From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search
Theban tomb TT188
Burial site of Parennefer
Location El-Khokha, Theban Necropolis
← Previous
Next →

Tomb TT188, located in the necropolis of El-Khokha in Thebes in Egypt, is the tomb of the Steward and King's Cupbearer Parennefer.[1][2] It has been excavated by the Akhenaten Temple Project.

It is one of the few tombs in the Theban necropolis that was carved and decorated solely during the early years of the rule of Akhenaten,[3] the tomb is decorated with sculpted scenes, some of which were painted. The scenes were all badly damaged and the name of Parennefer was carefully removed, the decoration includes harvest scenes, the presentation of temple-staves at the inauguration of Akhenaten, and an award scene showing Parennefer before the royal couple. In the tomb Akhenaten goes by his initial name Amenhotep (IV).[1][4]

The scenes in the tomb may be the first to show Queen Nefertiti. An unnamed royal woman accompanies Akhenaten as he worships the Aten and sits besides the king in a scene showiwing Parennefer before his king and queen, the queen is thought to be Nefertiti.[5]

The scenes in the tomb of Parennefer show some of the earliest examples of Amarna style depictions, the figures show the rounded form that will become typical in Amarna art, and courtiers are shown bending from the waist with their arms hanging down.[6]

Mummies, coffins and other remains show that the tomb was later reused during the 21st and 22nd dynasties, and robber tunnels have led the way to new and unrecorded tombs, whose entrances cannot be located from outside.[citation needed]

Recent Discoveries[edit]

By tracing the multiple robber tunnels that enter the tomb, other previously unknown tombs have been located close by, these include a small painted tomb from the Ramesside period, one from the 18th Dynasty, and a tomb of the 25th Dynasty. This last tomb entrance way is constructed of mud-brick, has a large open court, and a long corridor with a series of chambers and deep shafts excavated in the bedrock.[citation needed]

Other Tomb[edit]

Parennefer also had a tomb (no 7) constructed at Amarna.[7]


  1. ^ a b Aldred, Cyril, Akhenaten: King of Egypt ,Thames and Hudson, 1991 (paperback), pp 91-92, ISBN 0-500-27621-8
  2. ^ Porter, Bertha and Moss, Rosalind, Topographical Bibliography of Ancient Egyptian Hieroglyphic Texts, Statues, Reliefs and Paintings Volume I: The Theban Necropolis, Part I. Private Tombs, Griffith Institute. 1970, pp 293-295 ASIN: B002WL4ON4
  3. ^ Murnane, William J., Texts from the Amarna Period in Egypt, Society of Biblical Literature, 1995 pp 64-66, ISBN 1-55540-966-0
  4. ^ N. de G. Davies, Akhenaten at Thebes, The Journal of Egyptian Archaeology, Vol. 9, No. 3/4 (Oct., 1923), pp. 132-152, Egypt Exploration Society, JSTOR
  5. ^ Tyldesley, Joyce. Nefertiti: Egypt's Sun Queen. Penguin. 1998. p 50 ISBN 0-670-86998-8
  6. ^ Charles F. Nims, The Transition from the Traditional to the New Style of Wall Relief under Amenhotep IV, Journal of Near Eastern Studies, Vol. 32, No. 1/2 (Jan. - Apr., 1973), pp. 181-187, The University of Chicago Press, JSTOR
  7. ^ N. de G. Davies, The rock tombs of El-Amarna, Parts V and VI, 1905 (Reprinted 2004), The Egypt Exploration Society, ISBN 0-85698-161-3