Professional wrestling holds
Professional wrestling holds include a number of set moves and pins used by performers to immobilize their opponents or lead to a submission. This article covers the various pins and transition holds used in the ring; some wrestlers use these holds as their finishing maneuvers nicknaming them to reflect their character or persona. Moves are listed under general categories whenever possible. An element borrowed from professional wrestling's catch wrestling origins, stretches are techniques in which a wrestler holds another in a position that puts stress on the opponent's body. Stretches are employed to weaken an opponent or to force them to submit, either vocally or by tapping out: slapping the mat, floor, or opponent with a free hand three times. Many of these holds, when applied vigorously, stretch the opponent's muscles or twist their joints uncomfortably, hence the name. Chokes, although not in general stress positions like the other stretches, are grouped with stretches as they serve the same tactical purposes.
In public performance, for safety's sake, stretches are not performed to the point where the opponent must submit or risk injury. Chokes are not applied to the point where they cut off the oxygen supply to the opponent's brain; the wrestler begins the hold by standing over a face-down opponent. He reaches down to pull the opposing wrestler up sits on his back, places both of his opponents' arms across his thighs locking at least one by placing the arm in the crook of his knee. Once the wrestler has the opponent's arms where he wants them, he reaches forward, cups his hands in a manner so that his fingers are interlocking grabs the opponent's chin in his cupped hands and leans back, pulling on the opponent's chin and applying pressure to his back. A camel clutch can refer to a rear chinlock while seated on the back of an opponent, without placing the arms on the thighs; the move was invented by Gory Guerrero in Mexico, where it was called la de a caballo, but got its more common name from Ed Farhat, who wrestled as "The Sheik" and used it as his finisher.
Rusev performs a variation he calls The Accolade, where he stomps on his opponent's back before applying the hold. A standing variation of the camel clutch is used, with this variation popularized by Scott Steiner in the late 1990s as he used it as his finisher dubbed the Steiner Recliner A rolling variation of the camel clutch is used with this variation popularized by Maryse Ouellet dubbed French Pain; the attacking wrestler stands over a face down opponent. The wrestler first hooks each of the opponent's legs underneath his own armpits as if performing a reverse Boston crab, the wrestler reaches down and underneath the opponent's chin with both hands applying a chinlock leaning back to pull up the opponent's head and neck. Another version of the move is similar to a wheelbarrow facebuster but instead illegally pulls the hair of the opponent while leaning back to pull up the opponent's head and neck; the attacking wrestler stands over a face down opponent. The wrestler grabs one of the opponent's arms in a stepover armlock, turning 360° so the opponent's arm is bent around the leg of the attacking wrestler, the wrestler will sandwich the arm between his own leg and the side of the opponent's body.
The wrestler reaches forwards and applies a chinlock as in a standard camel clutch, leaning backwards to apply pressure to the upper back and arm. The camel clutch is used by Jinder Mahal and Rusev. Known as a rear chinlock, the attacking wrestler crouches down behind a sitting opponent and places their knee into the opponent's upper back, they reach forward and grasp the opponent's chin with both hands; the attacker either pulls straight back on the chin or wrenches it to the side. A maneuver similar to a neck wrench where the wrestler faces a bent over opponent; the attacking wrestler tucks the opponent's top/back of the head into his own chest as wraps an arm around the neck so that the forearm is pressed against the throat. The wrestler places his own spare arm under the other hand and over the opponent's back to lock in the hold, compressing the opponent's neck; the attacking wrestler can arch backwards, pulling the opponent's head downward. This move sees the attacker kneel behind a sitting opponent and wrap around one arm under the opponent's chin and lock their hands.
As with a sleeper hold, this move can be performed from a standing position. Another variation of this hold, referred to as a bridging reverse chinlock, sees the attacking wrestler crouch before a face down opponent and wrap around one arm under the opponent's chin and locking their hands before applying a bridge. Known as the "iron claw", the claw involves the attacker gripping the top of the head of the opponent with one hand and squeezing the tips of their fingers into the opponent's skull, thereby applying five different points of pressure; this can be transitioned into a clawhold STO. There is double-handed version sometimes known as a head vise, the wrestler performing the hold approaches their opponent from behind and grip their head with both hands. While in the vise, the wrestler can control their opponent by squeezing the temples and bring them down to a seated position where more pressure can be exerted, it was invented and used by Baron von Raschke as well as many members of the Von Erich family, Blackjack Mulligan.
The double-handed version was a signature submission of The Great Khali dubbed the Vice Grip. A maneuver which, when applied against an individual, is purported to cause intense, legitimate pain; the hold is applied whe
North America is a continent within the Northern Hemisphere and all within the Western Hemisphere. It is bordered to the north by the Arctic Ocean, to the east by the Atlantic Ocean, to the west and south by the Pacific Ocean, to the southeast by South America and the Caribbean Sea. North America covers an area of about 24,709,000 square kilometers, about 16.5% of the earth's land area and about 4.8% of its total surface. North America is the third largest continent by area, following Asia and Africa, the fourth by population after Asia and Europe. In 2013, its population was estimated at nearly 579 million people in 23 independent states, or about 7.5% of the world's population, if nearby islands are included. North America was reached by its first human populations during the last glacial period, via crossing the Bering land bridge 40,000 to 17,000 years ago; the so-called Paleo-Indian period is taken to have lasted until about 10,000 years ago. The Classic stage spans the 6th to 13th centuries.
The Pre-Columbian era ended in 1492, the transatlantic migrations—the arrival of European settlers during the Age of Discovery and the Early Modern period. Present-day cultural and ethnic patterns reflect interactions between European colonists, indigenous peoples, African slaves and their descendants. Owing to the European colonization of the Americas, most North Americans speak English, Spanish or French, their culture reflects Western traditions; the Americas are accepted as having been named after the Italian explorer Amerigo Vespucci by the German cartographers Martin Waldseemüller and Matthias Ringmann. Vespucci, who explored South America between 1497 and 1502, was the first European to suggest that the Americas were not the East Indies, but a different landmass unknown by Europeans. In 1507, Waldseemüller produced a world map, in which he placed the word "America" on the continent of South America, in the middle of what is today Brazil, he explained the rationale for the name in the accompanying book Cosmographiae Introductio:... ab Americo inventore... quasi Americi terram sive Americam.
For Waldseemüller, no one should object to the naming of the land after its discoverer. He used the Latinized version of Vespucci's name, but in its feminine form "America", following the examples of "Europa", "Asia" and "Africa". Other mapmakers extended the name America to the northern continent, In 1538, Gerard Mercator used America on his map of the world for all the Western Hemisphere; some argue that because the convention is to use the surname for naming discoveries, the derivation from "Amerigo Vespucci" could be put in question. In 1874, Thomas Belt proposed a derivation from the Amerrique mountains of Central America. Marcou corresponded with Augustus Le Plongeon, who wrote: "The name AMERICA or AMERRIQUE in the Mayan language means, a country of perpetually strong wind, or the Land of the Wind, and... the can mean... a spirit that breathes, life itself." The United Nations formally recognizes "North America" as comprising three areas: Northern America, Central America, The Caribbean.
This has been formally defined by the UN Statistics Division. The term North America maintains various definitions in accordance with context. In Canadian English, North America refers to the land mass as a whole consisting of Mexico, the United States, Canada, although it is ambiguous which other countries are included, is defined by context. In the United States of America, usage of the term may refer only to Canada and the US, sometimes includes Greenland and Mexico, as well as offshore islands. In France, Portugal, Romania and the countries of Latin America, the cognates of North America designate a subcontinent of the Americas comprising Canada, the United States, Mexico, Greenland, Saint Pierre et Miquelon, Bermuda. North America has been referred to by other names. Spanish North America was referred to as Northern America, this was the first official name given to Mexico. Geographically the North American continent has many subregions; these include cultural and geographic regions. Economic regions included those formed by trade blocs, such as the North American Trade Agreement bloc and Central American Trade Agreement.
Linguistically and culturally, the continent could be divided into Latin America. Anglo-America includes most of Northern America and Caribbean islands with English-speaking populations; the southern North American continent is composed of two regions. These are the Caribbean; the north of the continent maintains recognized regions as well. In contrast to the common definition of "North America", which encompasses the whole continent, the term "North America" is sometimes used to refer only to Mexico, the United States, Greenland; the term Northern America refers to the northern-most countries and territories of North America: the United States, Bermuda, St. Pierre and Miquelon and Greenland. Although the term does not refer to a unifie
Florida is the southernmost contiguous state in the United States. The state is bordered to the west by the Gulf of Mexico, to the northwest by Alabama, to the north by Georgia, to the east by the Atlantic Ocean, to the south by the Straits of Florida. Florida is the 22nd-most extensive, the 3rd-most populous, the 8th-most densely populated of the U. S. states. Jacksonville is the most populous municipality in the state and the largest city by area in the contiguous United States; the Miami metropolitan area is Florida's most populous urban area. Tallahassee is the state's capital. Florida's $1.0 trillion economy is the fourth largest in the United States. If it were a country, Florida would be the 16th largest economy in the world, the 58th most populous as of 2018. In 2017, Florida's per capita personal income was ranking 26th in the nation; the unemployment rate in September 2018 was 3.5% and ranked as the 18th in the United States. Florida exports nearly $55 billion in goods made in the 8th highest among all states.
The Miami Metropolitan Area is by far the largest urban economy in Florida and the 12th largest in the United States with a GDP of $344.9 billion as of 2017. This is more than twice the number of the next metro area, the Tampa Bay Area, which has a GDP of $145.3 billion. Florida is home to 51 of the world's billionaires with most of them residing in South Florida; the first European contact was made in 1513 by Spanish explorer Juan Ponce de León, who called it la Florida upon landing there in the Easter season, known in Spanish as Pascua Florida. Florida was a challenge for the European colonial powers before it gained statehood in the United States in 1845, it was a principal location of the Seminole Wars against the Native Americans, racial segregation after the American Civil War. Today, Florida is distinctive for its large Cuban expatriate community and high population growth, as well as for its increasing environmental issues; the state's economy relies on tourism and transportation, which developed in the late 19th century.
Florida is renowned for amusement parks, orange crops, winter vegetables, the Kennedy Space Center, as a popular destination for retirees. Florida is the flattest state in the United States. Lake Okeechobee is the largest freshwater lake in the U. S. state of Florida. Florida's close proximity to the ocean influences many aspects of daily life. Florida is a reflection of multiple inheritance. Florida has attracted many writers such as Marjorie Kinnan Rawlings, Ernest Hemingway and Tennessee Williams, continues to attract celebrities and athletes, it is internationally known for golf, auto racing, water sports. Several beaches in Florida have emerald-colored coastal waters. About two-thirds of Florida occupies a peninsula between the Gulf of the Atlantic Ocean. Florida has the longest coastline in the contiguous United States 1,350 miles, not including the contribution of the many barrier islands. Florida has a total of 4,510 islands; this is the second-highest number of islands of any state of the United States.
It is the only state that borders both the Gulf of the Atlantic Ocean. Much of the state is characterized by sedimentary soil. Florida has the lowest high point of any U. S. state. The climate varies from subtropical in the north to tropical in the south; the American alligator, American crocodile, American flamingo, Roseate spoonbill, Florida panther, bottlenose dolphin, manatee can be found in Everglades National Park in the southern part of the state. Along with Hawaii, Florida is one of only two states that has a tropical climate, is the only continental state with either a tropical climate or a coral reef; the Florida Reef is the only living coral barrier reef in the continental United States, the third-largest coral barrier reef system in the world. By the 16th century, the earliest time for which there is a historical record, major Native American groups included the Apalachee of the Florida Panhandle, the Timucua of northern and central Florida, the Ais of the central Atlantic coast, the Tocobaga of the Tampa Bay area, the Calusa of southwest Florida and the Tequesta of the southeastern coast.
Florida was the first region of the continental United States to be visited and settled by Europeans. The earliest known European explorers came with the Spanish conquistador Juan Ponce de León. Ponce de León spotted and landed on the peninsula on April 2, 1513, he named the region Florida. The story that he was searching for the Fountain of Youth is mythical and only appeared long after his death. In May 1539, Conquistador Hernando de Soto skirted the coast of Florida, searching for a deep harbor to land, he described seeing a thick wall of red mangroves spread mile after mile, some reaching as high as 70 feet, with intertwined and elevated roots making landing difficult. The Spanish introduced Christianity, horses, the Castilian language, more to Florida. Spain established several settlements with varying degrees of success. In 1559, Don Tristán de Luna y Arellano established a settlement at present-day Pensacola, making it the first attempted settlement in Florida, but it was abandoned by 1561.
In 1565, the settlement of St. Augustine was established under the leadership of admiral and
Tag team wrestling is a type of professional wrestling in which matches are contested between teams of multiple wrestlers. A tag team may be made up of wrestlers who wrestle in singles competition, but more are made of established teams who wrestle as a unit and have a team name and identity. In most team matches, only one competitor per team is allowed in the ring at a time; this status as the active or legal wrestler may be transferred by physical contact, most a palm-to-palm tag which resembles a high five. The team-based match has been a mainstay of professional wrestling since the mid-twentieth century, most promotions have sanctioned a championship division for tag teams. In 1901 the first tag team match was held in San Francisco. While tag team wrestling is now traditional in American professional wrestling, the innovation didn't become popular outside San Francisco until the 1930s; the first "World" tag team championship was crowned in San Francisco in the early 1950s. Tag matches with three-man teams were developed, in some territories, a championship division was instituted for these teams, but the concept failed to become popular.
A tag team championship is awarded to and defended by a team of two. However, during the 1970s and 1980s, a dominant trio in the NWA known as The Fabulous Freebirds won several regional tag team championship and were allowed to employ any combination of the group's members in their title defenses. In kayfabe, this made it difficult for challengers to prepare for their upcoming title fights since the challengers didn't know who they were facing; this is still utilized by other wrestling companies. The stipulation has become traditionally known as the "freebird rule". A common storyline is former tag team partners turning on each other, which will invariably ignite a feud; this can be used. The basic tag team match has two teams of two wrestlers facing off against each other. All standard rules for singles wrestling apply to a team match. However, only one wrestler from each team, called the "legal man" is allowed in the ring at a time. All other members of the team wait outside the ropes in the team's specified corner.
Only an active/legal wrestler have a fall scored against him/her. But any wrestler, legal or outside, may face disqualification for himself or his team for violating rules. Once a tag is made, the wrestler tagging out has a grace period to leave the ring before risking disqualification. Offensive cooperation from a team member is allowed during this time window; the wrestler outside the ring must be touching the tag rope tied in the corner. Tags are legal as long as the two team members touch; the referee has to see and/or hear the contact between the two wrestlers in order for the tag to be legal. As the ultimate authority over the match, a referee may overlook any of these at his discretion, during the frenzied action will be more lenient with them. In some multi-man tag matches in lucha libre, a wrestler can make himself the team's legal man by setting foot in the ring, his partner leaves; this allows for action to become nearly continuous. Two referees, one stationed inside the ring and one on the floor, are employed to maintain order for this type of match.
In independent discussion and analysis of matches, certain terms are used to describe specific scenarios involving tag team matches. These are timed to inject drama into a match. One spot common to many tag team match is the hot tag. One member of one team is in the ring, too weakened to move or otherwise impaired, while his partner watches helplessly, struggling to reach him for a tag; the tension builds as the legal man is unable to tag out until something happens that allows the first team to tag and reverse the momentum of the match in their favor. When done well, this results in a large audience reaction, was the typical climax of tag matches for decades. WWE employs this tactic in nearly every tag team match to the point that they fired a referee in 2008 after a botched finish that, while the match produced the intended finish, didn't feature a hot tag. A common variation on the hot tag sees both wrestlers from the heel team attacking a face, while his partner protests to the referee about this bending of the rules.
The weakened face wrestler does make the tag to his partner, who comes in as the fresh man and is able to take on both opponents quite easily. A blind tag is a legal tag made without the legal opponent's knowledge while his back is turned; this allows the team who uses it an opportunity to confuse the legal opponent, who turns to face what he assumes to be his opponent only to be attacked by the true legal man from behind. A tag team match involving more than two wrestlers per team is referred to by the total number of people involved, whil
The Unreal Engine is a game engine developed by Epic Games, first showcased in the 1998 first-person shooter game Unreal. Although developed for first-person shooters, it has been used in a variety of other genres, including stealth, fighting games, MMORPGs, other RPGs. With its code written in C++, the Unreal Engine features a high degree of portability and is a tool used by many game developers today, with it being source-available; the most recent version is Unreal Engine 4, released in 2014. The first generation Unreal Engine was developed by the founder of Epic Games. Sweeney, who had experience on creating editing tools, such as those programmed for ZZT and Jill of the Jungle, began writing the engine in 1995 for the production of a game that would become known as Unreal, a first-person shooter. After years in development, it debuted with the game's release in 1998, although licensees such as MicroProse and Legend Entertainment had possessed the technology much earlier, with the first licensing deal taking place in 1996.
Both software and hardware rendering were present in the foundational software, as well as collision detection, colored lighting, a rudimentary version of texture filtering. The engine provided a level editor, UnrealEd, that had support for real-time constructive solid geometry operations as early as 1996, allowing mappers to change the level layout "on the fly". Other features implemented during the engine's development included real-time direct illumination and light sourcing, which were integrated in 1995 and 1997. In addition to having support for Microsoft Windows and Mac, Unreal Tournament opened the platform to PlayStation 2 and, with the help of Secret Level, to Dreamcast. In 2000, Epic updated the engine with new improvements, including higher-polygon models and architecture, a skeletal animation system and large-scale terrain support. By late 1999, The New York Times indicated that the number of external projects using Epic's technology was 16, naming the likes of Deus Ex, The Wheel of Time and Duke Nukem Forever, the title from 3D Realms, set to debut the series on the GameCube console.
While it cost around $3 million to produce and licenses for up to $350,000, Epic gave modders the ability to create their own worlds with the incorporation of UnrealEd and a scripting language called UnrealScript in its games, sparking a community of enthusiasts around a game engine built to be extensible and improved over multiple generations of games. The big goal with the Unreal technology all long was to build up a base of code that could be extended and improved through many generations of games. Meeting that goal required keeping the technology quite general-purpose, writing clean code, designing the engine to be extensible; the early plans to design an extensible multi-generational engine happened to give us a great advantage in licensing the technology as it reached completion. After we did a couple of licensing deals, we realised. Since it has become a major component of our strategy; the second version made its debut in 2002 with America's Army, a free multiplayer shooter developed by the U.
S. Army as a recruitment tool. Though based on previous technology, this generation saw the renderer re-written, the inclusion of a variety of features such as the Matinee cinematic editing tool, export plug-ins for 3D Studio Max and Maya, the Karma physics engine, a tool by Math Engine that powered the ragdoll physics in Unreal Tournament 2003. In addition, it featured UnrealEd 2, which debuted with the previous generation of the engine and was shortly followed by UnrealEd 3. Other engine elements were updated, with improved assets as well as adding support for the Xbox. UE2.5, an update to the original version of UE2, improved rendering performance and added vehicles physics, a particle system editor for UnrealEd, 64-bit support in Unreal Tournament 2004. A specialized version of UE2 called UE2X was used for Unreal Championship 2: The Liandri Conflict on the original Xbox platform, featuring optimizations specific to that console. In March 2011, Ubisoft Montreal revealed that UE2 was running on the Nintendo 3DS.
Screenshots of Unreal Engine 3 were presented in 2004, at which point the engine had been in development for over 18 months. Unlike Unreal Engine 2, which still supported fixed-function pipeline, Unreal Engine 3 was designed to take advantage of programmable shader hardware. All lighting calculations were done per-pixel, instead of per-vertex. On the rendering side, Unreal Engine 3 provided support for a gamma-correct high-dynamic range renderer; the first games released using Unreal Engine 3 were Gears of War for Xbox 360, RoboBlitz for Windows, which were both released on November 7, 2006. Unreal Engine 3 only supported Windows, PlayStation 3, Xbox 360 platforms, while iOS and Android were added in 2010, with Infinity Blade being the first iOS title and Dungeon Defenders the first Android title. OS X support was added in 2011; the same year it was announced that the engine would support Adobe Flash Player 11 through the Stage 3D hardware-accelerated APIs and that it was being used in two Wii U games, Batman: Arkham City and Aliens: Colonial Marines.
The Wii is a home video game console released by Nintendo on November 19, 2006. As a seventh-generation console, the Wii competed with Microsoft's Xbox 360 and Sony's PlayStation 3. Nintendo states; as of the first quarter of 2016, the Wii led its generation over the PlayStation 3 and Xbox 360 in worldwide sales, with more than 101 million units sold. The Wii introduced the Wii Remote controller, which can be used as a handheld pointing device and which detects movement in three dimensions; the console runs games supplied on Wii optical discs. It supported the now discontinued WiiConnect24 service, which enabled Wii to receive messages and updates over the Internet while in standby mode. Like other seventh-generation consoles it supported a service, called "Virtual Console", that downloaded emulated games from past Nintendo consoles, support for online video streaming such as BBC iPlayer, other services provided by Nintendo over the Internet. Internet services were withdrawn. Wii Points could no longer be purchased after March 2018, could not be used and were permanently lost from 31 January 2019.
The Wii succeeded the GameCube. Nintendo first spoke of the console at the E3 2004 press conference and unveiled it at E3 2005. Nintendo CEO Satoru Iwata revealed a prototype of the controller at the September 2005 Tokyo Game Show. At E3 2006, the console won the first of several awards. By December 8, 2006, it had completed its launch in the four key markets. Models are no longer compatible with Nintendo GameCube. In late 2011, Nintendo released a reconfigured model, the "Wii Family Edition", not released in Japan; the Wii Mini, Nintendo's first major console redesign since the compact SNES, succeeded the standard Wii model and was released first in Canada on December 7, 2012. The Wii Mini can only play Wii optical discs, as it has neither GameCube compatibility nor any networking capabilities; the Wii's successor, the Wii U, was released on November 18, 2012. On October 20, 2013, Nintendo confirmed it had discontinued production of the Wii in Japan and Europe; the console was conceived in 2001.
According to an interview with Nintendo game designer Shigeru Miyamoto, the concept involved focusing on a new form of player interaction. "The consensus was. Too many powerful consoles can't coexist. It's like having only ferocious dinosaurs, they might fight and hasten their own extinction."In 2003, game engineers and designers were brought together to develop the concept further. By 2005 the controller interface had taken form, but a public showing at that year's Electronic Entertainment Expo was canceled. Miyamoto stated. So we decided not to reveal the controller and instead we displayed just the console." Nintendo president Satoru Iwata unveiled and demonstrated the Wii Remote at the September Tokyo Game Show. The Nintendo DS is said to have influenced the Wii's design. Designer Ken'ichiro Ashida noted, "We had the DS on our minds as we worked on the Wii. We thought about copying the DS's touch-panel interface and came up with a prototype." The idea was rejected because of the notion that the two gaming systems would be identical.
Miyamoto stated, " if the DS had flopped, we might have taken the Wii back to the drawing board." In June 2011 Nintendo unveiled the prototype of its successor to the Wii, to be known as the Wii U. The console was known by the code name "Revolution" from May 11, 2004 when its codename was announced at Nintendo's 2004 pre-Electronics Entertainment Expo press conference in Los Angeles, California until April 27, 2006 before E3. Before the Wii's codename was announced, the media referred to the console as "GCNext" or Gamecube Next and "N5" or Nintendo's fifth major home console. Nintendo's spelling of "Wii" is intended to resemble two people standing side-by-side and to represent the Wii Remote and Nunchuk. One reason the company has given for this name choice since the announcement is: Some video game developers and members of the press stated that they preferred "Revolution" over "Wii". Forbes expressed a fear "that the name would convey a continued sense of'kidiness' to the console." The BBC reported the day after the name was announced that "a long list of puerile jokes, based on the name," had appeared on the Internet.
Nintendo of America's Vice President of Corporate Affairs Perrin Kaplan defended the choice of "Wii" over "Revolution" and responded to critics of the name, stating "Live with it, sleep with it, eat with it, move along with it and they'll arrive at the same place." Nintendo of America's president Reggie Fils-Aime acknowledged the initial reaction and further explained the change: The Nintendo Style Guide refers to the console as "simply Wii, not Nintendo Wii", making it the first home console Nintendo has marketed outside Japan without the company name in its trademark. The Wii's successor, the Wii U, was marketed without Nintendo in its name, although its successor, the Nintendo Switch, brought back the Nintendo name in marketing. On September 14, 2006 Nintendo announced release information for J
England is a country, part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Wales to Scotland to the north-northwest; the Irish Sea lies west of England and the Celtic Sea lies to the southwest. England is separated from continental Europe by the North Sea to the east and the English Channel to the south; the country covers five-eighths of the island of Great Britain, which lies in the North Atlantic, includes over 100 smaller islands, such as the Isles of Scilly and the Isle of Wight. The area now called England was first inhabited by modern humans during the Upper Palaeolithic period, but takes its name from the Angles, a Germanic tribe deriving its name from the Anglia peninsula, who settled during the 5th and 6th centuries. England became a unified state in the 10th century, since the Age of Discovery, which began during the 15th century, has had a significant cultural and legal impact on the wider world; the English language, the Anglican Church, English law – the basis for the common law legal systems of many other countries around the world – developed in England, the country's parliamentary system of government has been adopted by other nations.
The Industrial Revolution began in 18th-century England, transforming its society into the world's first industrialised nation. England's terrain is chiefly low hills and plains in central and southern England. However, there is upland and mountainous terrain in the west; the capital is London, which has the largest metropolitan area in both the United Kingdom and the European Union. England's population of over 55 million comprises 84% of the population of the United Kingdom concentrated around London, the South East, conurbations in the Midlands, the North West, the North East, Yorkshire, which each developed as major industrial regions during the 19th century; the Kingdom of England – which after 1535 included Wales – ceased being a separate sovereign state on 1 May 1707, when the Acts of Union put into effect the terms agreed in the Treaty of Union the previous year, resulting in a political union with the Kingdom of Scotland to create the Kingdom of Great Britain. In 1801, Great Britain was united with the Kingdom of Ireland to become the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
In 1922 the Irish Free State seceded from the United Kingdom, leading to the latter being renamed the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. The name "England" is derived from the Old English name Englaland, which means "land of the Angles"; the Angles were one of the Germanic tribes that settled in Great Britain during the Early Middle Ages. The Angles came from the Anglia peninsula in the Bay of Kiel area of the Baltic Sea; the earliest recorded use of the term, as "Engla londe", is in the late-ninth-century translation into Old English of Bede's Ecclesiastical History of the English People. The term was used in a different sense to the modern one, meaning "the land inhabited by the English", it included English people in what is now south-east Scotland but was part of the English kingdom of Northumbria; the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle recorded that the Domesday Book of 1086 covered the whole of England, meaning the English kingdom, but a few years the Chronicle stated that King Malcolm III went "out of Scotlande into Lothian in Englaland", thus using it in the more ancient sense.
According to the Oxford English Dictionary, its modern spelling was first used in 1538. The earliest attested reference to the Angles occurs in the 1st-century work by Tacitus, Germania, in which the Latin word Anglii is used; the etymology of the tribal name itself is disputed by scholars. How and why a term derived from the name of a tribe, less significant than others, such as the Saxons, came to be used for the entire country and its people is not known, but it seems this is related to the custom of calling the Germanic people in Britain Angli Saxones or English Saxons to distinguish them from continental Saxons of Old Saxony between the Weser and Eider rivers in Northern Germany. In Scottish Gaelic, another language which developed on the island of Great Britain, the Saxon tribe gave their name to the word for England. An alternative name for England is Albion; the name Albion referred to the entire island of Great Britain. The nominally earliest record of the name appears in the Aristotelian Corpus the 4th-century BC De Mundo: "Beyond the Pillars of Hercules is the ocean that flows round the earth.
In it are two large islands called Britannia. But modern scholarly consensus ascribes De Mundo not to Aristotle but to Pseudo-Aristotle, i.e. it was written in the Graeco-Roman period or afterwards. The word Albion or insula Albionum has two possible origins, it either derives from a cognate of the Latin albus meaning white, a reference to the white cliffs of Dover or from the phrase the "island of the Albiones" in the now lost Massaliote Periplus, attested through Avienus' Ora Maritima to which the former served as a source. Albion is now applied to England in a more poetic capacity. Another romantic name for England is Loegria, related to the Welsh word for England and made popular by its use in Arthurian legend; the earliest known evidence of human presence in the area now known as England was that of Homo antecessor, dating to approximate