A magazine is a publication a periodical publication, printed or electronically published. Magazines are published on a regular schedule and contain a variety of content, they are financed by advertising, by a purchase price, by prepaid subscriptions, or a combination of the three. At its root, the word "magazine" refers to a storage location. In the case of written publication, it is a collection of written articles; this explains why magazine publications share the word root with gunpowder magazines, artillery magazines, firearms magazines, and, in French, retail stores such as department stores. By definition, a magazine paginates with each issue starting at page three, with the standard sizing being 8 3⁄8 in × 10 7⁄8 in. However, in the technical sense a journal has continuous pagination throughout a volume, thus Business Week, which starts each issue anew with page one, is a magazine, but the Journal of Business Communication, which starts each volume with the winter issue and continues the same sequence of pagination throughout the coterminous year, is a journal.
Some professional or trade publications are peer-reviewed, an example being the Journal of Accountancy. Academic or professional publications that are not peer-reviewed are professional magazines; that a publication calls itself a journal does not make it a journal in the technical sense. Magazines can be distributed through the mail, through sales by newsstands, bookstores, or other vendors, or through free distribution at selected pick-up locations; the subscription business models for distribution fall into three main categories. In this model, the magazine is sold to readers for a price, either on a per-issue basis or by subscription, where an annual fee or monthly price is paid and issues are sent by post to readers. Paid circulation allows for defined readership statistics; this means that there is no cover price and issues are given away, for example in street dispensers, airline, or included with other products or publications. Because this model involves giving issues away to unspecific populations, the statistics only entail the number of issues distributed, not who reads them.
This is the model used by many trade magazines distributed only to qualifying readers for free and determined by some form of survey. Because of costs associated with the medium of print, publishers may not distribute free copies to everyone who requests one; this allows a high level of certainty that advertisements will be received by the advertiser's target audience, it avoids wasted printing and distribution expenses. This latter model was used before the rise of the World Wide Web and is still employed by some titles. For example, in the United Kingdom, a number of computer-industry magazines use this model, including Computer Weekly and Computing, in finance, Waters Magazine. For the global media industry, an example would be VideoAge International; the earliest example of magazines was Erbauliche Monaths Unterredungen, a literary and philosophy magazine, launched in 1663 in Germany. The Gentleman's Magazine, first published in 1731, in London was the first general-interest magazine. Edward Cave, who edited The Gentleman's Magazine under the pen name "Sylvanus Urban", was the first to use the term "magazine," on the analogy of a military storehouse.
Founded by Herbert Ingram in 1842, The Illustrated London News was the first illustrated magazine. The oldest consumer magazine still in print is The Scots Magazine, first published in 1739, though multiple changes in ownership and gaps in publication totalling over 90 years weaken that claim. Lloyd's List was founded in Edward Lloyd's England coffee shop in 1734. Under the ancient regime, the most prominent magazines were Mercure de France, Journal des sçavans, founded in 1665 for scientists, Gazette de France, founded in 1631. Jean Loret was one of France's first journalists, he disseminated the weekly news of music and Parisian society from 1650 until 1665 in verse, in what he called a gazette burlesque, assembled in three volumes of La Muse historique. The French press lagged a generation behind the British, for they catered to the needs the aristocracy, while the newer British counterparts were oriented toward the middle and working classes. Periodicals were censored by the central government in Paris.
They were not quiescent politically—often they criticized Church abuses and bureaucratic ineptitude. They supported the monarchy and they played at most a small role in stimulating the revolution. During the Revolution, new periodicals played central roles as propaganda organs for various factions. Jean-Paul Marat was the most prominent editor, his L'Ami du peuple advocated vigorously for the rights of the lower classes against the enemies of the people Marat hated. After 1800 Napoleon reimposed strict censorship. Magazines flourished after Napoleon left in 1815. Most were based in Paris and most emphasized literature and stories, they served religious and political communities. In times of political crisis they expressed and helped shape the views of their readership and thereby were major
RELX plc is a corporate group comprising companies that publish scientific and medical material, legal textbooks. It serves customers in over 180 nations, it was known as Reed Elsevier, came into being in 1992 as a result of the merger of Reed International, a British trade book and magazine publisher, Elsevier, a Netherlands-based scientific publisher. The company is publicly-listed, with shares traded on the London Stock Exchange, Amsterdam Stock Exchange and New York Stock Exchange. About 55 per cent of the company’s revenues are generated from the US, with 23 per cent from Europe and 22 per cent from the rest of the world; the company is one of the constituents of the FTSE 100 Index, Financial Times Global 500 and Euronext 100 Index. The company, known as Reed Elsevier, came into being in 1992, as a result of the merger of Reed International, a British trade book and magazine publisher, Elsevier, a Netherlands-based scientific publisher; the company re-branded itself as RELX in February 2015.
In 1895, Albert E. Reed established a newsprint manufacturing operation at Tovil Mill near Maidstone, Kent. In 1965 Reed Group, as it was known, became a conglomerate, creating its Decorative Products Division with the purchase of Crown Paints and Sanderson's wallpaper and DIY decorating interests. In 1970, Reed Group merged with the International Publishing Corporation and the company name was changed to Reed International Limited; the company continued to grow by merging with other publishers and produced high quality trade journals as IPC Business Press Ltd and women's and other consumer magazines as IPC magazines Ltd. The original family owners, the Reeds, were Methodists and encouraged good working conditions for their staff in the then-dangerous print trade. In 1985 the company decided to rationalise its operations, focusing on publishing and selling off its other interests. Sanderson was sold to WestPoint Pepperell, Inc. of Georgia, United States, that year, while Crown Paint and Polycell were sold to Williams Holdings in 1987.
The company's paper and packaging production operations were bundled together to form Reedpack and sold to private equity firm Cinven in 1988. In 1880, Jacobus George Robbers started a publishing company called NV Uitgeversmaatschappij Elsevier to publish literary classics and the encyclopedia Winkler Prins. Robbers named the company after the old Dutch printers family Elzevir, for example, published the works of Erasmus in 1587. Elsevier NV was based in Rotterdam but moved to Amsterdam in the late 1880s. Up to the 1930s, Elsevier remained a small family-owned publisher, with no more than ten employees. After the war it launched the weekly Elsevier magazine, which turned out to be profitable. A rapid expansion followed. Elsevier Press Inc. started in 1951 in Houston, Texas, USA, in 1962 publishing offices were opened in London and New York. Multiple mergers in the 1970s led to name changes, settling at "Elsevier Scientific Publishers" in 1979. In 1991, two years before the merger with Reed, Elsevier acquired Pergamon Press in the UK.
In February 1997, Reed Elsevier divested its trade publishing group to Random House. In 1998, Reed Elsevier sold the children's divisions of Heinemann, Methuen and Mammoth to the Egmont Group. In February 2007, the company announced its intention to sell Harcourt, its educational publishing division. On 4 May 2007 Pearson, the international education and information company, announced that it had agreed to acquire Harcourt Assessment and Harcourt Education International from Reed Elsevier for $950m in cash. In July 2007, Reed Elsevier announced its agreement to sell the remaining Harcourt Education business, including international imprint Heinemann, to Houghton Mifflin for $4 billion in cash and stock. In July 2009, Reed Elsevier announced its intention to sell most of its North American trade publications, including Publishers Weekly, Broadcasting & Cable, Multichannel News, although it planned to retain Variety. In April 2010, Reed Elsevier announced that it had sold 21 US magazines to other owners in recent months, that an additional 23 US trade magazines, including Restaurants & Institutions and Trade Show Week would cease publication.
The closures were due to the weak economy including an advertising slump. Variety, the company's last remaining North American title, was sold in October 2012. In 2014, Reed Business Information sold an online marketplace. In 2016, RELX sold Elsevier BeleggersBelangen in the Netherlands. In 2017 the company sold New Scientist magazine. RELX's Scientific, Technical & Medical business provides information and tools that help investors make decisions that improve scientific and healthcare outcomes, it operates under the name of Elsevier and generated revenues in the year to 31 December 2017 of £2.5 billion. ScienceDirect, an online database of primary research, contains 13 million documents. Scopus is a bibliographic database containing citations for academic journal articles, it contains more than 50 million items in more 20,000 titles from 5,000 publishers worldwide. Mendeley is a desktop and web program for managing and sharing research papers, discovering research data and collaborating online.
Elsevier is the world's largest publisher of academic articles with 16 per cent market share, accordin
Media of the United Kingdom
There are several different types of media in the United Kingdom: television, newspapers and websites. The country has a strong music industry; the United Kingdom has a diverse range of providers, the most prominent being the publicly-owned public service broadcaster, the British Broadcasting Corporation. The BBC's largest competitors are ITV plc, which operates 13 of the 15 regional television broadcasters that make up the ITV Network, American global media conglomerate Comcast, which owns the broadcaster Sky Ltd. Regional media is covered by local radio and print newspapers. Trinity Mirror operates 240 local and regional newspapers, as well as national newspapers such as the Daily Mirror and the Sunday Mirror. In 2009 it was estimated that individuals viewed a mean of 3.75 hours of television per day and listened to 2.81 hours of radio. The main BBC public service broadcasting channels accounted for and estimated 28.4% of all television viewing. Sales of newspapers have fallen since the 1970s and in 2009 42% of people reported reading a daily national newspaper.
In 2010, 82.5% of the United Kingdom population were Internet users, the highest proportion amongst the 20 countries with the largest total number of users in that year. In 2017, European Broadcasting Union research found that people in the United Kingdom trusted the written press least of any European country, by a considerable margin. Trust in television and the radio was closer to the European average. London dominates the media sector in the United Kingdom as national newspapers and radio networks are based there. Notable centres include BBC Broadcasting House. Specialist local paper City A. M. is a business-focused newspaper published in print Monday to Friday. It is available from around 6 am at London commuter stations and is handed out at key points in the City, Canary Wharf and other central London locations. Greater Manchester is a significant national media hub. Notable centres include MediaCityUK a 200-acre media production facility in Trafford; the Guardian national newspaper was founded in Manchester in 1821, was known as the Manchester Guardian until 1959.
In the 1950s, coinciding with the growth in television, the Granada Television franchise was set up by Sidney Bernstein. The Granada Studios were the first purpose-built television studios in the United Kingdom; the franchise produced television programmes such as the Up Series. The BBC has two of its six major business divisions based here BBC North Group that comprises a number of important departments including BBC Breakfast, BBC Children's, BBC Sport, BBC Radio 5 and BBC North West; the other division is BBC Future Media. In addition ITV has two major divisions of its business based here ITV Studios responsible for UK and international network production and ITV Granada its regional service provider; the University of Salford has a media campus and research center based at media city. The United Kingdom is known for its large music industry, along with its upcoming artists. In the UK, media is spread through the forms of TV, magazines and radio; the Daily Mirror was founded in 1903. The Sunday Mirror, the sister paper to the Daily Mirror, was started in 1915.
Edinburgh and Glasgow, Cardiff are important centres of newspaper and broadcasting production in Scotland and Wales respectively. The BBC, founded in 1922, is the United Kingdom's publicly funded radio and Internet broadcasting corporation, is the oldest and largest broadcaster in the world, it operates numerous television and radio stations in the United Kingdom and abroad and its domestic services are funded by the television licence. Other major players in the United Kingdom media include ITV plc, which operates 11 of the 15 regional television broadcasters that make up the ITV Network, News Corporation, which owns a number of national newspapers through News International such as the tabloid The Sun and "broadsheet" The Times; the United Kingdom print publishing sector, including books, server and databases, journals and business media and news agencies, has a combined turnover of around £20 billion and employs around 167,000 people. The print media sector is regulating itself and there are no specific statutory rules regulating the print media.
Traditionally British newspapers have been divided into "quality", serious-minded newspapers and the more populist, "tabloid" varieties. For convenience of reading many traditional broadsheets have switched to a more compact-sized format, traditionally used by tabloids. In 2008 The Sun had the highest circulation of any daily newspaper in the United Kingdom at 3.1 million a quarter of the market. Its sister paper, the News of the World, had the highest circulation in the Sunday newspaper market, traditionally focused on celebrity-led stories until its closure in 2011; the Daily Telegraph, a centre-right broadsheet paper, is the highest-selling of the "quality" newspapers. While The Guardian is a centre-left "quality" broadsheet and the Financial Times is the main business newspaper, printed on distinctive salmon-pink broadsheet paper. In 2018 Reach plc, which operates 240 local and regional newspapers in the United Kingdom as well as the national newspapers Daily Mirror, Sunday Mirror and The People, purchased Northern & Shell which added the Daily Express, Sunday Express, Daily Star and three celebrity m
Sonic the Comic
Sonic the Comic, known to its many readers as STC, was a British children's comic published fortnightly by Fleetway Editions between 1993 and 2002. It was the UK's official Sega comic, featuring stories about its mascot Sonic the Hedgehog and related characters, as well as comic strips based on other Sega video games; the original price for Sonic the Comic was 95 pence. The comic contained four comic strip stories, each following different storylines and being written and drawn by different writers and artists; the first was always a seven-page story about Sonic himself, in the earliest issues, the remaining three would involve a different Sega game character. The Sega backup strips were supplanted by stories focusing on supporting Sonic characters such as Tails, Knuckles and Chaotix; the anthology "Sonic's World" featured a variety of events in the STC world not covered by the main character strips. The different strips could at times contrast with each other, with different strips aimed at different age groups or with a different balance between comedy and drama: the humour-based Decap Attack strip could appear alongside the darker and more violent Streets of Rage strip.
Lew Stringer has stated that majority of readers were aged between five and ten and many strips were written with this in mind: "That doesn't mean that older readers can't appreciate the stories and artwork of course but it's worth bearing in mind that if the stories sometimes seem juvenile, it's because they are. Having said that, it doesn't mean we can be sloppy because we're'just' writing for kids". Aside from the comic strips, for its first few years STC featured content related to Sega videogaming. Fitting in with the Sonic convention of calling levels "Zones", these sections were given such titles as the "Q-Zone", the "News Zone" and the "Review Zone". Readers' artwork was printed in the "Graphic Zone", letters were featured in "Speedlines"; the mascot of the comic was a robot named Megadroid, composed of parts of a Sega Genesis/Mega Drive. Megadroid was the persona used by the editors of Sonic the Comic to answer letters and provide story recaps and general magazine news, he acted as a liaison between the readers and the "humes who think they're in charge".
Megadroid had a one-off strip, in which he ran away from the STC offices to a seaside town only to return from his harrowing experience to attend to the needs of the boomers. Megadroid was dropped from the comic in 1998, with him the "Speedlines" letter page vanished. Speedlines returned in 2000, though it was no longer a regular feature and instead of Megadroid, the letters were answered by Sonic himself; the bulk of the work in the comic was written by either Nigel Kitching or Lew Stringer, while art was provided by Richard Elson, Nigel Dobbyn, Carl Flint, Woodrow Phoenix, Roberto Corona, Mike McMahon, Kitching himself and many others. The first editor was Richard Burton. Several of the comic's contributors have found success elsewhere in comics. Mark Millar, who wrote the first Streets of Rage storyline and some Sonic strips, has since written major titles for DC and Marvel Comics such as Wanted and Civil War; the demise of STC began when budget cuts at the comic led to the number of pages being cut from 36 to 32 in 1997 and as a result, the loss of the news, game review and game tips sections.
Despite being one of Fleetway's biggest selling comics in 1998, from issue 133, published that July, one strip an issue was given over to reprints to save money as part of Fleetway's policy of five-year reader cycles. In the year, the mascot Megadroid was removed, along with the "Speedlines" letters page. Two further strips were replaced by reprints in issues 155 and 157, leaving just the main Sonic strip and the cover as the only new material in each issue. With the lack of new supporting character strips, Nigel Kitching was asked to share the main strip with Lew Stringer, causing the plans for the "Shanazar" story arc to be altered. During this time, the main strip's stories came under the "Time Zone" banner being set on Shanazar and later involving dimensional portals leading to other dimensions and Earth's history due to editorial preference. Neither Mobius nor any of the main characters bar Sonic and Amy featured, the lack of ancillary strips meant no other stories could be told. Following issue 157, Lew Stringer replaced Nigel Kitching as the comic's sole writer.
After Andy Diggle became the comic's editor, Stringer's run concluded with an apocalyptic final storyline, Kitching returned with issue 175 for a ten-part adaptation of the videogame Sonic Adventure. From issue 185, the comic became reprint, aside from new covers drawn by Richard Elson; this happened at short notice – Kitching wasn't aware that issue 184 would be his last until he requested an extension for the ten-issue storyline he was in the middle of writing, having already made plans for future stories that would follow it. He revealed the cancellation to fans on the unofficial STC Yahoo! Groups mailing list on 19 April 2000, a little over t
The United Kingdom the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, sometimes referred to as Britain, is a sovereign country located off the north-western coast of the European mainland. The United Kingdom includes the island of Great Britain, the north-eastern part of the island of Ireland, many smaller islands. Northern Ireland is the only part of the United Kingdom that shares a land border with another sovereign state, the Republic of Ireland. Apart from this land border, the United Kingdom is surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean, with the North Sea to the east, the English Channel to the south and the Celtic Sea to the south-west, giving it the 12th-longest coastline in the world; the Irish Sea lies between Great Ireland. With an area of 242,500 square kilometres, the United Kingdom is the 78th-largest sovereign state in the world, it is the 22nd-most populous country, with an estimated 66.0 million inhabitants in 2017. The UK is constitutional monarchy; the current monarch is Queen Elizabeth II, who has reigned since 1952, making her the longest-serving current head of state.
The United Kingdom's capital and largest city is London, a global city and financial centre with an urban area population of 10.3 million. Other major urban areas in the UK include Greater Manchester, the West Midlands and West Yorkshire conurbations, Greater Glasgow and the Liverpool Built-up Area; the United Kingdom consists of four constituent countries: England, Scotland and Northern Ireland. Their capitals are London, Edinburgh and Belfast, respectively. Apart from England, the countries have their own devolved governments, each with varying powers, but such power is delegated by the Parliament of the United Kingdom, which may enact laws unilaterally altering or abolishing devolution; the nearby Isle of Man, Bailiwick of Guernsey and Bailiwick of Jersey are not part of the UK, being Crown dependencies with the British Government responsible for defence and international representation. The medieval conquest and subsequent annexation of Wales by the Kingdom of England, followed by the union between England and Scotland in 1707 to form the Kingdom of Great Britain, the union in 1801 of Great Britain with the Kingdom of Ireland created the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
Five-sixths of Ireland seceded from the UK in 1922, leaving the present formulation of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. There are fourteen British Overseas Territories, the remnants of the British Empire which, at its height in the 1920s, encompassed a quarter of the world's land mass and was the largest empire in history. British influence can be observed in the language and political systems of many of its former colonies; the United Kingdom is a developed country and has the world's fifth-largest economy by nominal GDP and ninth-largest economy by purchasing power parity. It has a high-income economy and has a high Human Development Index rating, ranking 14th in the world, it was the world's first industrialised country and the world's foremost power during the 19th and early 20th centuries. The UK remains a great power, with considerable economic, military and political influence internationally, it is sixth in military expenditure in the world. It has been a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council since its first session in 1946.
It has been a leading member state of the European Union and its predecessor, the European Economic Community, since 1973. The United Kingdom is a member of the Commonwealth of Nations, the Council of Europe, the G7, the G20, NATO, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development and the World Trade Organization; the 1707 Acts of Union declared that the kingdoms of England and Scotland were "United into One Kingdom by the Name of Great Britain". The term "United Kingdom" has been used as a description for the former kingdom of Great Britain, although its official name from 1707 to 1800 was "Great Britain"; the Acts of Union 1800 united the kingdom of Great Britain and the kingdom of Ireland in 1801, forming the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. Following the partition of Ireland and the independence of the Irish Free State in 1922, which left Northern Ireland as the only part of the island of Ireland within the United Kingdom, the name was changed to the "United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland".
Although the United Kingdom is a sovereign country, Scotland and Northern Ireland are widely referred to as countries. The UK Prime Minister's website has used the phrase "countries within a country" to describe the United Kingdom; some statistical summaries, such as those for the twelve NUTS 1 regions of the United Kingdom refer to Scotland and Northern Ireland as "regions". Northern Ireland is referred to as a "province". With regard to Northern Ireland, the descriptive name used "can be controversial, with the choice revealing one's political preferences"; the term "Great Britain" conventionally refers to the island of Great Britain, or politically to England and Wales in combination. However, it is sometimes used as a loose synonym for the United Kingdom as a whole; the term "Britain" is used both as a synonym for Great Britain, as a synonym for the United Kingdom. Usage is mixed, with the BBC preferring to use Britain as shorthand only for Great Britain and the UK Government, while accepting that both terms refer to the United K
Chief executive officer
The chief executive officer or just chief executive, is the most senior corporate, executive, or administrative officer in charge of managing an organization – an independent legal entity such as a company or nonprofit institution. CEOs lead a range of organizations, including public and private corporations, non-profit organizations and some government organizations; the CEO of a corporation or company reports to the board of directors and is charged with maximizing the value of the entity, which may include maximizing the share price, market share, revenues or another element. In the non-profit and government sector, CEOs aim at achieving outcomes related to the organization's mission, such as reducing poverty, increasing literacy, etc. In the early 21st century, top executives had technical degrees in science, engineering or law; the responsibility of an organization's CEO are set by the organization's board of directors or other authority, depending on the organization's legal structure.
They can be far-reaching or quite limited and are enshrined in a formal delegation of authority. Responsibilities include being a decision maker on strategy and other key policy issues, leader and executor; the communicator role can involve speaking to the press and the rest of the outside world, as well as to the organization's management and employees. As a leader of the company, the CEO or MD advises the board of directors, motivates employees, drives change within the organization; as a manager, the CEO/MD presides over the organization's day-to-day operations. The term refers to the person who makes all the key decisions regarding the company, which includes all sectors and fields of the business, including operations, business development, human resources, etc; the CEO of a company is not the owner of the company. In some countries, there is a dual board system with two separate boards, one executive board for the day-to-day business and one supervisory board for control purposes. In these countries, the CEO presides over the executive board and the chairman presides over the supervisory board, these two roles will always be held by different people.
This ensures a distinction between management by the executive board and governance by the supervisory board. This allows for clear lines of authority; the aim is to prevent a conflict of interest and too much power being concentrated in the hands of one person. In the United States, the board of directors is equivalent to the supervisory board, while the executive board may be known as the executive committee. In the United States, in business, the executive officers are the top officers of a corporation, the chief executive officer being the best-known type; the definition varies. In the case of a sole proprietorship, an executive officer is the sole proprietor. In the case of a partnership, an executive officer is a managing partner, senior partner, or administrative partner. In the case of a limited liability company, executive officer is any manager, or officer. A CEO has several subordinate executives, each of whom has specific functional responsibilities referred to as senior executives, executive officers or corporate officers.
Subordinate executives are given different titles in different organizations, but one common category of subordinate executive, if the CEO is the president, is the vice-president. An organization may have more than one vice-president, each tasked with a different area of responsibility; some organizations have subordinate executive officers who have the word chief in their job title, such as chief operating officer, chief financial officer and chief technology officer. The public relations-focused position of chief reputation officer is sometimes included as one such subordinate executive officer, but, as suggested by Anthony Johndrow, CEO of Reputation Economy Advisors, it can be seen as "simply another way to add emphasis to the role of a modern-day CEO – where they are both the external face of, the driving force behind, an organisation culture". In the US, the term chief executive officer is used in business, whereas the term executive director is used in the not-for-profit sector; these terms are mutually exclusive and refer to distinct legal duties and responsibilities.
Implicit in the use of these titles, is that the public not be misled and the general standard regarding their use be applied. In the UK, chief executive and chief executive officer are used in both business and the charitable sector; as of 2013, the use of the term director for senior charity staff is deprecated to avoid confusion with the legal duties and responsibilities associated with being a charity director or trustee, which are non-executive roles. In the United Kingdom, the term director is used instead of chief officer". Business publicists since the days of Edward Bernays and his client John D. Rockefeller and more the corporate publicists for Henry Ford, promoted the concept of the "celebrity CEO". Business journalists have adopted this approach, which assumes that the corporate achievements in the arena of manufacturing, wer
Buster was a British comic which carried a mixture of humour and adventure strips, although the former replaced the latter. It was published by IPC Magazines Ltd. There were weeks worth of issues due to strikes. There were 1,902 issues in total; the title character, whose strip appeared on the front cover, was Buster himself. He was billed as Buster: Son of Andy Capp. In early issues Buster referred to his father, Andy was seen in the comic. Buster's mum was referred to by name, was drawn to resemble Andy's wife Flo; the connection with Andy Capp was forgotten over time, Andy no longer appeared in the strip by the mid-1960s. From 1965 the strip instead featured Buster in two long-running series: as lead character in the durable "Buster's Diary" and in "Buster's Dream World". A Swedish edition of Buster began in 1967. At first, most of the material was taken from the UK edition. See Buster for more information. In its final years, the comic consisted of reprints from either Buster itself or from the twelve comics which had merged with it over its 40-year run.
The final strip was written by the last cartoonist for J. Edward Oliver; the last page of that final issue revealed how every story in the comic ended in a humorous reversal of the obvious, or expected, manner. In March 2009, Egmont UK announced they were intending to publish four one-off specials, celebrating the comics Roy of the Rovers, Battle and Misty. To mark this event, the website BusterComic.co.uk held a poll in which users could vote for their favourite Buster strip. The results were released in May 2009, with "X Ray Specs"; this was passed onto Egmont, the special was due for release on 16 September 2009. Misty and Buster had their release dates swapped, the Buster special was released on 9 December 2009. On 19 March 2012, the Royal Mail launched a special stamp collection to celebrate Britain's rich comic book history; the collection featured The Beano, The Dandy, The Topper, Roy of the Rovers, Buster, Twinkle and 2000 AD. In August 2016 Rebellion Purchased The IPC/Fleetway comics back catalogue of British comics and characters and in July 2017 published Buster classic The leopard from Lime St.
With other Buster strips Marney the fox to follow in October and Faceache in December 2017,with other comics characters from the pages of Scream going to be published in what is the resurgence of British Comics. As occurred with other British comics such as The Dandy, many other comics merged with Buster over the years, in consequence of which Buster inherited some of their characters: Radio Fun - which itself had merged with The Wonder. Film Fun - which itself had merged with Picture Fun, Kinema Comic, Film Picture Stories, Illustrated Chips and Top Spot; the Big One Giggle Jet Cor!! Monster Fun Jackpot School Fun Nipper Oink! Whizzer and Chips - which itself had absorbed Whoopee!, Scouse Mouse and Knockout Here is a list of how the strips came to an end in the final issue: Benny Bones of Lazy Bones tells the doctor that he is suffering from insomnia. Joker reveals. Chalky is arrested for vandalism. Captain Crucial has a bad hair day. Odd Ball bursts. Sweet Tooth suffers from tooth decay. Tom Thug is horrified to discover that he has passed his exams with flying colours, meaning he is no longer a brainless bully.
Bernie Banks of Memory Banks dies. Junior Rotter becomes the Prime Minister. Tony Broke is happy because his parents have won 90 squillion pounds on the National Lottery, making Tony and his family mega-rich. Ivor Lott has broken down in tears because his father has lost all of his money investing in the Buster comic, making Ivor and his family poor. Thus, Ivor Lott and Tony Broke have swapped places, with Tony being rich and Ivor being poor. Melvyn of Melvyn's Mirror breaks the mirror, resulting in seven years' bad luck, but in Mirrorland, it's the opposite, but it means that Melvyn will never see his family again and will be stuck in Mirrorland forever. Bobby of Bobby's Ghoul has grown old, so his ghoul-friend breaks up with him. Watford Gapp can't think of a word rhyming with "oblige", so he cannot finish his poem. Fuss Pot is too fussy to appear in the comic. Ray of X-Ray Specs has his specs taken back by I. Squint, the optician because he says that he only lent Ray the specs in 1975, that he couldn't keep them.
Jon and Suzy of Double Trouble have started to like each other