halifax, Nova Scotia Victoria, British Columbia Vancouver, British Columbia Boston, Massachusetts New York City, New York Winnipeg, Manitoba Brandon, Manitoba Calgary, Alberta Chicago, Illinois Cleveland, Ohio Edmonton, Alberta Lethbridge, Alberta Montreal, Quebec Ottawa, Ontario Tampa, Florida Toronto, Ontario Detroit Seattle, Washington London, England Paris, France Prestwick, Scotland Shannon, Ireland Düsseldorf, Germany St. George's Parish, Bermuda Nassau, Bahamas Kingston, Jamaica Christ Church, Barbados Piarco, Trinidad Trans-Canada Airlines had 13 aircraft accidents resulting in hull losses, with a total of 248 fatalities, between 1938 and 1963.
These included: One former TCA Lockheed L-1049G Super Constellation, has been preserved by The Museum of Flight in Seattle, Washington. It is on display at the Museum's "Airpark" attraction. A former TCA Vickers Viscount is on display at the British Columbia Aviation Museum in Sidney, British Columbia; the aircraft has been refurbished by the museum. Canadian National Railway Canadian Airways Canadian Airlines History of aviation in Canada ReserVec Notes Bibliography Media related to Trans Canada Airlines at Wikimedia Commons