Grace Beverly Jones OJ is a Jamaican-American supermodel, songwriter, record producer, actress. Born in Jamaica, she moved when she was 13, along with her siblings, to live with her parents in Syracuse, New York. Jones began her modelling career in New York state in Paris, working for fashion houses such as Yves St. Laurent and Kenzo, appearing on the covers of Elle and Vogue, she worked with photographers such as Jean-Paul Goude, Helmut Newton, Guy Bourdin, Hans Feurer, became known for her distinctive androgynous appearance and bold features. Beginning in 1977, Jones embarked on a music career, securing a record deal with Island Records and becoming a star of New York City's Studio 54-centered disco scene. In the early 1980s, she moved toward a new wave style that drew on reggae, post-punk and pop music collaborating with both the graphic designer Jean-Paul Goude and the musical duo Sly & Robbie, her most popular albums include Warm Leatherette and Slave to the Rhythm. She scored Top 40 entries on the UK Singles Chart with "Pull Up to the Bumper", "I've Seen That Face Before", "Private Life", "Slave to the Rhythm".
In 1982, she released the music video collection A One Man Show, directed by Goude. Jones appeared in some low-budget films in the US during the early 1980s. In 1984, she made her first mainstream appearance as Zula in the fantasy-action film Conan the Destroyer alongside Arnold Schwarzenegger and Sarah Douglas, subsequently appeared in the 1985 James Bond movie A View to a Kill as May Day. In 1986, she played a vampire in Vamp, acted in and contributed a song to the 1992 Eddie Murphy film Boomerang, she appeared alongside Tim Curry in the 2001 film Wolf Girl. For her work in Conan the Destroyer, A View to a Kill, Vamp, she was nominated for Saturn Awards for Best Supporting Actress. In 1999, Jones ranked 82nd on VH1's 100 Greatest Women of Rock and Roll, in 2008, she was honored with a Q Idol Award. Jones influenced the cross-dressing movement of the 1980s and has been an inspiration for artists including Annie Lennox, Lady Gaga, Lorde, Róisín Murphy, Brazilian Girls, Nile Rodgers and Basement Jaxx.
In 2016, Billboard magazine ranked her as the 40th greatest dance club artist of all time. Grace Jones was born in 1948 in Spanish Town, the daughter of Marjorie and Robert W. Jones, a local politician and Apostolic clergyman; the couple had two children, would go on to have four more. Robert and Marjorie moved to the East Coast of the United States, where Robert worked as an agricultural labourer until a spiritual experience during a suicide attempt inspired him to become a Pentecostal minister. While they were in the US, they left their children with Marjorie's mother and her new husband, Peart. Jones knew him as "Mas P" and noted that she "absolutely hated him", she was raised into the family's Pentecostal faith, having to take part in prayer meetings and Bible readings every night. She attended the Pentecostal All Saints School, before being sent to a nearby public school; as a child, shy Jones had only one schoolfriend and was teased by classmates for her "skinny frame", but she excelled at sports and found solace in the nature of Jamaica.
Marjorie and Robert brought their children – including the 13 year old Grace – to live with them in the US, where they had settled in Lyncourt, New York, near Syracuse. It was in the city that her father had established his own ministry, the Apostolic Church of Jesus Christ, in 1956. Jones continued her schooling and after she graduated, enrolled at Onondaga Community College majoring in Spanish. Jones began to rebel against their religion. At college, she took a theatre class, with her drama teacher convincing her to join him on a summer stock tour in Philadelphia. Arriving in the city, she decided to stay there, immersing herself in the Counterculture of the 1960s by living in hippie communes, earning money as a go-go dancer, using LSD and other drugs, she praised the use of LSD as "a important part of my emotional growth... The mental exercise was good for me", she signed on as a model with Wilhelmina Modelling agency. She moved to Paris in 1970; the Parisian fashion scene was receptive to Jones' unusual, bold, dark-skinned appearance.
Yves St. Laurent, Claude Montana, Kenzo Takada hired her for runway modelling, she appeared on the covers of Elle and Stern working with Helmut Newton, Guy Bourdin, Hans Feurer. Jones modelled for Azzedine Alaia, was photographed promoting his line. While modelling in Paris, she shared an apartment with Jessica Lange. Hall and Jones frequented Le Sept, one of Paris's most popular gay clubs of the 1970s and'80s, socialised with Giorgio Armani and Karl Lagerfeld. In 1973, Jones appeared on the cover of a reissue of Billy Paul's 1970 album Ebony Woman. Jones was signed by Island Records, who put her in the studio with disco record producer, Tom Moulton. Moulton worked at Sigma Sound Studios in Philadelphia, Portfolio, was released in 1977; the album featured three songs from Broadway musicals, "Send in the Clowns" by Stephen Sondheim from A Little Night Music, "What I Did for Love" from A Chorus Line and "Tomorrow" from Annie. The second side of the album opens up with a seven-minute reinterpretation of Édith Piaf's "La Vie en rose" followed by three new recordings, two of
Goldfrapp are an English electronic music duo from London, formed in 1999. The duo consists of Will Gregory. Despite favourable reviews and a short-listing for the Mercury Prize, their 2000 début studio album Felt Mountain did not chart highly. Goldfrapp's second album Black Cherry, which incorporated glam rock and synthpop sounds into their music, was released in 2003; the album influenced the same dance-oriented sound of their third album Supernature. Supernature took Goldfrapp's work further into dance music, enjoyed international chart success; the album produced three number-one US dance singles, was nominated for Best Electronic/Dance Album at the 49th Grammy Awards. Their fourth album Seventh Tree placed a greater emphasis on ambient and downtempo music, drawing inspiration from nature and paganism, while their fifth album, Head First, found the group exploring 1980s-influenced synthpop. Head First earned the duo their second Grammy Award nomination for Best Electronic/Dance Album in 2010.
Goldfrapp released their critically acclaimed sixth studio album, the folktronica-influenced Tales of Us, in September 2013. Goldfrapp released their seventh studio album, Silver Eye, in March 2017, which debuted at number six on the UK Albums Chart. Alison Goldfrapp began her musical career performing with Dance Company Catherine Massin throughout the Netherlands during her early twenties. Afterwards, she attended Middlesex University where she studied Fine Art and started creating live performance pieces. In the early 1990s Goldfrapp served as a guest vocalist with the electronic band Orbital and trip hop artist Tricky. In 1999, she was introduced to composer Will Gregory after he had listened to an early version of the song "Human". Gregory and Goldfrapp felt a mutual connection and subsequently wrote the track "Lovely Head". Following several months of phone calls, they decided to form a musical band and began performing under Goldfrapp's last name. In August 1999, Goldfrapp signed a recording contract with London-based record label Mute Records.
The pair began recording their début album over a six-month period, beginning in September 1999, in a rented bungalow in the Wiltshire countryside. The recording process was difficult for Alison and Will, who found themselves alone and disturbed by the mice and insects in the bungalow. Goldfrapp's début album Felt Mountain was released in September 2000 and produced the singles "Lovely Head", "Utopia", "Pilots" and "Human"; the album featured Alison Goldfrapp's vocals over cinematic soundscapes and is influenced by a variety of music styles including cabaret and electronic music. The album was well received by music critics, which Pitchfork Media described as "simultaneously smarmy and seductive, yet elegant and graceful", it reached number 57 on the UK Albums Chart, was certified gold by the British Phonographic Industry. In 2001, Felt Mountain was shortlisted for the Mercury Prize, an annual music prize awarded for the best British or Irish album from the previous year; the lyrics on Felt Mountain were written by Alison Goldfrapp and are abstract obsessional tales inspired by films and her childhood.
The song "Oompa Radar" was inspired by Roman Polanski's film Cul-de-sac, while "Pilots" describes travellers floating in the atmosphere above the earth. To promote Felt Mountain, Goldfrapp toured the U. K. Europe and North America, supporting the alternative music bands Nick Cave and the Bad Seeds and The Doves; the band found it difficult to perform songs from the album live because of their complex arrangements which required up to forty musicians. They settled on performing with violinist Davide Rossi, drummer Rowan Oliver and keyboardist Andy Davies. Goldfrapp's second album Black Cherry was released in April 2003; the band recorded the album in a darkened studio in England. The album focused more on dance music and glam rock-inspired synths than its predecessor. Alison Goldfrapp commented that the album differed from Felt Mountain because the band "felt that we didn't want to repeat what we had done...we kind of wanted to do something that felt as fresh to us as the first one felt fresh to us, we wanted to put more kind of "oomph" in it."
The album received positive reviews from critics. The Guardian found it to be an "unexpected delight" and About.com called it a "rare electronica album of warmth and depth...the ultimate chillout pleasure". Black Cherry peaked at number 19 on the UK Albums Chart and number four on the Billboard Top Electronic Albums chart in the United States, it sold well, reaching platinum status in the UK and selling 52,000 copies in the U. S. as of August 2006. The first single released from the album was "Train", which reached number 23 on the UK Singles Chart; the song's lyrics discuss obsession and overindulgence and were inspired by Goldfrapp's visit to Los Angeles while touring in support of Felt Mountain. "Strict Machine" was released. The song proved successful on several formats, reached number one on the US Hot Dance Club Play chart. In 2004, "Strict Machine" won an Ivor Novello Award for "Best Dance Single"; the third single released from Black Cherry was "Twist", a song inspired by a fantasy that Goldfrapp had about a boy who worked in a fairground.
The title track was released as the album's fourth single and reached number 28 in the UK. In 2003, Alison Goldfrapp modified her image, from a sophisticated Marlene Dietrich inspired look to that of a new wave diva; the reinvented image included false eyelashes, customised T-shirts, military uniforms and fishnet stockings. Starting in March 2003, the band toured the album, with a concert series entitled Black Cherry Tour. In 2004, the band further toured Australia, Japan and North America and embar
London is the capital and largest city of both England and the United Kingdom. Standing on the River Thames in the south-east of England, at the head of its 50-mile estuary leading to the North Sea, London has been a major settlement for two millennia. Londinium was founded by the Romans; the City of London, London's ancient core − an area of just 1.12 square miles and colloquially known as the Square Mile − retains boundaries that follow its medieval limits. The City of Westminster is an Inner London borough holding city status. Greater London is governed by the Mayor of the London Assembly. London is considered to be one of the world's most important global cities and has been termed the world's most powerful, most desirable, most influential, most visited, most expensive, sustainable, most investment friendly, most popular for work, the most vegetarian friendly city in the world. London exerts a considerable impact upon the arts, education, fashion, healthcare, professional services and development, tourism and transportation.
London ranks 26 out of 300 major cities for economic performance. It is one of the largest financial centres and has either the fifth or sixth largest metropolitan area GDP, it is the most-visited city as measured by international arrivals and has the busiest city airport system as measured by passenger traffic. It is the leading investment destination, hosting more international retailers and ultra high-net-worth individuals than any other city. London's universities form the largest concentration of higher education institutes in Europe. In 2012, London became the first city to have hosted three modern Summer Olympic Games. London has a diverse range of people and cultures, more than 300 languages are spoken in the region, its estimated mid-2016 municipal population was 8,787,892, the most populous of any city in the European Union and accounting for 13.4% of the UK population. London's urban area is the second most populous in the EU, after Paris, with 9,787,426 inhabitants at the 2011 census.
The population within the London commuter belt is the most populous in the EU with 14,040,163 inhabitants in 2016. London was the world's most populous city from c. 1831 to 1925. London contains four World Heritage Sites: the Tower of London. Other landmarks include Buckingham Palace, the London Eye, Piccadilly Circus, St Paul's Cathedral, Tower Bridge, Trafalgar Square and The Shard. London has numerous museums, galleries and sporting events; these include the British Museum, National Gallery, Natural History Museum, Tate Modern, British Library and West End theatres. The London Underground is the oldest underground railway network in the world. "London" is an ancient name, attested in the first century AD in the Latinised form Londinium. Over the years, the name has attracted many mythicising explanations; the earliest attested appears in Geoffrey of Monmouth's Historia Regum Britanniae, written around 1136. This had it that the name originated from a supposed King Lud, who had taken over the city and named it Kaerlud.
Modern scientific analyses of the name must account for the origins of the different forms found in early sources Latin, Old English, Welsh, with reference to the known developments over time of sounds in those different languages. It is agreed; this was adapted into Latin as Londinium and borrowed into Old English, the ancestor-language of English. The toponymy of the Common Brythonic form is much debated. A prominent explanation was Richard Coates's 1998 argument that the name derived from pre-Celtic Old European *lowonida, meaning "river too wide to ford". Coates suggested that this was a name given to the part of the River Thames which flows through London. However, most work has accepted a Celtic origin for the name, recent studies have favoured an explanation along the lines of a Celtic derivative of a proto-Indo-European root *lendh-, combined with the Celtic suffix *-injo- or *-onjo-. Peter Schrijver has suggested, on these grounds, that the name meant'place that floods'; until 1889, the name "London" applied to the City of London, but since it has referred to the County of London and Greater London.
"London" is sometimes written informally as "LDN". In 1993, the remains of a Bronze Age bridge were found on the south foreshore, upstream of Vauxhall Bridge; this bridge either reached a now lost island in it. Two of those timbers were radiocarbon dated to between 1750 BC and 1285 BC. In 2010 the foundations of a large timber structure, dated to between 4800 BC and 4500 BC, were found on the Thames's south foreshore, downstream of Vauxhall Bridge; the function of the mesolithic structure is not known. Both structures are on the south bank. Although there is evidence of scattered Brythonic settlements in the area, the first major settlement was founded by the Romans about four years after the invasion
TDK Corporation TDK Electronics Co. Ltd, is a Japanese multinational electronics company that manufactures electronic materials, electronic components, recording and data-storage media, its motto is "Contribute to culture and industry through creativity"."TDK" is an initialism of the original Japanese name of the company: Tokyo Denki Kagaku Kōgyō K. K.. The company is listed on the Tokyo Stock Exchange and is a constituent of the Nikkei 225 and TOPIX indices. TDK was founded in Tokyo, Japan, on 7 December 1935 to manufacture the iron-based magnetic material ferrite, invented by Yogoro Kato and Takeshi Takei. In 1952 and 1957 they began production of magnetic tapes, with compact cassette tapes following in 1966. TDK used to manufacture an extensive portfolio of magnetic and optical media, including several formats of videotape and blank CD-R and recordable DVD discs until the recording business was sold to Imation in 2007. Operations in the USA began in 1965 with a New York City office, European operations began in 1970 with an office in Frankfurt, West Germany.
In 1980, TDK developed a multilayering technology to create chip capacitors and inductors inside personal computers, laptops and other electronic devices. In 1986, TDK acquired SAE Magnetics and introduced high-density recording heads to their product offerings. In the 1990s TDK's Mass Storage Division included brushless DC spindle motors, magnetoresistance heads, thin-film heads. Since 1997 TDK has withdrawn from the production of compact cassettes. First with the MA-X and AR the AD and SA-X line in 2001 and 2002 then the MA line in 2004; the SA and D lines were withdrawn in 2012 under Imation ownership. Industry trends see the company moving into new forms of media. TDK operated a semiconductor division in California for about a decade, but divested it in 2005. In late 2007, Imation acquired TDK's recording business, including flash media, optical media, magnetic tape, accessories, for $300 million; this included a license to use the "TDK Life on Record" brand on data storage and audio products for 25 years.
In September 2015, Imation announced that it had agreed to relinquish this license and would cease selling TDK-branded products by the end of the year. Since the 2000s, TDK has turned its focus to the development and sales of electronic components, HDD heads and suspension, power supplies. Beginning in 2005, TDK has acquired a manner of electronic device manufacturers including passive component developers, sensors manufacturers and power supply companies; these areas remain TDK’s focus today. Since 2016, Shigenao Ishiguro has been President and CEO of TDK. 1986: SAE Magnetics Ltd. a magnetic head maker based in Hong Kong 2000: Headway Technologies, a magnetic head maker based in the United States 2005: Amperex Technology Limited, a Lithium Polymer battery company based in Hong Kong 2005: Lambda Power Division, a group of power supply businesses of London-based Invensys PLC. 2008: EPCOS, an electronic device manufacturer based in Germany 2000: Headway Technologies, a magnetic head maker based in the United States 2016: Micronas Semiconductor Holding AG, a magnetic sensor company based in Switzerland 2016: Hutchinson Technology Inc. a manufacturer of HDD suspension assemblies based in the United States 2017: RF360 Holdings Singapore PTE Ltd. – a joint venture with Qualcomm Inc. 2017: InvenSense, Inc. a sensor specialist based in the United States 2018: Chirp Microsystems, a developer of low power, ultrasonic 3D-sensing solutions based in the United States 2018: Faraday Semi LLC, a developer of miniature Point of Load solutions based in the United States TDK has sponsored the IAAF World Championships in Athletics since the 1983 inaugural event in Helsinki.
TDK sponsored Ajax for several years in the 1980s during which it won the European Cupwinners Cup in 1987. From 1993 to 1999, TDK were the sponsors of the English football club Crystal Palace, who were promoted to the Premier League twice during this era, though lasting for just one season before being relegated on both occasions. TDK was a minor sponsor of the Brisbane Broncos Rugby League Team during the early 90's, it is a current sponsor of the IAAF World Championships in Athletics. It sponsors activities and events such as those at The Cross nightclub in Central London, since 1990 has had a prominent sign at Piccadilly Circus although it was announced in November 2014 that they would not be renewing the contract. TDK has owned a sign on One Times Square since 2000; the screen is placed under that of Toshiba and can be seen during the annual Times Square New Year's Ball Drop. Since 2001, TDK has supported performances of some of the world’s distinguished orchestras in Japan within the company’s "TDK Orchestra Concerts" program.
TDK's "Outreach-Mini Concerts" and "Special Rehearsals and Main Concert Invitations" additionally serve as avenues for the company to attract younger audiences. In 2002, the company's consumer electronics division was the presenting sponsor of the Third Annual Jammy Awards, with the TDK Live Performance of the Year award honoring the best live performance, available on the Web as a free download; the award was given to the band moe. for their performance at the Bonnaroo Music Festival. TDK's own football club, based in Nikaho, Akita split from the corporation to become independent football club Blaublitz Akita, with the aim for the profess
Kings Cross, London
Kings Cross is a district in Central London, England, 2.5 miles north west of Charing Cross. It is served by London King's Cross railway station, the terminus of one of the major rail routes between London and the North; the area has been regenerated since the mid-1990s with the terminus of the Eurostar rail service at St Pancras International opening in 2007 and the rebuilding of King's Cross station, a major redevelopment in the north of the area. The area was a village known as Battle Bridge or Battlebridge, an ancient crossing of the River Fleet; the original name of the bridge was Broad Ford Bridge. The corruption "Battle Bridge" led to a tradition that this was the site of a major battle in AD 60 or 61 between the Romans and the Iceni tribe led by Boudica; the tradition claims support from the writing of Publius Cornelius Tacitus, an ancient Roman historian, who described the place of action between the Romans and Boadicea, but without specifying where it was. Lewis Spence's 1937 book Boadicea – warrior queen of the Britons includes a map showing the supposed positions of the opposing armies.
The suggestion that Boudica is buried beneath platform 9 or 10 at King's Cross station seems to have arisen as urban folklore since the end of World War II. The area had been settled in Roman times, a camp here known as The Brill was erroneously attributed to Julius Caesar, who never visited Londinium. There is still a small area named "Battle Bridge Place" between King's Cross and St Pancras stations, "Brill Place", a road leading towards Euston from St Pancras Station. An art installation named the Identified Flying Object stands in Battle Bridge Place, part of the RELAY King's Cross Arts programme. St Pancras Old Church set behind the stations, is said to be one of the oldest Christian sites in Britain; the current name has its origin in a monument to King George IV which stood from 1830 to 1845 at "the king's crossroads" where New Road, Gray's Inn Road, Pentonville Road met. The monument topped by an eleven-foot-high statue of the king; the statue itself, which cost no more than £25, was constructed of bricks and mortar, finished in a manner that gave it the appearance of stone "at least to the eyes of common spectators".
The architect was Stephen Geary, who exhibited a model of "the Kings Cross" at the Royal Academy in 1830. The upper storey was used as a camera obscura while the base housed first a police station, a public house; the unpopular building was demolished in 1845. A structure in the form of a lighthouse was built on top of a building on the site about 30 years later. Known locally as the "Lighthouse Building", the structure was popularly thought to be an advertisement for Netten's Oyster Bar on the ground floor, but this seems not to be true, it is a grade II listed building. King's Cross station now stands by the junction where the monument took its name; the station, designed by architect Lewis Cubitt and opened in 1852, succeeded a temporary earlier station, erected north of the canal in time for the Great Exhibition of 1851. St Pancras railway station, built by the Midland Railway, lies to the west, they both had extensive land to house their associated facilities for handling general goods and specialist commodities such as fish, coal and grain.
The passenger stations on Euston Road far outweighed in public attention the economically more important goods traffic to the north. King's Cross and St Pancras stations, indeed all London railway stations, made an important contribution to the capital's economy. After World War II the area declined from being a poor but busy industrial and distribution services district to a abandoned post-industrial district. By the 1980s it was notorious for drug abuse; this reputation impeded attempts to revive the area, utilising the large amount of land available following the decline of the railway goods yard to the north of the station and the many other vacant premises in the area. Cheap rents and a central London location made the area attractive to artists and designers and both Antony Gormley and Thomas Heatherwick established studios in the area. In late 1980s, a group of musicians and squatters from Hammersmith called Mutoid Waste Company moved into Battlebridge Road warehouse, they held raves. In 1989 they were evicted by police.
In 1992, the Community Creation Trust took over the disused coach repair depot and built it into the largest Ecology Centre in Europe with ecohousing for homeless youngsters, The Last Platform Cafe, London Ecology Centre and workshops, gardens and ponds. It was destroyed to make a car park for the Channel Tunnel Regeneration. Bagley's Warehouse was a nightclub venue in the 1990s warehouse rave scene on the site of Goods Yard behind King's Cross stations, now part of the redevelopment area known as the Coal Drops adjacent to Granary Square; the site is one of the largest construction projects in Greater London in the first quarter of the 21st century. All of the "socially undesirable" behaviour has moved on, new projects such as offices and housing are over halfway completed. In the 1990s, the government established the King's Cross Partnership to fund regeneration projects, the commencement of work on High Speed 1 in 2000 provided a major impetus for other projects. In 2001, Argent was selected as the development partner.
England is a country, part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Wales to Scotland to the north-northwest; the Irish Sea lies west of England and the Celtic Sea lies to the southwest. England is separated from continental Europe by the North Sea to the east and the English Channel to the south; the country covers five-eighths of the island of Great Britain, which lies in the North Atlantic, includes over 100 smaller islands, such as the Isles of Scilly and the Isle of Wight. The area now called England was first inhabited by modern humans during the Upper Palaeolithic period, but takes its name from the Angles, a Germanic tribe deriving its name from the Anglia peninsula, who settled during the 5th and 6th centuries. England became a unified state in the 10th century, since the Age of Discovery, which began during the 15th century, has had a significant cultural and legal impact on the wider world; the English language, the Anglican Church, English law – the basis for the common law legal systems of many other countries around the world – developed in England, the country's parliamentary system of government has been adopted by other nations.
The Industrial Revolution began in 18th-century England, transforming its society into the world's first industrialised nation. England's terrain is chiefly low hills and plains in central and southern England. However, there is upland and mountainous terrain in the west; the capital is London, which has the largest metropolitan area in both the United Kingdom and the European Union. England's population of over 55 million comprises 84% of the population of the United Kingdom concentrated around London, the South East, conurbations in the Midlands, the North West, the North East, Yorkshire, which each developed as major industrial regions during the 19th century; the Kingdom of England – which after 1535 included Wales – ceased being a separate sovereign state on 1 May 1707, when the Acts of Union put into effect the terms agreed in the Treaty of Union the previous year, resulting in a political union with the Kingdom of Scotland to create the Kingdom of Great Britain. In 1801, Great Britain was united with the Kingdom of Ireland to become the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
In 1922 the Irish Free State seceded from the United Kingdom, leading to the latter being renamed the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. The name "England" is derived from the Old English name Englaland, which means "land of the Angles"; the Angles were one of the Germanic tribes that settled in Great Britain during the Early Middle Ages. The Angles came from the Anglia peninsula in the Bay of Kiel area of the Baltic Sea; the earliest recorded use of the term, as "Engla londe", is in the late-ninth-century translation into Old English of Bede's Ecclesiastical History of the English People. The term was used in a different sense to the modern one, meaning "the land inhabited by the English", it included English people in what is now south-east Scotland but was part of the English kingdom of Northumbria; the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle recorded that the Domesday Book of 1086 covered the whole of England, meaning the English kingdom, but a few years the Chronicle stated that King Malcolm III went "out of Scotlande into Lothian in Englaland", thus using it in the more ancient sense.
According to the Oxford English Dictionary, its modern spelling was first used in 1538. The earliest attested reference to the Angles occurs in the 1st-century work by Tacitus, Germania, in which the Latin word Anglii is used; the etymology of the tribal name itself is disputed by scholars. How and why a term derived from the name of a tribe, less significant than others, such as the Saxons, came to be used for the entire country and its people is not known, but it seems this is related to the custom of calling the Germanic people in Britain Angli Saxones or English Saxons to distinguish them from continental Saxons of Old Saxony between the Weser and Eider rivers in Northern Germany. In Scottish Gaelic, another language which developed on the island of Great Britain, the Saxon tribe gave their name to the word for England. An alternative name for England is Albion; the name Albion referred to the entire island of Great Britain. The nominally earliest record of the name appears in the Aristotelian Corpus the 4th-century BC De Mundo: "Beyond the Pillars of Hercules is the ocean that flows round the earth.
In it are two large islands called Britannia. But modern scholarly consensus ascribes De Mundo not to Aristotle but to Pseudo-Aristotle, i.e. it was written in the Graeco-Roman period or afterwards. The word Albion or insula Albionum has two possible origins, it either derives from a cognate of the Latin albus meaning white, a reference to the white cliffs of Dover or from the phrase the "island of the Albiones" in the now lost Massaliote Periplus, attested through Avienus' Ora Maritima to which the former served as a source. Albion is now applied to England in a more poetic capacity. Another romantic name for England is Loegria, related to the Welsh word for England and made popular by its use in Arthurian legend; the earliest known evidence of human presence in the area now known as England was that of Homo antecessor, dating to approximate