The TOPS-20 operating system by Digital Equipment Corporation was a proprietary OS used on some of DEC's 36-bit mainframe computers. The Hardware Reference Manual was described as for "DECsystem-10/DECSYSTEM-20 Processor". TOPS-20 began in 1969 as the TENEX operating system of Bolt and Newman and shipped as a product by DEC starting in 1976. TOPS-20 is entirely unrelated to the named TOPS-10, but it was shipped with the PA1050 TOPS-10 Monitor Calls emulation facility which allowed most, but not all, TOPS-10 executables to run unchanged; as a matter of policy, DEC did not update PA1050 to support TOPS-10 additions except where required by DEC software. TOPS-20 competed with ITS and WAITS -- all available for the PDP-10 during this timeframe. TOPS-20 was based upon the TENEX operating system, created by BBN Technologies for Digital's PDP-10 computer. After Digital started development of the KI-10 version of the PDP-10, an issue arose: by this point TENEX was the most popular customer-written PDP-10 operating systems, but it would not run on the new, faster KI-10s.
To correct this problem, the DEC PDP-10 sales manager purchased the rights to TENEX from BBN and set up a project to port it to the new machine. In the end little of the original TENEX code remained, Digital named the resulting operating system TOPS-20; some of what came with TOPS-20 was an emulation of the TOPS-10 Operating System's calls. These were known as UUO's, standing for Unimplemented User Operation, were needed both for compilers, which were not 20-specific, to run, as well as user-programs written in these languages; the package, mapped into a user's address space was named PA1050: PA as in PAT as in compatibility. Sometimes PA1050 was referred to as PAT, a name, a good fit to the fact that PA1050, "was unprivileged user-mode code" that "performed the requested action, using JSYS calls where necessary." The major ways to get at TOPS-20 capabilities, what made TOPS-20 important, were Commands entered via the command processor, EXEC. EXE JSYS calls from MACro-language programsThe "EXEC" accomplished its work using internal code, including calls via JSYS requesting services from "GALAXY" components Rather advanced for its day were some TOPS-20-specific features: Command completion Dynamic help in the form ofnoise-words - typing DIR and pressing the ESCape key resulted inDIRectory typing "I" and pressing the <ESC> key resulted in Information One could type "?" to find out what operands were permitted/required.
The following list of commands are supported by the TOPS-20 Command Processor. JSYS stands for Jump to SYStem. Operands were at times memory addresses. "TOPS-20 allows you to use 30-bit addresses. Some monitor calls require some the other; some monitor calls use only 18 bits to hold an address. These calls interpret 18-bit addresses as locations in the current section."Internally, files were first identified, using a GTJFN JSYS, that JFN number was used to open and manipulate the file's contents. PCL is a programming language that runs under TOPS-20. PCL source programs are, by default, stored with Filetype. PCL, enable extending the TOPS-20 EXEC via a verb named DECLARE. Newly compiled commands become functionally part of the EXEC. PCL includes: flow control: DO While/Until, CASE/SELECT, IF-THEN-ELSE, GOTO character string operations access to system information Paul Allen maintained several publicly accessible historic computer systems before his death, including an XKL TOAD-2 running TOPS-20. Request an account from Living Computers: Museum + Labs and try running TOPS-20 on a hardware emulated PDP-10.
Time-sharing system evolution "DIGITAL Computing Timeline". Storage Organization and Management in TENEX. Daniel L. Murphy. AFIPS Proceedings, 1972 FJCC. Implementation of TENEX on the KI10. Daniel L. Murphy. TENEX Panel Session, NCC 1974. Origins and Development of TOPS-20. Daniel L. Murphy, 1989. "TOPS-20 User's Guide." 1988. "DECSYSTEM-20 Assembly Language Guide." Frank da Cruz and Chris Ryland, 1980. "Running TOPS-20 V4.1 under the SIMH Emulator." Origins and Development of TOPS-20 is an excellent longer history. Panda TOPS-20 distribution. SDF Public Access TWENEX. SIMH Simulator capable of simulating the PDP-10 and running TOPS-20. Manuals for DEC 36-bit computers. PDP-10 Software Archive. 36-bits Forever. Request a login to Living Computers: Museum + Labs TOAD-2 running TOPS-20
March for Jesus is an annual interdenominational event in which Christians march through towns and cities. The original March for Jesus took place in Melbourne, Australia in 1983, it was the brainchild of the Victorian Secretary of the Festival of Light. He was assisted by the Maranatha Christian Church led by Mark McClimens. 7,000 took part and the March finished at the Myer Music Bowl with a victory celebration. Guest soloist was Esther King and guest speakers were Harry Westwood and Brian Willisdorf. Everyone who attended was asked to bring a banner; the March made the evening TV news and it mentioned the vast display of banners. The March for Jesus in the United Kingdom began as a City March in London in 1986, it emerged from the friendship of three church groups: Pioneer, led by Gerald Coates. Together with the worship leader Graham Kendrick, they led a movement which over the next three years spread across the UK, Europe and North America, across the world. Hundreds of smaller marches emerged in its wake.
In 1994 the first Global March for Jesus covered every time zone and involved over ten million Christians from over 170 nations. It is estimated that, by the final Global March for Jesus on 10 June 2000, over 60 million people in 180 nations had taken part in the March for Jesus. Although the founding organisation disbanded after the 2000 march, March for Jesus continues in many countries in multiple and varied initiatives. In the United States, Jesus Day is the day that many thousands of people gather to pray and march in the name of Jesus. Graham Kendrick, Gerald Coates, Roger Forster and Lynne Green with Catherine Butcher, March for Jesus Graham Kendrick Public Praise Graham Kendrick marchforjesus Concerned Christians Canada Inc. Street Church Ministries International
Peacock is an unincorporated community in Stonewall County, United States. According to the Handbook of Texas, the community had an estimated population of 125 in 2000. Peacock is located 2 mi south of U. S. Highway 380 along FM 2211 in west central Stonewall County; the townsite was established along the now defunct Stamford and Northwestern Railroad, which stretched from Stamford to Plainview. The rail line crossed the Salt Fork Brazos River just to the southwest of Peacock near the community of Oriana. Public education in the community is provided by the Aspermont Independent School District, its post office closed in 1993