Toasted TV is an Australian children's television program, successor to Cheez TV, airs on 10 Peach from 27 February 2012 on Weekdays from 6am to 9.30am, Saturdays from 6am to 7am and Sundays from 6am to 9am. Toasted TV was aired on Network Ten from 22 August 2005 until 25 February 2012; the show is hosted by Elly Bailey. Original Replacement Current The show targets an audience of 7- to 14-year-olds; the activities of the hosts are interspersed with cartoons and anime, such as Pokémon, Avatar: The Last Airbender, Beyblade Metal Fusion, SpongeBob SquarePants, Yu-Gi-Oh! GX, Penguins of Madagascar and Bakugan. Premiering on 22 August 2005, it succeeded Cheez TV, is produced in conjunction with Village Roadshow Theme Parks, the owner of Warner Bros. Movie World, Sea World and Wet'n'Wild Water World. On 13 July 2011 to show changed to filming at Dreamworld; as of 2 July 2012, the show is shot in a studio. Regular segments on Toasted TV include: Letter of the Week, where letters are read and prizes are given out for them.
This segment now will show on a weekday. Facebook Watch, a segment where Ollie and Elly read out a topic they have posted on Facebook and the viewers replies or the posts on their Facebook feed; the Week That Was where recaps of the week are shown from Sunday to Thursday. Former segments on Toasted TV include: Appearances by a wide range of guests from sportstars to artists and celebrities. Bike Wheel of Misfortune, where the bike wheel is spun and the hosts have to do one of the many double dares that have been sent in; the Bike Wheel of Misfortune has five categories of double dare: Physical Challenge, Face Off, On Your Head, Wild Card, Down Your Pants. The most popular is "Down Your Pants"; this segment was showing on Saturdays. Brain Squeeze, the world's dodgiest quiz show, where contestants played for Wahu items. Used to be hosted by Pip and Dan. Bread Board, where viewers send in a question about a situation and the board consisting of at least four kids try to solve the problem. Chuck It In.
This is one of the most popular segments on the show. People send in their gross recipes and Kellyn and Palmer mix them in a blender and have to drink it; this segment was showing on Saturdays. Delson Asprin, portrayed by Palmer who brings in the latest scoop from Hollywood. No longer happening due to him leaving the show. E Toasted, a segment, a parody of Entertainment Tonight. Game Roadtest where Seamus test out new games that are yet to be released in Australia. Get Active Time, where a countdown timer appears every Wednesday and when it gets to zero, the hosts partake in a short exercise routine. Used to be hosted by Pip and Dan and hosted by exercise instructor "Frizzie". Portrayed by Pip, a parody of foreign fitness instructors. Nelson Asprin, portrayed by Dan who brings in the latest scoop from Hollywood. Replaced by Delson Asprin and revealed his true identity on his final appearance on Toasted TV. Song on the Spot, where random people in Movie World say a word for Pip and Dan to make up a song using the selected words.
No longer around, since Dan did the playing and left the show. Toasted TV Rise and Shine Today, where Pip Russell and Dan Sweetman do various random news reports. Parody of Channel Seven's Sunrise with Mel. Replaced by "E Toasted". Vicky Schmeckham, portrayed by Kellyn who brings in the latest music news from London. A parody of Victoria Beckham who Schmeckham points out she is not related to. On Friday, 4 July 2008, it was announced that Pip Russell would be leaving Toasted TV for Totally Wild, Network Ten's wildlife program for kids. On Thursday, 10 July 2008, it was revealed that the new female co-host is Kellyn Morris from Puzzle Play. On Friday, 11 July 2008, this was Pip's last episode on Toasted TV. On Saturday, 12 July 2008, since Pip left the show and Kellyn didn't start hosting, Dan was hosting the show solo on that day. On Monday, 14 July 2008, Kellyn started co-hosting Toasted TV. On Friday, 18 July 2008, near the end of the show, host Dan Sweetman revealed that he would be leaving the show within four weeks.
It was revealed that four candidates are up for the job with the audience having the vote for the new co-host. On Tuesday, 26 August 2008, it was revealed that the new co-host is Palmer Marchese, the same day Dan Sweetman left the show. On Wednesday, 27 August 2008, Palmer started co-hosting Toasted TV. On Saturday, 30 August 2008, Dan temporarily co-hosted Toasted TV since Kellyn wasn't present in that episode. On Thursday, 23 October 2008, Toasted TV aired its 1,000 episode. On Friday, 31 October 2008, not only was the Pokémon Mystery Dungeon: Explorers of Time & Darkness special shown at 7:30, special guest Pikachu made an appearance on this episode. From Thursday, 13 November 2008 until Tuesday, 18 November 2008, Toasted TV went to Wild. Except for Monday, where they do their "Outback Monday" segment. On Tuesday, 30 December 2008, Toasted TV announced that Saturday's edition Toasted TV will air from 6:00 am to 8:30 am, 90 minutes longer than usual. From Monday, 5 January 2009 till Wednesday, 7 January 2009, Palmer wasn't present in these episodes.
As a result, Kellyn had to host Toasted TV on her own. On Thursday, 8 January 2009, Brain Squeeze "Family Fraud" returned to the segment where Kellyn's family was against Palmer's family. Palmer won in a rock, scissors contest, despite the normal Brain Squeeze's final round was rock, anything. From Tuesday, 13 January 2009 to Wednesday, 14 January 2009, Kellyn wasn't present in these episodes due to laryngitis; as a result, Palmer had to host Toasted TV on his own. When Kellyn came back, she made a comment. On Thursday, 15
Mount Coot-tha, Queensland
Mount Coot-Tha is a mountain and a suburb in the City of Brisbane, Australia. In the 2016 census, there were no residents in the suburb; the mountain is 287 metres above sea level, has the highest peak within the urban footprint of Brisbane. It forms the eastern extent of the Taylor Range and is a prominent landmark six kilometres to the west of the Brisbane central business district. Visible from much of the city, Mount Coot-tha is a popular bushland tourist destination including the Brisbane Botanic Gardens and Sir Thomas Brisbane Planetarium, as well as a mountain drive, bike trails, parks including a waterfall, television and radio towers. Mount Coot-tha is the source of Ithaca Creek. Before the Moreton Bay penal settlement, Mount Coot-tha was the home of the Yugarapul Aboriginal people. Early Brisbane people called it One Tree Hill when bush at the top of the hill was cleared except for one large eucalypt tree; the Aboriginal people of the area used to come to the area to collect ‘ku-ta’, produced by the native stingless bee.
Mount Coot-tha is a derivative of the indigenous term which replaced the former title ‘One Tree Hill' in 1880 when the area was declared a Public Recreation Reserve. The Mount Coot-tha Library opened in 1975. Mount Coot-tha has a number of heritage-listed sites, including: Sir Samuel Griffith Drive: Mount Coot-tha Forest Sir Samuel Griffith Drive: Mount Coot-tha Lookout Mount Coot-tha is one of Brisbane's most popular tourist destinations and is a popular stop with bus tours. Of particular note is the Lookout, which includes the Kuta Cafe, Summit Restaurant, Gift Shop; the lookout and cafe allow for panoramic views of the City. A function centre adjoins the restaurant. Well-known British astronomer Sir Patrick Moore gave a night-time public lecture about the stars of the southern hemisphere at the lookout in 1988, in conjunction with Patrick Moore being a guest speaker at a dinner of the Southern Astronomical Society at Toowong in Queensland. During World War II, anti-aircraft guns and searchlights were located on the lookout.
Mount Coo-tha was the site of US Naval Ammunition Depot supplying submarines at the Capricorn Wharf at New Farm in Brisbane. Sir Samuel Griffith Drive is a tourist drive circling the peak, providing access to the lookout, gift shop and restaurant; the scenic drive, from the base of Mount Coot-tha to the lookout, is a winding, climbing journey that has views of the greater Brisbane area and of the mountains and coastline that disappear into the horizon. The Mount Coot-tha Reserve contains more than 1,500 hectares of natural bushland, including J C Slaughter Falls along Ithaca Creek, as well as native wildlife. Mount Coot-tha Reserve shares a border with Brisbane Forest Park, which adds a further 25,000 hectares. On a ridge near the summit on the other side of Mount Coot-tha, are the television transmission towers for the Brisbane television stations and their respective studios; the transmission tower for is located on the mountain, which broadcasts television for multicultural station SBS and Brisbane community television channel 31 Digital.
Most of the FM Brisbane radio stations transmit from Mount Coot-tha. Part of the Brisbane suburb of The Gap is located on the foothills beneath the television towers. At the base of Mount Coot-tha are the Brisbane Botanic Gardens, Mount Coot-tha, which has a tropical plants hothouse and the Sir Thomas Brisbane Planetarium within its grounds. There are several popular walking tracks around Mount Coot-tha, one of which includes an art display comprising works produced by local Aboriginal artists; the tracks vary with most involving some uphill sections or steps. Tracks around Mount Coot-tha are used by hikers training to walk the Kokoda Track in Papua New Guinea as the terrain and climate are considered similar. On 20 November 2005, one of the Mount Coot-tha trails, the Currawong trail, was renamed the Kokoda trail in honour of the Australian soldiers who marched the Kokoda Track during World War II. During World War II, the hill was used as a military base by the US Navy, it was converted to a vast explosives depot and at one stage held more than 120 000 tonnes of explosive weapons.
When darkness fell the lookout bristled with search lights in an amazing display as soldiers kept an eye out for enemy planes. The Western side of Mount Coot-tha Forest or Gap Creek Reserve as it is known to the locals is a haven for Brisbane mountain bike riders; the establishment of a world class mountain bike trail network by the Brisbane City Council has created a diverse range of recreational experiences for off-road cyclists. The mountain bike trails at Mount Coot-tha have been assigned a grading under the International Mountain Bicycling Association, Trail Difficulty Rating System; the multi-use trails in Mount Coot-tha provide the least degree of technical challenge to mountain bike riders, however many of them are steep and loose. Riders are advised to pay special attention when riding over the erosion control banks which have been the downfall of many a novice rider; the trail ratings provide a guide to the relative difficulty of each trail. The multi-use tracks are used by horses and mountain bikers.
Each year orienteering events are held in the area. Mount Coot-tha can be reached by Brisbane Transport Bus 471. Between 2014 and 2016 the Brisbane City Council ran a CitySights Bus. A short taxi ride from Toowong is possible as well as Uber and such. Parking is limited at the peak. Mount Coot-tha has a public library on Mt Coot-tha Road in the Brisbane Botanic Gardens operated by the Brisbane City Council. U
Toowoomba is a regional city in the Darling Downs region in the Australian state of Queensland. It is 125 km west of Queensland's capital city Brisbane by road; the estimated urban population of Toowoomba as of June 2017 was 135,631. A university and cathedral city, it hosts the Toowoomba Carnival of Flowers each September and national championship events for the sports of mountain biking and motocross. There are gardens in Toowoomba, it has developed into a regional centre for government services. It is referred to as the capital of the Darling Downs. Toowoomba is served by the smaller Toowoomba City Aerodrome. Toowoomba is the second most populous inland city in the country after the national capital of Canberra. In the last five years, it has become one of the fastest growing towns in the country, with low unemployment and an increase in infrastructure leading to employment generation. Giabal and Jarowair are recognised as the two main Aboriginal language groups of the Toowoomba with Giabal extending south of the city while Jarowair extends north of the city.
This traditional landscape changed with the settlement of Drayton in the 1840s and the pastoral expansion west. Those Aboriginal Australians that survived the frontier conflict of this time were pushed to the fringe of society in camps and moved to missions such as Deebing Creek and Barambah. There is evidence that local Aboriginal Australians were working on the properties to the west of Toowoomba in this contact period. Ceremonies such as the Bonye Bonye festival remained active until the late 19th century – groups from south east and south west Queensland as well as northern New South Wales gathered at Gummingurru, near Gowrie prior to attending the festival; the Gummingurru site is being restored and remains an important ceremonial place for not only the traditional groups but neighbouring groups. Toowoomba's colonial history traces back to 1816 when English botanist and explorer Allan Cunningham arrived in Australia from Brazil and in June 1827 discovered 4 million acres of rich farming and grazing land, which became known as the Darling Downs, bordered on the east by the Great Dividing Range and 160 kilometres west of the settlement of Moreton Bay.
Thirteen years when George and Patrick Leslie established Toolburra Station 56 miles south-west of Toowoomba the first settlers arrived on the Downs and established a township of bark-slab shops called The Springs, soon renamed Drayton. Land for the town was first surveyed in 1849 again in 1853. Towards the end of the 1840s Drayton had grown to the point where it had its own newspaper, general store, trading post and the Royal Bull's Head Inn, built by William Horton and still stands today. Horton is regarded as the true founder of Toowoomba, despite the fact that he was not the first man to live there. Drovers and wagon masters spread the news of the new settlement at Toowoomba. By 1858 Toowoomba was growing fast, it had a population of three hotels and many stores. Land selling at £4 per acre in 1850 was by £150 per acre. Governor Bowen granted the wish of locals and a new municipality was proclaimed on 24 November 1860; the first town council election took place on 4 January 1861 and William Henry Groom won.
The railway from Ipswich was opened in 1867. In 1892, the Under Secretary of Public Land proclaimed Toowoomba and the surrounding areas as a township and in 1904 Toowoomba was declared a city. Pastoralism replaced dairying by the 1900s. Toowoomba was named as Australia's Tidiest Town in 2008. Toowoomba is around 700 metres above sea level. A few streets are on the eastern side of the edge of the range, but most of the city is west of the divide; the city occupies the low ridges behind it. Two valleys run north from the southern boundary, each arising from springs either side of Middle Ridge near Spring Street at an altitude of around 680 m; these waterways, East Creek and West Creek, flow together just north of the CBD to form Gowrie Creek. Gowrie Creek drains to the west across the Darling Downs and is a tributary of the Condamine River, part of the Murray–Darling basin; the water flowing down Gowrie Creek makes its way some 3,000 km to the mouth of the Murray River near Adelaide in South Australia.
Rain which falls on the easternmost streets of Toowoomba flows east to Moreton Bay a distance of around 170 km. The rich volcanic soil in the region helps maintain the 150 public parks that are scattered across the city. Jacaranda, camphor laurel and plane trees line many of the city streets; the city's reputation as'The Garden City' is highlighted during the Australian Carnival of Flowers festival held in September each year. Deciduous trees from around the world line many of the parks, giving a display of autumn colour; the City of Toowoomba includes the following suburbs: 2 - from former Shire of Jondaryan Toowoomba has a warm humid subtropical climate with warm summers and cool winters. Compared to other parts of Queensland, Toowoomba experiences more frequent high winds and fog and is considered cooler than many other towns and cities in Queensland, having more similarities with the climate of Sydney in southern New South Wales; the city is rather sunny. Daily maximum temperatures in Toowoomba average 17 °C in winter.
Unlike most of inland Queensland, summer temperatures above 35 °C are uncommon, whilst winter days warm abo
Puzzle Play is an Australian pre-school themed TV show for young children that aired Monday to Friday from 8:30 am to 9:00 am on Network Ten. The program premiered on 21 December 2006 replacing the program In the Box; the hosts were Liam Nunan and Patrick MacDonald. There was Cassie, a computer with a female voice and Penny, a cartoon bus-like vehicle that took the hosts to various locations. Penny makes a beeping sound; the plot involved Cassie presenting a 4-piece puzzle with a shape on each piece. As the show continued, a clue was shown for each piece; each clue was a video with a host narrating about the shape with information about it. The hosts visited schools, preschools and parks; as the pieces were being removed, a picture was revealed in the background and in the end the 3 hosts guessed what the picture was about. All the pieces were related to final picture. Before the show was aired, it replaced the show "In the Box". Puzzle Play was replaced on 31 January 2011 by "Wurrawhy". List of Australian television series Puzzle Play on IMDb
Network 10 is an Australian commercial television network. One of five national free-to-air networks, 10's owned-and-operated stations can be found in the state capital cities of Sydney, Brisbane and Perth, while affiliates extend the network to regional areas of the country; the network is owned by a subsidiary of CBS Studios International. From the introduction of TV in 1956 until 1965 there were only two commercial television networks in Australia, the National Television Network and the Australian Television Network, as well as the public Australian Broadcasting Commission. In the early 1960s, the Australian Government began canvassing the idea of licensing a third commercial television station in each capital city; this decision was seen by some as a way for the government to defuse growing public dissatisfaction with the dominance of imported overseas programming and the paucity of local content. The first of these "third" licences was granted to United Telecasters Sydney was granted on 4 April 1963.
Structurally, the Australian television industry was modelled on the two-tiered system, in place in Australian radio since the late 1930s. One tier consisted of a network of publicly funded television stations run by the ABC, funded by government budget allocation and by fees from television viewer licences; the second tier consisted of the commercial networks and independent stations owned by private operators, whose income came from selling advertising time. The network was launched as ATV-0 in Melbourne opened on 1 August 1964 and was owned by the Ansett transport and media group, which at the time owned one of Australia's two domestic airlines. TEN-10 in Sydney, which opened on 5 April 1965, was owned by United Telecasters Sydney Ltd, which in July that year opened TVQ-0 in Brisbane, Queensland. Opened that month was SAS-10, serving the city of Adelaide in South Australia; the new television network was dubbed the "Independent Television System" or ITS, but in 1970 adopted the title "The 0/10 Network", which reflected the names of the first two stations launched in the group, ATV and TEN.
Melbourne's ATV was the first station of the network to stage colour broadcasts in 1967, the broadcast was that of the Pakenham races, seen by network and RCA executives and invited members of the media and press. This would the first of many test colour telecasts for the station, in tribute to this event, the 0-10 Network adopted the First in Colour slogan in 1974, within months before 1 March 1975 transition to colour broadcasting. For its first five years, the 0/10 Network led a hand-to-mouth existence. By the beginning of the 1970s the network was in a precarious financial position and there were predictions that it would fail. In 1971, the 0/10 Network first aired Young Talent Time, a huge ratings success, ran for 17 years. However, the network's true financial reprise came about due to the controversial adult soap opera serial Number 96, which premiered in March 1972 on the night that "Australian TV lost its virginity"; the series broke new ground for Australian television and captured the imagination of viewers like few programs before or since.
For the next three years it was Australia's top-rating television program and, not its huge popularity attracted advertisers to Ten en masse, with the result that its revenue increased from A$1 million in 1971 to more than A$10 million in 1972. However, the pattern of ratings dominance was set, for most of the next five decades from the mid-1960s there was little deviation from the prevalent rankings, with the Nine Network in first place, the Seven Network second, 0/10 third and ABC fourth; the gradual evolution of Network Ten into its current form has its origins in the ongoing attempts by media mogul Rupert Murdoch to acquire a prized commercial television licence in Australia's largest capital city market, Sydney. This began when Murdoch's News Limited purchased the Wollongong station WIN Television in the early 1960s, around the same time he bought Festival Records. In 1977, frustrated by regulatory blocks that prevented him from expanding into the Sydney market, Murdoch sold WIN and purchased a 46% share in Ten Sydney.
In 1979, Murdoch made an unsuccessful takeover bid for the Melbourne-based The Herald and Weekly Times media group, which owned HSV-7. Although the bid failed, he gained a 50% stake in Ansett, which thus gave him control of channel 0 in Melbourne. In 1979, 0/10 first aired the soap opera Prisoner, a huge ratings success. On 20 January 1980, the 0/10 Network became known as Network Ten to reflect ATV moving from channel 0 to channel 10 – although the Brisbane station continued to broadcast as TVQ-0 until 10 September 1988 when the station changed to TVQ-10. In 1987 Adelaide's Network Ten affiliate and Seven Network affiliate negotiated to exchange affiliation rights and channel frequencies due to ownership problems. On 27 December 1987, the exchange came into effect and ADS-7, owned by the same owners as the main Network Ten stations, became ADS-10 with SAS-10 converting to SAS-7, operated by TVW-7 in Perth; when Murdoch became an American citizen in 1985 so that he could expand his media empire in the United States, Australia's media ownership laws obliged him to dispose of the flagship television stations, which were sold to The Northern Star, an offshoot of the Westfield Group conglomerate controlled by property tycoon Frank Lowy.
However, Westfield was badly hit by the stock market crash of 1987, in 1989 sold Network Ten to a consortium led by Charles Curran and form
A television station is a set of equipment managed by a business, organisation or other entity, such as an amateur television operator, that transmits video content via radio waves directly from a transmitter on the earth's surface to a receiver on earth. Most the term refers to a station which broadcasts structured content to an audience or it refers to the organization that operates the station. A terrestrial television transmission can occur via analog television signals or, more via digital television signals. Television stations are differentiated from cable television or other video providers in that their content is broadcast via terrestrial radio waves. A group of television stations with common ownership or affiliation are known as a TV network and an individual station within the network is referred to as O&O or affiliate, respectively; because television station signals use the electromagnetic spectrum, which in the past has been a common, scarce resource, governments claim authority to regulate them.
Broadcast television systems standards vary around the world. Television stations broadcasting over an analog system were limited to one television channel, but digital television enables broadcasting via subchannels as well. Television stations require a broadcast license from a government agency which sets the requirements and limitations on the station. In the United States, for example, a television license defines the broadcast range, or geographic area, that the station is limited to, allocates the broadcast frequency of the radio spectrum for that station's transmissions, sets limits on what types of television programs can be programmed for broadcast and requires a station to broadcast a minimum amount of certain programs types, such as public affairs messages. Another form a television station may take is non-commercial educational and considered public broadcasting. To avoid concentration of media ownership of television stations, government regulations in most countries limit the ownership of television stations by television networks or other media operators, but these regulations vary considerably.
Some countries have set up nationwide television networks, in which individual television stations act as mere repeaters of nationwide programs. In those countries, the local television station has no station identification and, from a consumer's point of view, there is no practical distinction between a network and a station, with only small regional changes in programming, such as local television news. To broadcast its programs, a television station requires operators to operate equipment, a transmitter or radio antenna, located at the highest point available in the transmission area, such as on a summit, the top of a high skyscraper, or on a tall radio tower. To get a signal from the master control room to the transmitter, a studio/transmitter link is used; the link can be either by radio or T1/E1. A transmitter/studio link may send telemetry back to the station, but this may be embedded in subcarriers of the main broadcast. Stations which retransmit or simulcast another may pick-up that station over-the-air, or via STL or satellite.
The license specifies which other station it is allowed to carry. VHF stations have tall antennas due to their long wavelength, but require much less effective radiated power, therefore use much less transmitter power output saving on the electricity bill and emergency backup generators. In North America, full-power stations on band I are limited to 100 kW analog video and 10 kW analog audio, or 45 kW digital ERP. Stations on band III can go up by 31.6 kW audio, or 160 kW digital. Low-VHF stations are subject to long-distance reception just as with FM. There are no stations on Channel 1. UHF, by comparison, has a much shorter wavelength, thus requires a shorter antenna, but higher power. North American stations can go up to 5000 1000 kW digital. Low channels travel further than high ones at the same power, but UHF does not suffer from as much electromagnetic interference and background "noise" as VHF, making it much more desirable for TV. Despite this, in the U. S. the Federal Communications Commission is taking another large portion of this band away, in contrast to the rest of the world, taking VHF instead.
This means. Since at least 1974, there are no stations on channel 37 in North America for radio astronomy purposes. Most television stations are commercial broadcasting enterprises which are structured in a variety of ways to generate revenue from television commercials, they may be some other structure. They can produce some or all of their programs or buy some broadcast syndication programming for or all of it from other stations or independent production companies. Many stations have some sort of television studio, which on major-network stations is used for newscasts or other local programming. There is a news department, where journalists gather information. There is a section where electronic news-gathering operations are based, receiving remote broadcasts via remote pickup unit or satellite TV. Outside broadcasting vans, production trucks, or SUVs with electronic field production equipment are sent out with reporters, who may bring back news stories on video tape rather than sending them back live.
To keep pace with technology United States television stations have been replacing operators with broadcast automation systems to increas
In the broadcasting industry, an owned-and-operated station refers to a television or radio station, owned by the network with which it is associated. This distinguishes such a station from an affiliate, independently owned and carries network programming by contract; the concept of an Owned and Operated is defined in the United States and Canada, where network-owned stations had been the exception rather than the rule. In such places, broadcasting licenses are issued on a local basis, there is some sort of regulatory mechanism in place to prevent any company from owning stations in every market in the country. In other parts of the world, many television networks were given national broadcasting licenses at launch. In the broadcasting industry, the term "owned-and-operated station" refers to stations that are owned by television and radio networks. On the other hand, the term affiliate only applies to stations that are not owned by networks, but instead are contracted to air programming from one of the major networks.
While in fact there may be an affiliation agreement between a network and an owned-and-operated station, this is not required, may be a legal technicality formalizing the relationship of separate entities under the same parent company. In any event, this does not prevent a network from dictating an owned-and-operated station's practices outside the scope of a normal affiliation agreement; the term "station" applies to the ownership of the station. For example, a station, owned and operated by the American Broadcasting Company is referred to as an "ABC station" or an "ABC O&O," but should not be referred to as an affiliate. A station not owned by ABC but contracted to air the network's programming is referred to as an "ABC affiliate". However, informally or for promotional purposes, affiliated stations are sometimes referred to as a network station, as in "WFAA is an ABC station" though that ABC affiliate, in the Dallas-Fort Worth market, is owned by Tegna, Inc. A correct formal phrasing could be, "ABC affiliate WFAA is a Tegna station."
One may informally refer to "ABC affiliates" in regards to all stations that air ABC programming, or to "the ABC affiliation" in regards to the transfer of rights to ABC programming from an affiliate to an O&O. Some stations that are owned by companies that operate a network, but air another network's programming are referred to as an affiliate of the network that they carry. For example, WBFS-TV in Miami is owned by the CBS network's parent company CBS Corporation, but airs programming from MyNetworkTV. Prior to the September 2006 shutdown of the CBS-owned UPN television network, WBFS aired that network's programming; the stations carrying The WB Television Network were another exception. The controlling shares in the network were held by Time Warner, with minority interests from the Tribune Company and, for a portion of network's existence, the now-defunct ACME Communications. While Tribune-owned stations such as WGN-TV in Chicago, WPIX in New York City and KTLA in Los Angeles aired programming from The WB, they did not fit the standard definition of an owned-and-operated station.
A similar exception existed when UPN launched in January 1995 by co-owners Viacom. Each of the companies owned a number of stations. However, the stations were not considered O&Os under the initial standard definition; this ambiguity ended with Viacom's buyout of Chris-Craft's share of the network in 2000, which came not long after its merger with the previous CBS Corporation. The stations were referred to informally as UPN O&Os. Following the shutdowns of UPN and The WB, CBS Corporation and Warner Bros. Entertainment became co-owners of the new CW Television Network, which merged the programming from both networks onto the scheduling model used by The WB; the network launched in September 2006 on 11 UPN stations owned by CBS Corporation, 15 WB affiliates owned by Tribune. Certain UPN and WB affiliates in markets where Tribune and CBS both owned stations carrying those networks either picked up a MyNetworkTV affiliation or became independent stations; the standard definition of an O&O again does not apply to The CW, but the CBS-owned stations that carry the network may be referred to as "CW O&Os".
Some O&Os choose to refer to themselves as "network-owned stations" instead, reflecting the fact that while they may be owned by a national network, much of the actual operation is left to the discre