The Fairmont Hotel Vancouver and referred to as the Hotel Vancouver, is a historic hotel in Vancouver, British Columbia. Located along West Georgia Street the hotel is situated within the city's Financial District, in Downtown Vancouver; the hotel was designed by two architects, John Smith Archibald, John Schofield. The hotel is presently managed by Fairmont Hotels and Resorts. Opened in May 1939, the Châteauesque-styled building is considered one of Canada's grand railway hotels; the hotel stands 112.47-metre-tall, contains 17 floors. Following its completion, the hotel became the tallest building in Vancouver until the completion of TD Tower in 1972. Hotel Vancouver sits at 900 West Georgia Street, within the Financial District, the central business district of Downtown Vancouver; the hotel property is bounded by Burrard Street to the northwest, West Georgia Street to the northeast, Hornby Street to the southeast. To the southwest, the hotel property is bounded by two buildings, including 750 Burrard Street.
The hotel is located close to several attractions in downtown Vancouver. The hotel is situated directly northwest of the Vancouver Art Gallery, as well as Robson Square, a public square adjacent to the art museum. North of the hotel lies Christ Church Cathedral, the oldest church in the city; the hotel is situated near two SkyTrain rapid transit stations, Burrard station, Vancouver City Centre station. Hotel Vancouver is one of Canada's grand railway hotels built by Canadian National Railway; the building was designed by Canadian architects, John Smith Archibald, John Schofield. Although construction for the hotel began in 1929, its completion would not occur until 1939 as a result of funding issues during Great Depression; the completion of the hotel required a joint investment into the property from Canadian Pacific Hotels, a division of Canadian Pacific Railway. The hotel was a part of series of Chateauesque grand railway hotels built throughout Canada in the late-19th and early 20th centuries.
Like the other grand railway hotels, Hotel Vancouver incorporates elements from chateaus found in France's Loire Valley. Chateauesque features found on Hotel Vancouver includes its prominent copper pitched roof with dormers, carved stonework encompassing a steel frame. In addition to chateauesque elements found on most grand railway hotels, Hotel Vancouver incorporates Renaissance architectural detailings and relief sculptures. Hotel Vancouver stands 112.47-metre-tall, containing 17 floors made up of guest rooms and other hotel amenities. After the building was completed in 1939, it became the tallest building in Vancouver until the completion of TD Tower in 1972; the Fairmont Hotel Vancouver includes 557 guest suites spread throughout the hotel. Suites at Hotel Vancouver include the Royal Suite; the Lieutenant Governor's Suite was designed with Art Deco stylings, features black walnut veneer-panelled walls. In 2018, the hotel announced the completion of its four-year renovation project, which saw a reworked main lobby, guest rooms.
The project restored the 14th floor of the hotel to its original decor from 1939. Restored items on the 14th floor include English harewood doors with bronze doorplates, bronze hallway doors, sapele-panelled walls with bronze strips at its elevator lobby. In addition to lodgings, the hotel houses several food-based services, as well as a restaurant, Notch8 Restaurant + Bar; the restaurant hosts the hotel's afternoon tea service. Other facilities at the hotel include a gym, swimming pool, spa. Plans to develop a railway hotel at the present site of Hotel Vancouver first emerged in the 1920s, from Canadian Northern Railway. In 1929 work on the present Hotel Vancouver commenced for Canadian National Railway. Canadian National Railway built the hotel as a result of a land deal between the city, Canadian Northern Railway, a company acquired by Canadian National Railway; the land deal required the city to prepare tidal flats on False Creek for the construction of railway yards and Pacific Central Station.
In return, the company guaranteed the construction of a large downtown hotel, make the city the western terminus for its rail network. Shortly after the erection of the building's steel frame however, work on the hotel was halted, as a result of the Great Depression. Work did not resume on the building until 1937, when Canadian National Railway partnered with Canadian Pacific Railway to complete the new hotel. Work on the hotel was rushed to completion in time for King George VI and Queen Elizabeth's 1939 royal tour of Canada; the hotel was the third hotel in the city to use the name "Hotel Vancouver". The first and second Hotel Vancouver were both located southeast of the present hotel on West Georgia Street. In an effort to prevent competition with the new Hotel Vancouver, Canadian Pacific Railway, closed its hotel operations at the second Hotel Vancouver once the new hotel opened; the second Hotel Vancouver building was torn down in 1949, after Canadian Pacific sold the property to Eaton's in December 1948.
During the mid-20th century, the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation radio stations were located within Hotel Vancouver. On 1 May 1940, Dal Richards began his career playing in an 11-piece band and a then-unknown 13-year-old Juliette at the hotel's Panorama Roof Ballroom, an event space at Hotel Vancouver. Richard became a regular performer for a CBC Radio show broadcast from the hotel. In 1962, Canadian National Hotels, a division of Canadian National Railway, acquired Canadian Pacific Hotels' share of the property, gaining full ownership of the hotel. From 1963 to 1983, the hotel was managed by Hilton Hotels & Resorts. Canadian National Hotels resumed management of the
Downtown Vancouver is the southeastern portion of the peninsula in the north-central part of the City of Vancouver. It is the main city centre and central business district of the city, Metro Vancouver, the Lower Mainland regions; the downtown area is considered to be bounded by Burrard Inlet to the north, Stanley Park and the West End to the west, False Creek to the south, the Downtown Eastside to the east. Most sources include the full downtown peninsula as downtown Vancouver, but the City of Vancouver defines them as separate neighbourhoods. Besides the identifiable office towers of the financial and central business districts, Downtown Vancouver includes residential neighbourhoods in the form of high-rise apartment and condominiums, in Yaletown and Coal Harbour. Other downtown neighbourhoods include the Granville Mall and Entertainment District, Downtown's South, Gastown and Chinatown; the downtown area includes most of the remaining historic buildings and many of the larger notable buildings in the region.
There are two major sporting facilities in Rogers Arena and BC Place Stadium. The NHL's Vancouver Canucks play at Rogers Arena, while the CFL's BC Lions and the MLS's Vancouver Whitecaps FC use the neighbouring BC Place Stadium. SkyTrain Stadium-Chinatown station provides easy rapid transit access to the district; the presence of water on three sides limits access to downtown Vancouver. There are four major bridges: the Lions Gate Bridge, connecting to the North Shore municipalities and the Trans Canada Highway, the Burrard Street Bridge, Cambie Street Bridge, Granville Street Bridge provides access to the commercial and residential areas south of False Creek; the historic Waterfront station is the principal transit hub for the downtown core. There are six subway stations located in downtown Vancouver running on two SkyTrain lines: the Expo Line and Canada Line; the Expo Line travels from Waterfront station at the foot of the central harbor and through Dunsmuir Tunnel to the east. The Canada Line travels from Waterfront station and tunnels south under Granville Street and Davie Street, linking downtown to central Richmond and Vancouver International Airport.
SeaBus is a passenger-only ferry that connects from Waterfront station to the North Shore in 10–12 minutes. The West Coast Express commuter rail system travels from Waterfront station to the eastern suburbs and exurbs. Terminals are available near Waterfront station for float planes and helicopters. Most north-south Vancouver bus routes serve Downtown Vancouver, in addition to suburban routes from the North Shore and Burnaby; the bus rapid transit line 98 B-Line had eight stops in the downtown core along Seymour Street and Burrard Street. This service was replaced on August 2009 by SkyTrain's Canada Line; the 95 B-Line started service in December 2016 in conjunction with the opening of the Evergreen Extension, connecting downtown to Simon Fraser University along Hastings Street. There are two private passenger water taxi operators, providing service between several downtown neighbourhoods, False Creek, Granville Island; the city is planning to extend the downtown streetcar from its current route of Granville Island to the Main Street SkyTrain station, with future plans extending it to Chinatown and to Stanley Park.
City of Vancouver Community Profiles: Downtown Downtown page, Vancouver Then and Now website, comparisons of old photos with modern locations
The Pacific Centre is a shopping mall located in downtown Vancouver, British Columbia and managed by Cadillac Fairview. Based on the number of stores, most of which are underground, it is the largest mall in Downtown Vancouver with over 100 stores and shops and the 7th busiest mall in Canada with 22.1 million annual visitors as of 2018. Anchor stores include Holt Renfrew, Harry Rosen, H&M, Nordstrom; the mall is directly connected to the Hudson's Bay department store, Vancouver Centre Mall, two SkyTrain subway stations, the Four Seasons Hotel Vancouver. Built between 1971 and 1973, it was an unofficial Eaton Centre; the Pacific Centre was home to an Eaton's department store, succeeded by Sears Canada after 2002 and vacated in the fall of 2012. A Nordstrom store opened in its former space in 2015; the City of Vancouver approved a 578,000 sq ft. expansion of Pacific Centre, including retail premises that will extend to the street on both sides of West Georgia Street, a direct link connecting the shopping centre with the new Vancouver City Centre SkyTrain station on Granville Street.
The link opened in the summer of 2009 in conjunction with the opening of the Canada Line. In November 2012, B. C. attorney general Shirley Bond ordered an investigation into a Downtown Vancouver Business Improvement Association security guard, who had physically assaulted a person with a disability whom he had accused of shoplifting. During the altercation, recorded on security cameras and witnesses' cellphones, the guard was seen hitting the man, throwing him from his wheelchair, yelling profanities at him. In January 2013, the Ministry of Justice ruled, he was fined $230, had his security license suspended for two month with a condition requiring re-certification on use of force before he could receive his license. On January 20, 2017, Cadillac Fairview announced an agreement to sell a 50 percent interest in its Vancouver properties, including Pacific Centre, to the Ontario Pension Board and Ontario's Workplace Safety and Insurance Board, each to hold a 25% stake. Cadillac Fairview, itself a subsidiary of the Ontario Teachers' Pension Plan, will retain the remaining 50% interest and continue to manage the properties.
Pacific Centre is one of the most connected shopping centre in the region as it is located within the heart of downtown Vancouver. It acts as a junction for the Expo Line and Canada Line in addition to multiple bus lines and bus stops, its primary and closest Skytrain stations are Granville Station of the Expo Line and Vancouver City Centre Station of the Canada line. List of largest shopping malls in Canada Hotel Vancouver, which once sat on the site of Pacific Centre Cadillac Fairview Retail Site Pacific Centre official site City of Vancouver Development Permit Board report on expansion proposal
A shopping mall is a modern, chiefly North American, term for a form of shopping precinct or shopping center, in which one or more buildings form a complex of shops representing merchandisers with interconnecting walkways that enable customers to walk from unit to unit. A shopping arcade is a specific type of shopping precinct, distinguished in English for mall shopping by the fact that connecting walkways are not owned by a single proprietor and are in open air. Shopping malls in 2017 accounted for 8% of retailing space in the United States. Many early shopping arcades such as the Burlington Arcade in London, the Galleria Vittorio Emanuele II in Milan, numerous arcades in Paris are famous and still trading. However, many smaller arcades have been demolished, replaced with large centers or "malls" accessible by vehicle. Technical innovations such as electric lighting and escalators were introduced from the late 19th century. From the late 20th century, entertainment venues such as movie theaters and restaurants began to be added.
As a single built structure, early shopping centers were architecturally significant constructions, enabling wealthier patrons to buy goods in spaces protected from the weather. In places around the world, the term shopping centre is used in Europe and South America. Mall is a term used predominantly in North America. Outside of North America, "shopping precinct" and "shopping arcade" are used. In North America, Persian Gulf countries, India, the term shopping mall is applied to enclosed retail structures, while shopping centre refers to open-air retail complexes. In the United Kingdom and Ireland, "malls" are referred to as shopping centres. Mall refers to either a shopping mall – a place where a collection of shops all adjoin a pedestrian area – or an pedestrianized street that allows shoppers to walk without interference from vehicle traffic. In North America, mall is used to refer to a large shopping area composed of a single building which contains multiple shops "anchored" by one or more department stores surrounded by a parking lot, while the term "arcade" is more used in the United Kingdom, to refer to a narrow pedestrian-only street covered or between spaced buildings.
The majority of British shopping centres are located in city centres found in old and historic shopping districts and surrounded by subsidiary open air shopping streets. Large examples include West Quay in Southampton. In addition to the inner city shopping centres, large UK conurbations will have large out-of-town "regional malls" such as the Metrocentre in Gateshead; these centres were built in the 1980s and 1990s, but planning regulations prohibit the construction of any more. Out-of-town shopping developments in the UK are now focused on retail parks, which consist of groups of warehouse style shops with individual entrances from outdoors. Planning policy prioritizes the development of existing town centres. Westfield Stratford City, in Stratford, is the largest shopping centre in Europe with over 330 shops, 50 restaurants and an 11 screen cinema and Westfield London is the largest inner-city shopping center in Europe. Bullring, Birmingham is the busiest shopping centre in the UK welcoming over 36.5 million shoppers in its opening year.
There are a reported 222 malls in Europe. In 2014, these malls had combined sales of $12.47 billion. This represented a 10% bump in revenues from the prior year. One of the earliest examples of public shopping areas comes from ancient Rome, in forums where shopping markets were located. One of the earliest public shopping centers is Trajan's Market in Rome located in Trajan's Forum. Trajan's Market was built around 100-110 CE by Apollodorus of Damascus, it is thought to be the world's oldest shopping center – a forerunner of today's shopping mall; the Grand Bazaar of Istanbul was built in the 15th century and is still one of the largest covered shopping centers in the world, with more than 58 streets and 4,000 shops. Numerous other covered shopping arcades, such as the 19th-century Al-Hamidiyah Souq in Damascus, might be considered as precursors to the present-day shopping mall. Isfahan's Grand Bazaar, covered, dates from the 10th century; the 10-kilometer-long, covered Tehran's Grand Bazaar has a lengthy history.
The oldest continuously occupied shopping mall in the world is to be the Chester Rows. Dating back at least to the 13th century, these covered walkways housed shops, with storage and accommodation for traders on various levels. Different rows specialized in different goods, such as'Bakers Row' or'Fleshmongers Row'. Gostiny Dvor in St. Petersburg, which opened in 1785, may be regarded as one of the first purposely-built mall-type shopping complexes, as it consisted of more than 100 shops covering an area of over 53,000 m2; the Marché des Enfants Rouges in Paris still runs today. The Oxford Covered Market in Oxford, England still runs today; the Passage du Caire was opened in Paris in 1798. The Burlington Arcade in London was opened in 1819; the Arcade
Corus Entertainment is a Canadian mass media and broadcasting company. Formed in 1999 as a spin-off from Shaw Communications, it is headquartered at Corus Quay in Toronto and has prominent holdings in the radio and television industries. Corus Entertainment's voting majority is held by the company's founder JR Shaw and his family, a 40% stake of Corus stock is owned by Shaw Communications. Corus has a large presence in Canadian broadcasting, as owner of the national Global Television Network, 39 radio stations, a portfolio of 45 specialty television services. Corus is dominant in Canada's children's television industry through its ownership of the domestic YTV, Treehouse networks, the animation studio Nelvana and book publisher Kids Can Press, localized versions of the Cartoon Network, Disney Channel, Disney Junior, Disney XD, Nickelodeon brands; the second incarnation of Shaw's media division—formed from the properties of the bankrupt Canwest Global—was subsumed by Corus on April 1, 2016, giving it control of the over-the-air Global network and 19 additional specialty channels.
In September 1998, JR Shaw and Shaw Media CEO John Cassaday announced plans for Shaw Communications to spin-out its media properties, including radio stations and television specialty channels, into a new company. The spin-out would leave Shaw as a "pure play" telecommunications company; the decision to spin out the properties, into what would be known as Corus Entertainment, was meant to comply with Canadian Radio-television and Telecommunications Commission recommendations at the time which discouraged vertical integration by cable companies who owned media properties. Corus would be a separate, publicly-traded company, first listed on the Toronto Stock Exchange in September 1999, but would still be controlled by the Shaw family. In September 1999, Corus acquired the broadcasting assets of the Power Corporation of Canada, which included four television stations and sixteen radio stations. One of these stations, CHAU-TV, was re-sold to Télé Inter-Rives. In October 1999, it was announced that as part of the break-up of Western International Communications, Corus would acquire the company's 12 radio stations and most of its specialty channels, including stakes in Family Channel, SuperChannel and MovieMax!.
In September 2000, after negotiations and rumoured offers by other studios, Corus announced that it would acquire the Toronto-based animation studio Nelvana for $540 million. Corus stated that it planned to use the purchase to help launch a preschool-oriented cable network in the United States. In March 2001, in response to complaints by the CRTC over its near-monopoly on ownership of children's specialty channels in Canada, Corus sold Family Channel to Astral Media for $126.9 million. Corus sold its stake in the Western Canadian pay-per-view service Viewers Choice to Shaw for $22.6 million, acquired the Women's Television Network from Shaw for $132.6 million. In August 2002, Corus sold CKGE-FM to Durham Radio. In May 2002, Corus announced that it has acquired a 50% stake in Locomotion, a Latin American and Spanish channel focusing of animated series targeting teens and young adults. Hearst Corporation owned the other half. In March 2004, Corus and Astral announced that it would swap radio stations in Quebec.
Corus sold its Red Deer, Alberta stations CKGY-FM and CIZZ-FM to Newcap Radio. In July 2007, Corus acquired CJZZ from Canwest. In June 2008, CHRC was sold to the ownership group of the Quebec Remparts hockey team. In August 2007, Corus announced a partnership with Hearst Corporation to launch Cosmopolitan TV. In March 2008, CTVglobemedia sold Canadian Learning Television to Corus for $73 millionCorus launched a Canadian version of Nickelodeon on November 2, 2009, replacing Discovery Kids. In 2010, Corus's sister company Shaw Communications re-entered the broadcasting industry through its acquisition of the media assets of the bankrupt Canwest, which re-formed the Shaw Media division. On April 30, 2010, Corus announced that it would sell its Québec radio stations, with the exception of CKRS, to Cogeco for $80 million, pending CRTC approval. Corus cited their low profitability in comparison to their stations elsewhere as reasoning for the sale. On June 25, it was reported that Corus had agreed to sell CKRS to Radio Saguenay, a local business group.
The sale of the Corus Québec stations was approved by the CRTC on December 17, 2010, on the condition that Cogeco-owned CJEC-FM and Corus-owned CFEL-FM and CKOY-FM be sold to another party by December 2011. On January 13, 2011, competing broadcaster Astral Media announced that they would seek legal action to stop the sale of these stations to Cogeco, citing the fact that it would own more stations than Astral in the Montreal market, making the competition unfair. On November 9, 2010, Hasbro Studios signed an agreement with Corus to broadcast their productions on its networks. On March 26, 2012, Corus and Shaw launched ABC Spark, a localized version of U. S. cable network ABC Family, with Shaw owning 49%. In March 2013, as part of Bell Media's proposed acquisition of Astral Media, Corus reached a tentative deal to acquire Astral's stakes in Historia, Séries+, the Teletoon Canada group, for $400.6 million
British Columbia is the westernmost province of Canada, located between the Pacific Ocean and the Rocky Mountains. With an estimated population of 5.016 million as of 2018, it is Canada's third-most populous province. The first British settlement in the area was Fort Victoria, established in 1843, which gave rise to the City of Victoria, at first the capital of the separate Colony of Vancouver Island. Subsequently, on the mainland, the Colony of British Columbia was founded by Richard Clement Moody and the Royal Engineers, Columbia Detachment, in response to the Fraser Canyon Gold Rush. Moody was Chief Commissioner of Lands and Works for the Colony and the first Lieutenant Governor of British Columbia: he was hand-picked by the Colonial Office in London to transform British Columbia into the British Empire's "bulwark in the farthest west", "to found a second England on the shores of the Pacific". Moody selected the site for and founded the original capital of British Columbia, New Westminster, established the Cariboo Road and Stanley Park, designed the first version of the Coat of arms of British Columbia.
Port Moody is named after him. In 1866, Vancouver Island became part of the colony of British Columbia, Victoria became the united colony's capital. In 1871, British Columbia became the sixth province of Canada, its Latin motto is Splendor sine occasu. The capital of British Columbia remains Victoria, the fifteenth-largest metropolitan region in Canada, named for Queen Victoria, who ruled during the creation of the original colonies; the largest city is Vancouver, the third-largest metropolitan area in Canada, the largest in Western Canada, the second-largest in the Pacific Northwest. In October 2013, British Columbia had an estimated population of 4,606,371; the province is governed by the British Columbia New Democratic Party, led by John Horgan, in a minority government with the confidence and supply of the Green Party of British Columbia. Horgan became premier as a result of a no-confidence motion on June 29, 2017. British Columbia evolved from British possessions that were established in what is now British Columbia by 1871.
First Nations, the original inhabitants of the land, have a history of at least 10,000 years in the area. Today there are few treaties, the question of Aboriginal Title, long ignored, has become a legal and political question of frequent debate as a result of recent court actions. Notably, the Tsilhqot'in Nation has established Aboriginal title to a portion of their territory, as a result of the 2014 Supreme Court of Canada decision in Tsilhqot'in Nation v British Columbia; the province's name was chosen by Queen Victoria, when the Colony of British Columbia, i.e. "the Mainland", became a British colony in 1858. It refers to the Columbia District, the British name for the territory drained by the Columbia River, in southeastern British Columbia, the namesake of the pre-Oregon Treaty Columbia Department of the Hudson's Bay Company. Queen Victoria chose British Columbia to distinguish what was the British sector of the Columbia District from the United States, which became the Oregon Territory on August 8, 1848, as a result of the treaty.
The Columbia in the name British Columbia is derived from the name of the Columbia Rediviva, an American ship which lent its name to the Columbia River and the wider region. British Columbia is bordered to the west by the Pacific Ocean and the American state of Alaska, to the north by Yukon Territory and the Northwest Territories, to the east by the province of Alberta, to the south by the American states of Washington and Montana; the southern border of British Columbia was established by the 1846 Oregon Treaty, although its history is tied with lands as far south as California. British Columbia's land area is 944,735 square kilometres. British Columbia's rugged coastline stretches for more than 27,000 kilometres, includes deep, mountainous fjords and about 6,000 islands, most of which are uninhabited, it is the only province in Canada. British Columbia's capital is Victoria, located at the southeastern tip of Vancouver Island. Only a narrow strip of Vancouver Island, from Campbell River to Victoria, is populated.
Much of the western part of Vancouver Island and the rest of the coast is covered by temperate rainforest. The province's most populous city is Vancouver, at the confluence of the Fraser River and Georgia Strait, in the mainland's southwest corner. By land area, Abbotsford is the largest city. Vanderhoof is near the geographic centre of the province; the Coast Mountains and the Inside Passage's many inlets provide some of British Columbia's renowned and spectacular scenery, which forms the backdrop and context for a growing outdoor adventure and ecotourism industry. 75% of the province is mountainous. The province's mainland away from the coastal regions is somewhat moderated by the Pacific Ocean. Terrain ranges from dry inland forests and semi-arid valleys, to the range and canyon districts of the Central and Southern Interior, to boreal forest and subarctic prairie in the Northern Interior. High mountain regions both north and south subalpine climate; the Okanagan area, extending from Vernon to Osoyoos at the United States border, is one of several wine and cider-produci
Canada is a country in the northern part of North America. Its ten provinces and three territories extend from the Atlantic to the Pacific and northward into the Arctic Ocean, covering 9.98 million square kilometres, making it the world's second-largest country by total area. Canada's southern border with the United States is the world's longest bi-national land border, its capital is Ottawa, its three largest metropolitan areas are Toronto and Vancouver. As a whole, Canada is sparsely populated, the majority of its land area being dominated by forest and tundra, its population is urbanized, with over 80 percent of its inhabitants concentrated in large and medium-sized cities, many near the southern border. Canada's climate varies across its vast area, ranging from arctic weather in the north, to hot summers in the southern regions, with four distinct seasons. Various indigenous peoples have inhabited what is now Canada for thousands of years prior to European colonization. Beginning in the 16th century and French expeditions explored, settled, along the Atlantic coast.
As a consequence of various armed conflicts, France ceded nearly all of its colonies in North America in 1763. In 1867, with the union of three British North American colonies through Confederation, Canada was formed as a federal dominion of four provinces; this began an accretion of provinces and territories and a process of increasing autonomy from the United Kingdom. This widening autonomy was highlighted by the Statute of Westminster of 1931 and culminated in the Canada Act of 1982, which severed the vestiges of legal dependence on the British parliament. Canada is a parliamentary democracy and a constitutional monarchy in the Westminster tradition, with Elizabeth II as its queen and a prime minister who serves as the chair of the federal cabinet and head of government; the country is a realm within the Commonwealth of Nations, a member of the Francophonie and bilingual at the federal level. It ranks among the highest in international measurements of government transparency, civil liberties, quality of life, economic freedom, education.
It is one of the world's most ethnically diverse and multicultural nations, the product of large-scale immigration from many other countries. Canada's long and complex relationship with the United States has had a significant impact on its economy and culture. A developed country, Canada has the sixteenth-highest nominal per capita income globally as well as the twelfth-highest ranking in the Human Development Index, its advanced economy is the tenth-largest in the world, relying chiefly upon its abundant natural resources and well-developed international trade networks. Canada is part of several major international and intergovernmental institutions or groupings including the United Nations, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, the G7, the Group of Ten, the G20, the North American Free Trade Agreement and the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation forum. While a variety of theories have been postulated for the etymological origins of Canada, the name is now accepted as coming from the St. Lawrence Iroquoian word kanata, meaning "village" or "settlement".
In 1535, indigenous inhabitants of the present-day Quebec City region used the word to direct French explorer Jacques Cartier to the village of Stadacona. Cartier used the word Canada to refer not only to that particular village but to the entire area subject to Donnacona. From the 16th to the early 18th century "Canada" referred to the part of New France that lay along the Saint Lawrence River. In 1791, the area became two British colonies called Upper Canada and Lower Canada collectively named the Canadas. Upon Confederation in 1867, Canada was adopted as the legal name for the new country at the London Conference, the word Dominion was conferred as the country's title. By the 1950s, the term Dominion of Canada was no longer used by the United Kingdom, which considered Canada a "Realm of the Commonwealth"; the government of Louis St. Laurent ended the practice of using'Dominion' in the Statutes of Canada in 1951. In 1982, the passage of the Canada Act, bringing the Constitution of Canada under Canadian control, referred only to Canada, that year the name of the national holiday was changed from Dominion Day to Canada Day.
The term Dominion was used to distinguish the federal government from the provinces, though after the Second World War the term federal had replaced dominion. Indigenous peoples in present-day Canada include the First Nations, Métis, the last being a mixed-blood people who originated in the mid-17th century when First Nations and Inuit people married European settlers; the term "Aboriginal" as a collective noun is a specific term of art used in some legal documents, including the Constitution Act 1982. The first inhabitants of North America are hypothesized to have migrated from Siberia by way of the Bering land bridge and arrived at least 14,000 years ago; the Paleo-Indian archeological sites at Old Crow Flats and Bluefish Caves are two of the oldest sites of human habitation in Canada. The characteristics of Canadian indigenous societies included permanent settlements, complex societal hierarchies, trading networks; some of these cultures had collapsed by the time European explorers arrived in the late 15th and early 16th centuries and have only been discovered through archeological investigations.
The indigenous population at the time of the first European settlements is estimated to have been between 200,000