Bruges is the capital and largest city of the province of West Flanders in the Flemish Region of Belgium, in the northwest of the country. The area of the whole city amounts to more than 13,840 hectares, including 1,075 hectares off the coast, at Zeebrugge; the historic city centre is a prominent World Heritage Site of UNESCO. It is oval in about 430 hectares in size; the city's total population is 117,073. The metropolitan area, including the outer commuter zone, covers an area of 616 km2 and has a total of 255,844 inhabitants as of 1 January 2008. Along with a few other canal-based northern cities, such as Amsterdam, it is sometimes referred to as the Venice of the North. Bruges has a significant economic importance, thanks to its port, was once one of the world's chief commercial cities. Bruges is well known as the seat of the College of Europe, a university institute for European studies; the place is first mentioned in records as Bruggas, Brvccia in 840–875 as Bruciam, Brutgis uico, in portu Bruggensi, Bricge, Brycge, Bruges, Bruggas and Brugge.
The name derives from the Old Dutch for "bridge": brugga. Compare Middle Dutch brucge and modern Dutch bruggehoofd and brug; the form brugghe would be a southern Dutch variant. The Dutch word and the English "bridge" both derive from Proto-Germanic *brugjō-. Bruges was a location of coastal settlement during prehistory; this Bronze Age and Iron Age settlement is unrelated to medieval city development. In the Bruges area, the first fortifications were built after Julius Caesar's conquest of the Menapii in the first century BC, to protect the coastal area against pirates; the Franks took over the whole region from the Gallo-Romans around the 4th century and administered it as the Pagus Flandrensis. The Viking incursions of the ninth century prompted Count Baldwin I of Flanders to reinforce the Roman fortifications. Early medieval habitation starts in the 9th and 10th century on the Burgh terrain with a fortified settlement and church Bruges became important due to the tidal inlet, important to local commerce, This inlet was known as the "Golden Inlet".
Bruges received its city charter on 27 July 1128, new walls and canals were built. In 1089 Bruges became the capital of the County of Flanders. Since about 1050, gradual silting had caused the city to lose its direct access to the sea. A storm in 1134, however, re-established this access, through the creation of a natural channel at the Zwin; the new sea arm stretched all the way to Damme, a city that became the commercial outpost for Bruges. Bruges had a strategic location at the crossroads of the northern Hanseatic League trade and the southern trade routes. Bruges was included in the circuit of the Flemish and French cloth fairs at the beginning of the 13th century, but when the old system of fairs broke down the entrepreneurs of Bruges innovated, they developed, or borrowed from Italy, new forms of merchant capitalism, whereby several merchants would share the risks and profits and pool their knowledge of markets. They employed new forms of economic exchange, including letters of credit; the city eagerly welcomed foreign traders, most notably the Portuguese traders selling pepper and other spices.
With the reawakening of town life in the twelfth century, a wool market, a woollens weaving industry, the market for cloth all profited from the shelter of city walls, where surpluses could be safely accumulated under the patronage of the counts of Flanders. The city's entrepreneurs reached out to make economic colonies of England and Scotland's wool-producing districts. English contacts brought Normandy grain and Gascon wines. Hanseatic ships filled the harbor, which had to be expanded beyond Damme to Sluys to accommodate the new cog-ships. In 1277, the first merchant fleet from Genoa appeared in the port of Bruges, first of the merchant colony that made Bruges the main link to the trade of the Mediterranean; this development opened not only the trade in spices from the Levant, but advanced commercial and financial techniques and a flood of capital that soon took over the banking of Bruges. The Bourse opened in 1309 and developed into the most sophisticated money market of the Low Countries in the 14th century.
By the time Venetian galleys first appeared. Numerous foreign merchants were welcomed in Bruges, such as the Castilian wool merchants who first arrived in the 13th century. After the Castilian wool monopoly ended, the Basques, many hailing from Bilbao, thrived as merchants and established their own commercial consulate in Bruges by the mid-15th century; the foreign merchants expanded the city's trading zones. They maintained separate communities governed by their own laws until the economic collapse after 1700; such wealth gave rise to social upheavals, which were for the most part harshly contained by the militia. In 1302, after the Bruges Matins, the population joined forces with the Count of Flanders against the French, culminating in
Porto is the second-largest city in Portugal after Lisbon and one of the major urban areas of the Iberian Peninsula. The city proper has a population of 287,591 and the metropolitan area of Porto, which extends beyond the administrative limits of the city, has a population of 2.3 million in an area of 2,395 km2, making it the second-largest urban area in Portugal. It is recognized as a gamma-level global city by the Globalization and World Cities Study Group, the only Portuguese city besides Lisbon to be recognised as a global city. Located along the Douro River estuary in northern Portugal, Porto is one of the oldest European centres, its historical core was proclaimed a World Heritage Site by UNESCO in 1996; the western part of its urban area extends to the coastline of the Atlantic Ocean. Its settlement dates back many centuries, its combined Celtic-Latin name, Portus Cale, has been referred to as the origin of the name "Portugal", based on transliteration and oral evolution from Latin. In Portuguese, the name of the city includes a definite article: o Porto.
Its English name, evolved from a misinterpretation of the Portuguese pronunciation. Port wine, one of Portugal's most famous exports, is named after Porto, since the metropolitan area, in particular the cellars of Vila Nova de Gaia, were responsible for the packaging and export of fortified wine. In 2014 and 2017, Porto was elected The Best European Destination by the Best European Destinations Agency. Porto is on the Portuguese Way path of the Camino de Santiago; the history of Porto dates back to around 300 BC with Proto-Celtic and Celtic people being the first known inhabitants. Ruins of that period have been discovered in several areas. During the Roman occupation of the Iberian Peninsula, the city developed as an important commercial port in the trade between Olissipona and Bracara Augusta. Porto was important during the Suebian and Visigothic times, a centre for the expansion of Christianity during that period. Porto fell under the control of the Moors during the invasion of the Iberian Peninsula in 711.
In 868, Vímara Peres, an Asturian count from Gallaecia, a vassal of the King of Asturias, Léon and Galicia, Alfonso III, was sent to reconquer and secure the lands back into Christian hands. This included the area from the Minho to the Douro River: the settlement of Portus Cale and the area, known as Vila Nova de Gaia. Portus Cale referred to as Portucale, was the origin for the modern name of Portugal. In 868, Count Vímara Peres established the County of Portugal, or known as Condado Portucalense after reconquering the region north of Douro. In 1387, Porto was the site of the marriage of John I of Portugal and Philippa of Lancaster, daughter of John of Gaunt; the Portuguese-English alliance is the world's oldest recorded military alliance. In the 14th and the 15th centuries, Porto's shipyards contributed to the development of Portuguese shipbuilding. From the port of Porto, in 1415, Prince Henry the Navigator embarked on the conquest of the Moorish port of Ceuta, in northern Morocco; this expedition by the king and his fleet, which counted among others, Prince Henry, was followed by navigation and exploration along the western coast of Africa, initiating the Portuguese Age of Discovery.
The nickname given to the people of Porto began in those days. Wine, produced in the Douro valley, was in the 13th century transported to Porto in barcos rabelos. In 1703, the Methuen Treaty established the trade relations between England. In 1717, a first English trading post was established in Porto; the production of port wine gradually passed into the hands of a few English firms. To counter this English dominance, Prime Minister Marquis of Pombal established a Portuguese firm receiving the monopoly of the wines from the Douro valley, he demarcated the region for production of port. The small winegrowers revolted against his strict policies on Shrove Tuesday, burning down the buildings of this firm; the revolt was called Revolta dos Borrachos. Between 1732 and 1763, Italian architect Nicolau Nasoni designed a baroque church with a tower that became its architectural and visual icon: the Torre dos Clérigos. During the 18th and 19th centuries, the city became an important industrial centre and had its size and population increase.
The invasion of the Napoleonic troops in Portugal under Marshal Soult brought war to the city of Porto. On 29 March 1809, as the population fled from the advancing French troops and tried to cross the river Douro over the Ponte das Barcas, the bridge collapsed under the weight; this event is still remembered by a plate at the Ponte D. Luis I; the French army was rooted out of Porto by Arthur Wellesley, 1st Duke of Wellington, when his Anglo-Portuguese Army crossed the Douro River from the Mosteiro da Serra do Pilar in a brilliant daylight coup de main, using wine barges to transport the troops, so outflanking the Fr
Kongens Lyngby is the seat and commercial centre of Lyngby-Taarbæk Municipality in the northern suburbs of Copenhagen, Denmark. Lyngby Hovedgade is a busy shopping street and the site of a branch of Magasin du Nord as well as Lyngby Storcenter; the district is home to several major companies, including COWI A/S, Bang & Olufsen, ICEpower a/s and Microsoft. Lyngby station is located on the Hillerød radial of Copenhagen's S-train network. Kongens Lyngby borders: Brede; the name Kongens Lyngby is first recorded in 1893. At that time large parts of North Zealand belonged to the Catholic Church (represented by Roskilde Cathedral and the name Lyngby was associated with several places. Store Lyngby belonged to Arresø church. "Our" Lyngby, on the other hand, was crown land. It may therefore have been to distinguish it from these other places; the original Lyngby village is now known as Bondebyen. Kongens Lyngby was the site of a watermill, Lyngby Watermill, first mentioned in 1492 but is several hundred years older.
A royal road, Lyngby Kongevej, was created in 1584 to provide an easy link between Copenhagen and Frederick's new Frederiksborg Castle from where it was extended to Fredensborg and Helsingør. It was the first of a number of royal roads created by Frederick II and his successor Christian IV. In the 18th century, a growing number of country houses were built in the area by civil servants and merchants from Copenhagen. Kongens Lyngby had no market rights but developed into a local service centre with an increasing number of craftsmen and merchants; the North Line came to Lyngby in 1863 and was extended to Helsingør in 1864,This enabled citizens from Copenhagen to settle permanently in the area. Several factories opened in the area, including Christian Hasselbalck's curtain factory in 1892 which became the town's largest employer. In the 1930s, Kongens Lyngby developed into a modern suburb; the North Line was converted into an S-train line with more stations and Kongens Lyngby merged with the neighboring settlements.
Kongens Lyngby is the important shopping destination in the northern suburbs. Lyngby Hovedgade is a busy shopping site and is the site of a Magasin du Nord as well as Lyngby Storcenter. Jeanette Ottesen, swimmer Lars Von Trier, director Nikolaj Coster-Waldau, actor Lyngby station Open Air Museum
Zagreb is the capital and the largest city of Croatia. It is located in the northwest of the country, along the Sava river, at the southern slopes of the Medvednica mountain. Zagreb lies at an elevation of 122 m above sea level; the estimated population of the city in 2018 is 810,003. The population of the Zagreb urban agglomeration is about 1.2 million a quarter of the total population of Croatia. Zagreb is a city with a rich history dating from the Roman times to the present day; the oldest settlement located in the vicinity of the city was the Roman Andautonia, in today's Ščitarjevo. The name "Zagreb" is recorded in 1134, in reference to the foundation of the settlement at Kaptol in 1094. Zagreb became a free royal town in 1242. In 1851 Zagreb had Janko Kamauf. Zagreb has special status as a Croatian administrative division and is a consolidated city-county, is administratively subdivided into 17 city districts. Most of them are at a low elevation along the river Sava valley, whereas northern and northeastern city districts, such as Podsljeme and Sesvete districts are situated in the foothills of the Medvednica mountain, making the city's geographical image rather diverse.
The city extends over 30 kilometres east-west and around 20 kilometres north-south. The transport connections, concentration of industry and research institutions and industrial tradition underlie its leading economic position in Croatia. Zagreb is the seat of the central government, administrative bodies, all government ministries. All of the largest Croatian companies and scientific institutions have their headquarters in the city. Zagreb is the most important transport hub in Croatia where Central Europe, the Mediterranean and Southeast Europe meet, making the Zagreb area the centre of the road and air networks of Croatia, it is a city known for its diverse economy, high quality of living, museums and entertainment events. Its main branches of economy are the service sector; the etymology of the name Zagreb is unclear. It was used for the united city only from 1852, but it had been in use as the name of the Zagreb Diocese since the 12th century, was used for the city in the 17th century; the name is first recorded in a charter by Ostrogon archbishop Felician, dated 1134, mentioned as Zagrabiensem episcopatum.
The older form of the name is Zagrab. The modern Croatian form Zagreb is first recorded in a 1689 map by Nicolas Sanson. An older form is reflected in Hungarian Zabrag. For this, Hungarian linguist Gyula Décsy proposes the etymology of Chabrag, a well-attested hypocorism of the name Cyprian; the same form is reflected in a number such as Csepreg. The name might be derived from Proto-Slavic word * grębъ which means uplift. An Old Croatian reconstructed name *Zagrębъ is manifested through the German name of the city Agram; the name Agram was used in German in the Habsburg period. In Middle Latin and Modern Latin, Zagreb is known as Zagrabia or Mons Graecensis. In Croatian folk etymology, the name of the city has been derived from either the verb za-grab-, meaning "to scoop" or "to dig". One folk legend illustrating this derivation ties the name to a drought of the early 14th century, during which Augustin Kažotić is said to have dug a well which miraculously produced water. In another legend, a city governor is thirsty and orders a girl named Manda to "scoop" water from Manduševac well, using the imperative: zagrabi, Mando!.
The oldest settlement located near today's Zagreb was a Roman town of Andautonia, now Šćitarjevo, which existed between the 1st and the 5th century AD. The first recorded appearance of the name Zagreb is dated to 1094, at which time the city existed as two different city centres: the smaller, eastern Kaptol, inhabited by clergy and housing Zagreb Cathedral, the larger, western Gradec, inhabited by craftsmen and merchants. Gradec and Kaptol were united in 1851 by ban Josip Jelačić, credited for this, with the naming the main city square, Ban Jelačić Square in his honour. During the period of former Yugoslavia, Zagreb remained an important economic centre of the country, was the second largest city. After Croatia declared independence from Yugoslavia, Zagreb was proclaimed its capital; the history of Zagreb dates as far back as 1094 A. D. when the Hungarian King Ladislaus, returning from his campaign against Croatia, founded a diocese. Alongside the bishop's see, the canonical settlement Kaptol developed north of Zagreb Cathedral, as did the fortified settlement Gradec on the neighbouring hill.
Today the latter is one of the best preserved urban nuclei in Croatia. Both settlements came under Tatar attack in 1242; as a sign of gratitude for offering him a safe haven from the Tatars the Croatian and Hungarian King Bela IV bestowed Gradec with a Golden Bull, which offered its citizens exemption from county rule and
Vilnius is the capital of Lithuania and its largest city, with a population of 574,147 as of 2018. Vilnius is the second largest city in the Baltic states. Vilnius is the seat of the main government institutions of Lithuania and the Vilnius District Municipality. Vilnius is classified as a Gamma global city according to GaWC studies, is known for the architecture in its Old Town, declared a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1994. Before World War II, Vilnius was one of the largest Jewish centres in Europe, its Jewish influence has led to it being described as the "Jerusalem of Lithuania" and Napoleon named it "the Jerusalem of the North" as he was passing through in 1812. In 2009, Vilnius was the European Capital of Culture, together with the Austrian city of Linz; the name of the city originates from the Vilnia River. The city has been known by many derivate spellings in various languages throughout its history: Vilna was once common in English; the most notable non-Lithuanian names for the city include: Polish: Wilno, Belarusian: Вiльня, German: Wilna, Latvian: Viļņa, Russian: Вильна, Ukrainian: Вільно, Yiddish: ווילנע.
A Russian name from the time of the Russian Empire was Вильна. The names Wilno and Vilna have been used in older English, German and Italian language publications when the city was one of the capitals of Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth and an important city in the Second Polish Republic; the name Vilna is still used in Finnish, Portuguese and Hebrew. Wilna is still used in German, along with Vilnius; the neighborhoods of Vilnius have names in other languages, which represent the languages spoken by various ethnic groups in the area. According to the legend, Grand Duke Gediminas was hunting in the sacred forest near the Valley of Šventaragis, near where Vilnia River flows into the Neris River. Tired after the successful hunt of a wisent, the Grand Duke settled in for the night, he fell soundly asleep and dreamed of a huge Iron Wolf standing on top a hill and howling as strong and loud as a hundred wolves. Upon awakening, the Duke asked the krivis Lizdeika to interpret the dream, and the priest told him: "What is destined for the ruler and the State of Lithuania, is thus: the Iron Wolf represents a castle and a city which will be established by you on this site.
This city will be the capital of the Lithuanian lands and the dwelling of their rulers, the glory of their deeds shall echo throughout the world." Therefore, obeying the will of the gods, built the city, gave it the name Vilnius – from the stream of the Vilnia River. Historian Romas Batūra identifies the city with Voruta, one of the castles of Mindaugas, crowned in 1253 as King of Lithuania. During the reign of Vytenis a city started to emerge from a trading settlement and the first Franciscan Catholic church was built; the city was first mentioned in written sources in 1323 as Vilna, when the Letters of Grand Duke Gediminas were sent to German cities inviting Germans to settle in the capital city, as well as to Pope John XXII. These letters contain the first unambiguous reference to Vilnius as the capital. According to legend, Gediminas dreamt of an iron wolf howling on a hilltop and consulted a pagan priest Lizdeika for its interpretation, he was told: "What is destined for the ruler and the State of Lithuania, is thus: the Iron Wolf represents a castle and a city which will be established by you on this site.
This city will be the capital of the Lithuanian lands and the dwelling of their rulers, the glory of their deeds shall echo throughout the world". The location offered practical advantages: it lay in the Lithuanian heartland at the confluence of two navigable rivers, surrounded by forests and wetlands that were difficult to penetrate; the duchy had been subject to intrusions by the Teutonic Knights. Vilnius was the flourishing capital of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, the residence of the Grand Duke. Gediminas expanded the Grand Duchy through warfare along with strategic marriages. At its height it covered the territory of modern-day Lithuania, Ukraine and portions of modern-day Poland and Russia, his grandchildren Vytautas the Great and Jogaila, fought civil wars. During the Lithuanian Civil War of 1389–1392, Vytautas besieged and razed the city in an attempt to wrest control from Jogaila; the two settled their differences. The rulers of this federation held either or both of two titles: Grand Duke of Lithuania or King of Poland.
In 1387, Jogaila acting as a Grand Duke of Lithuania and King of Poland Władysław II Jagiełło, granted Magdeburg rights to the city. The city underwent a period of expansion; the Vilnius city walls were built for protection between 1503 and 1522, comprising nine city gates and three towers, Sigismund August moved his court there in 1544. Its growth was due in part to the establishment of Alma Academia et Universitas Vilnensis Societatis Iesu by the Polish King and Grand Duke of Lithuania Stefan Bathory in 1579; the university soon developed into one of the most important scientific and cultural centres of the region and the most notable scientific centre of the Commonwealth. During its rapid development, the city was open to migrants from the territories of the Crown of the Kingdom of Poland, Grand Duchy and further. A variety of languages were spoken: Polish, Yiddish, Lithuanian, Old
National research and education network
A National Research and Education Network is a specialised internet service provider dedicated to supporting the needs of the research and education communities within a country. It is distinguished by support for a high-speed backbone network offering dedicated channels for individual research projects. In recent years NRENs have developed many'above the net' services. National Identity federations, many of which are represented in REFEDs, are one example of such services. UbuntuNet Alliance for Research and Education Networking - the Alliance of NRENs of East and Southern Africa Eb@le - DRC NREN EthERNet - Ethiopian NREN iRENALA - Malagasy NREN KENET - Kenyan NREN MAREN - Malawian NREN MoRENet - Mozambican NREN RENU - Ugandan NREN RwEdNet - Rwanda NREN SomaliREN - Somali NREN SudREN - Sudanese NREN TENET/SANReN - South African NREN TERNET - Tanzanian NREN Xnet - Namibian NREN ZAMREN - Zambian NREN TUREN - Tunisian NREN MARWAN - Moroccan NREN ENREN - Egyptian NREN ARN - Algerian NREN SudREN - Sudanese NREN SomaliREN - Somali NREN WACREN - West and Central African Research and Education Network GARNET - Ghanaian NREN GhREN - Ghanaian NREN MaliREN - Mali NREN Niger-REN - Nigerien NREN RITER - Côte d'Ivoire NREN SnRER - Senegalese NREN NgREN - Nigerian NREN AfgREN - Afghanistan NREN BDREN - Bangladeshi NREN ERNET - Indian NREN NKN - Indian NREN NREN - Nepal NREN PERN - Pakistani NREN LEARN - Sri Lankan NREN APAN - Asia-Pacific Advanced Network AARNet - Australian NREN AfgREN - Afghanistan NREN CSTNET - China Science and Technology Network CERNET - China Education and Research Network HARNET - Hong Kong NREN KOREN - Korean NREN KREONET- Korean NREN IDREN - Indonesian NREN SINET - Japanese NREN MYREN - Malaysian NREN NREN - Islamic Republic of Iran NREN REANNZ - New Zealand NREN PREGINET - Philippine NREN SingAREN - Singaporean NREN TWAREN - Taiwanese NREN UniNet - Thai NREN VinaRen - Vietnamese NREN CamREN- Cambodia NREN TEIN - Trans Eurasia Information Network United States – although advocated since the 1980s, the U.
S. does not have one single NREN. Canada RedCLARA - Cooperación Latino Americana de Redes Avanzadas Innova-Red - Argentinian NREN ADSIB - Bolivian NREN RNP - Brazilian NREN REUNA - Chilean NREN RENATA - Colombian NREN RedCONARE - Costa Rican NREN CEDIA - Ecuadorian NREN RAICES - El Salvadoran NREN RAGIE - Guatemalan NREN Universidad Tecnológica Centroamericana - Honduran NREN CUDI - Mexican NREN RENIA - Nicaraguan NREN RedCyT - Panamanian NREN Arandu - Paraguayan NREN RAAP - Peruvian NREN RAU - Uruguayan NREN REACCIUN CNTI?- Venezuelan NREN C@ribNET - Caribbean NREN TTRENT - Trinidad and Tobago NREN JREN - Jamaica NREN RADEI - NREN of the Dominican Republic European Academic and Research Network GÉANT - Develops and maintains the GÉANT backbone network on behalf of European NRENs. DANTE and TERENA. CEENet - Central and Eastern European Research Networking Association Eumedconnect - South Mediterranean Backbone ANA Albanian NREN ASNET-AM - Armenian NREN ACOnet - Austrian NREN AzScienceNet Azerbaijan NREN BASNET - Belarus NREN Belnet - Belgian NREN BREN - Bulgarian NREN CESNET - Czech NREN CARNet - Croatian NREN CYNET - Cypriot NREN SURFnet - Dutch NREN EENet - Estonian NREN RENATER - French NREN Deutsches Forschungsnetz - German NREN GRENA - Georgian NREN GRNET - Greek NREN NIIF/HUNGARNET - Hungarian NREN HEAnet - Irish NREN GARR - Italian NREN KazRENA - Kazakhstan NREN SigmaNet - Latvian NREN LITNET - Lithuanian NREN RESTENA - Luxembourg NREN MARNET - Macedonian NREN RiċerkaNet - Maltese NREN RENAM - Moldovian NREN MREN - Montenegro NREN PIONIER - Polish NREN FCCN - Portuguese NREN RoEduNet - Romanian NREN RUNNet - Russian NREN AMRES - Serbian NREN ARNES - Slovenian NREN SANET - Slovakian NREN RedIRIS - Spanish NREN SWITCH - Swiss NREN ULAKBIM - Turkish NREN URAN - Ukrainian NREN Janet - United Kingdom NREN NORDUnet - Nordic backbone network DeiC - Danish NREN FUNET - Finnish NREN RHnet - Icelandic NREN SUNET - Swedish NREN UNINETT - Norwegian NREN Maeen Saudi Arabia NREN Eumedconnect - Mediterranean/North African Backbone ANKABUT UAE NREN OMREN Omani NREN IUCC - Israeli NREN JUnet Jordanian NREN IRAN SHOA Iranian NREN PALNREN Palestinian NREN Lebanon Birzeit Uni/AlQuds Palestinian Authority QNREN - Qatar NREN HIAST Syrian NREN RUNNet - Russian University Network, Russian NREN ASNET-AM - Armenian AzRENA - Azerbaijan BASNET UNIBEL Belarus GRENA - Georgian NREN KazRENA - Kazakhstan NREN KRENA - Kyrgyzian NREN TuRENA - Turkmenistan NREN UZSCINET - Uzbekistan NREN Information superhighway Overview of Uzbekistan NREN in CEENGINE newsletter Overview of Ukrainian NRENs in CEENGINE newsletter Overview of Albanian NREN in CEENGINE newsletter Overview of Bulgarian NREN in CEENGINE newsletter Signing of Trinidad and Tobago NREN in Trinidad Guardian newspaper Terena Compendium Research and Education Networking FAQ India - High Performance Computing Networks & NRENS.pdf Digital Divide & REN, Case of Bangladesh
Telephone number mapping
Telephone number mapping is a system of unifying the international telephone number system of the public switched telephone network with the Internet addressing and identification name spaces. Internationally, telephone numbers are systematically organized by the E.164 standard, while the Internet uses the Domain Name System for linking domain names to IP addresses and other resource information. Telephone number mapping systems provide facilities to determine applicable Internet communications servers responsible for servicing a given telephone number using DNS queries; the most prominent facility for telephone number mapping is the E.164 Number to URI Mapping standard. It uses special DNS record types to translate a telephone number into a Uniform Resource Identifier or IP address that can be used in Internet communications. Being able to dial telephone numbers the way customers have come to expect is considered crucial for the convergence of classic telephone service and Internet telephony, for the development of new IP multimedia services.
The problem of a single universal personal identifier for multiple communication services can be solved with different approaches. One simple approach is the Electronic Number Mapping System, developed by the IETF, using existing E.164 telephone numbers and infrastructure to indirectly access different services available under a single personal identifier. ENUM permits connecting the IP world to the telephone system in a seamless manner. For an ENUM subscriber to be able to activate and use the ENUM service, it needs to obtain three elements from a Registrar: A personal Uniform Resource Identifier to be used on the IP part of the network, as explained below. One E.164 regular personal telephone number associated with the personal URI, to be used on the PSTN part of the network. Authority to write their call forwarding/termination preferences in the NAPTR record accessible via the personal URI; this works as follows: the Registrar provides the Subscriber with a domain name, the URI, that will be used for accessing a DNS server to fetch a NAPTR record, a personal E.164 telephone number.
The URI domain name of is biunivocally associated to the subscriber E.164 ENUM number of. The NAPTR record corresponding to the subscriber URI contains the subscriber call forwarding/termination preferences. Therefore, if a calling party being at the PSTN network dials a called party ENUM number by touch typing the E.164 called party number, the number will be translated at the ENUM gateway into the corresponding URI. This URI will be used for looking-up and fetching the NAPTR record obtaining the called party wishes about how the call should be forwarded or terminated – the so-called access information – which the registrant has specified by writing his/her choice at the NAPTR record, such as e-mail addresses, a fax number, a personal website, a VoIP number, mobile telephone numbers, voice mail systems, IP-telephony addresses, web pages, GPS coordinates, call diversions or instant messaging. Alternatively, when the calling party is at the IP side, the User Agent piece of software of the dialler will allow to dial a E.164 number, but the dialler UA will convert it into a URI, to be used for looking-up at the ENUM gateway DNS and fetch the NAPTR record obtaining the called party wishes about how the call should be forwarded or terminated.
Calling by using a new personal E.164 number to look-up at a database is therefore an indirect calling support service. The ITU ENUM allocates a specific zone, namely "e164.arpa" for use with ENUM E.164 numbers on the IP side of the network. RFC 6116 defines how any E.164 number, such as +1 555 42 42 can be transformed into a URI, by reversing the numbers, separating them with dots and adding the e164.arpa suffix thus: 126.96.36.199.188.8.131.52.e164.arpa The URI can be used for obtaining the Internet Protocol addresses for services such as the Session Initiation Protocol VoIP telephony. In the DNS, NAPTR records are used for setting the subscriber call forwarding/termination preferences. Therefore, the whole system can'translate' E.164 addresses to SIP addresses. An example NAPTR record is: $ORIGIN 184.108.40.206.220.127.116.11.e164.arpa. IN NAPTR 100 10 "u" "E2U+sip" "!^.*$!sip:email@example.com!". IN NAPTR 102 10 "u" "E2U+mailto" "!^.*$!mailto:firstname.lastname@example.org!". This example specifies that if you want to use the "E2U+sip" service, you should use sip:email@example.com as the address.
The regular expression can be used by a telephone company to assign addresses to all of its clients. For example, if your number is +15554242, your SIP address is sip:firstname.lastname@example.org. The following Figure illustrates how ENUM works by giving an example: Subscriber A sets out to call Subscriber B; the user agent of an ENUM-enabled subscriber terminal device, or a PBX, or a gateway, translates the request for the number +34 98 765 4321 in accordance with the rule described in RFC 6116 into the ENUM domain 18.104.22.168.22.214.171.124.9.4.3.e164.arpa. A request is sent to the DNS for the NAPTR record of the domain name 126.96.36.199.188.8.131.52.9.4.3.e164.arpa. The query returns a result set of NAPTR records, as per RFC 3403. In the example above, the response is an address that can be reached in the Internet using the VoIP protocol SIP per RFC 3261; the terminal application now sets up a communication link, the call is routed via the Internet. The ENUM user does not notice anything of this reversal and the DNS database look-up, a