Agusan del Norte
Agusan del Norte is a province in the Philippines located in the Caraga region of Mindanao. Its capital is the city of Cabadbaran and it is bordered on the northeast by Surigao del Norte, it faces part of the Bohol Sea, to the northwest. Prior to its creation as an independent province, Agusan, as it was once undivided, was under the jurisdiction of Surigao province during the Spanish colonial period. In 1911, Agusan was separated from Surigao by the American government. During World War II in 1942, the Japanese Imperial forces landed in Northern Agusan. In 1945, Filipino soldiers of the 6th, 10th, 101st, 102nd, 103rd, 107th and 110th Infantry Division of the Philippine Commonwealth Army and the 10th Infantry Regiment of the Philippine Constabulary together with the recognized Agusan guerrilla fighter units against the Japanese forces beginning the liberation in Northern Agusan during World War II. During the war, a unit of the joint Philippine-American defense force were located at Manot, Talacogon, in the interior of the Agusan Valley.
In 1967, Republic Act 4979 divided Agusan into two independent provinces: Agusan del Norte and Agusan del Sur. On August 16, 2000, the seat of provincial government was transferred from Butuan City to Cabadbaran through Republic Act 8811, although the province is yet to complete the transfer of provincial services and functions to the new capital. Agusan del Norte is situated in Mindanao's western section of Caraga, it is bordered on the northwest by the Butuan Bay. Agusan del Norte has a total land area of 1,054.15 square miles. When Butuan City is included for geographical purposes, the province's land area is 3,546.86 square kilometres. The central portion of the province forms the lower basin of the third longest river in the country, the Agusan, its mouth located at the Butuan Bay; the terrain surrounding the river features flat to rolling lands. Mountainous terrain dominate the western areas; the country's fourth largest lake, Lake Mainit is situated at the northern border between the province of Surigao del Norte.
Agusan del Norte comprises 1 component city. The city of Cabadbaran is the designated capital of the province per Republic Act 8811; the urbanized city of Butuan is geographically within but administratively independent from the province. The population of Agusan del Norte in the 2015 census was 354,503 people, making it the country's 64th most populous province, it had a density of 340 inhabitants per square mile. When the urbanized city of Butuan is included for geographical purposes, the province's population is 691,566 people, with a density of 195 inhabitants per square kilometre. In 2013, the Diocese of Butuan reported that Roman Catholicism is the predominant religion of the province comprising 71% of the population and significant minority belongs to Iglesia Filipina Independiente with 10%; the remaining beliefs belong to other Christian denominations as well as Islam. The economy of the province is dominantly agricultural, major crops of which include rice, coconut, abaca and mango. Agusan del Norte has two congressional districts encompassing its 10 municipalities and 1 component city, as well as the urbanized city of Butuan.
The province has many beaches in Cabadbaran and the municipalities of Carmen and Nasipit. Mount Hilong-Hilong, one of the tallest in the province, is located in Cabadbaran. From the top of Prayer Mountain, visitors can have a panoramic view of Cabadbaran which includes buildings, churches and the sea; the Agusan River, the longest in Mindanao and the third longest in the Philippines is in Butuan City. Looming southwest of the Agusan Valley is Mount Mayapay, a mountain plateau; the ancient Balangay boats were found in Butuan, excavated in the Balangay Shrine across the Masao River from Bood Promontory. They played a major role because of Butuan being a port city. Since its discovery, the Balangays have become an icon of Butuan; the Kaya ng Pinoy, Inc. recreated the Balangay boats and have sailed it as part of their project, the Balangay Voyage. Media related to Agusan del Norte at Wikimedia Commons Geographic data related to Agusan del Norte at OpenStreetMap Official website of the Provincial Government of Agusan del Norte
Zamboanga del Norte
Zamboanga del Norte is a province in the Philippines situated within the Zamboanga Peninsula region in Mindanao. Its capital is Dipolog City and the province borders Zamboanga del Sur and Zamboanga Sibugay to the south, Misamis Occidental to the east, the Sulu Sea to the west. Zamboanga del Norte is the largest province of the Zamboanga Peninsula region by land area covering 7,301.00 square kilometres. Zamboanga del Norte is the 26th populous province in the Philippines. Prior to its creation as a province, Zamboanga del Norte formed the northern portion of the historical province of Zamboanga; the early history of Zamboanga del Norte is shared with that of Zamboanga City, the center of the entire Mindanao area, most notably during the American era. When Zamboanga City became a chartered city on October 12, 1936, it encompassed the southern tip of the Zamboanga Peninsula and the island of Basilan, making it the largest city in the world in terms of land area. Through Republic Act No. 711 issued on June 6, 1952, Zamboanga province was divided into two independent provinces, which included Zamboanga del Sur.
Zamboanga del Norte covers a total area of 7,301.00 square kilometres occupying the northern portion of the Zamboanga Peninsula in western Mindanao. The province is bordered on the north and west by the Sulu Sea, on the northeast by Misamis Occidental, on the south by Zamboanga del Sur and Zamboanga Sibugay, it has an average elevation of 243.8 metres, with Mount Dabiak in Katipunan as the highest peak at 2,600 metres. Other parts, near the coastlines, are plains; the province's irregular coastline runs some 400 kilometres from north to south. Zamboanga del Norte has a mild and moderate climate due to evenly distributed rainfall throughout the year, its southern portion has a longer dry season. Zamboanga del Norte comprises 2 cities. Dipolog City and Dapitan City are the top most densely populated area in the province These are further subdivided into 691 barangays, clustered into 3 congressional districts. Sibuco is the largest municipality by land area, constituting 10.72% of the total provincial area.
Sibutad is the smallest, with 0.90%. On February 21, 2017, House Bill No. 5040 was introduced in the House of Representatives that seeks to carve out a new province from Zamboanga del Norte. This new province, called Zamboanga Hermosa, is proposed to consist of the 12 municipalities and 2 legislative districts that make up the 3rd legislative district of Zamboanga del Norte: The population of Zamboanga del Norte in the 2015 census was 1,011,393 people, with a density of 140 inhabitants per square kilometre or 360 inhabitants per square mile. Dipolog is the most populated area in the land, followed by a first class town- Sindangan Dapitan; the main language spoken is Cebuano. Other languages include Chavacano, Subanen and English; the predominant religion was Islam until the Spanish regime reign over the region and spread Christianity by the help of the church's missionary congregations like the Jesuits and Dominicans. The province hailed its first martyr of faith soon to be raised as a saint in the whole Mindanao island by the name of Padre Francesco Palliola, S.
J. He was a jesuit missionary from Nola and was assigned to Zamboanga Peninsula, he held missionary works in Lubungan, Zamboanga del Norte, Iligan and met his martyrdom at the barrio of Ponot now a town of Jose Dalman. Roman Catholicism is a significant majority with about 50% adherence; the province have one diocese – the Roman Catholic Diocese of Dipolog under the Archdiocese of Ozamiz, covering the entire province. There are followers of other Christian sects. Members of the House of Representatives: 1st District: Rep. Seth Frederick "Bullet" P. Jalosjos 2nd District: Rep. Glona Labadlabad 3rd District: Rep. Isagani "Gani" S. AmatongGovernor: Roberto "Berto" Y. Uy Vice Governor: Senen O. Angeles About half of the province's land area is devoted to agriculture. Corn and rice are the major crops; the province being rich in marine and mineral sources, its fish production has accelerated through the development of fishponds. Commercial fishing has increased through the years, with the yellow fin tuna as the primary species.
In 2006, a study by National Statistics Coordination Board, found Zamboanga del Norte Province to be the Philippines' poorest province with a poverty incidence rate of 64.6%, an increase from 47% in year 2000 statistical figures. As of 2015, the province's poverty incidence has dropped to 51.6%. Large foreign mining companies operating within the province such as Canadian company TVI Resource Development and Philex Mining Corp. cause adverse effects to the culture and traditions of the indigenous Subanon and other poor settlers. Media related to Zamboanga del Norte at Wikimedia Commons Geographic data related to Zamboanga del Norte at OpenStreetMap Old website of the Province of Zamboanga del Norte Daily Zamboanga Times
Zamboanga del Sur
Zamboanga del Sur is a province in the Philippines located in the Zamboanga Peninsula region in Mindanao. Its capital is the city of Pagadian. Incorrectly grouped with Zamboanga del Sur is the urbanized city of Zamboanga, a chartered city and governed independently from the province; the province borders Zamboanga del Norte to the north, Zamboanga Sibugay to the west, Misamis Occidental to the northeast, Lanao del Norte to the east. To the south is the Moro Gulf; the name of Zamboanga is the Hispanicized spelling of the Sinama term for "mooring place" - samboangan, from the root word samboang. "Samboangan" was the original name of Zamboanga City, from where the name of the peninsula is derived from. "Samboangan" is well-attested in Spanish, French and American historical records from as far back as the 17th century. This is contested by folk etymologies which instead attribute the name of Zamboanga to the Indonesian word jambangan with claims that all ethnic groups in Zamboanga were "Malays". However, this name has never been attested in any historical records prior to the 1960s.
The original inhabitants of the Zamboanga peninsula were the Subanen, who settled along the riverbanks in inland areas. Tausūg settlers from northeastern Mindanao migrated to the region in the 13th century; the region was additionally settled by migrants after World War II. Together with the original settlers, these pioneers helped develop Zamboanga del Sur into the abundant and culturally diverse province that it is. Zamboanga was the capital of the Moro Province in western Mindanao, which comprised five districts: Cotabato, Sulu and Zamboanga. In 1940, these districts became individual provinces. Zamboanga City became the capital of Zamboanga province. Soon after World War II, the provincial capital was transferred to Dipolog. Molave was created as the provincial capital in 1948. On June 6, 1952, through Republic Act 711, Zamboanga del Sur was carved out from the former Zamboanga province that encompassed the entire peninsula in southwestern Mindanao; as the 52nd province of the Philippines, it consisted of 11 towns, which were expanded into 42 municipalities and one city, its capital.
Political developments in February 2001 saw another major change in the territorial jurisdiction of Zamboanga del Sur. Its inhabitants voted to create a new province out of the third congressional district, named Zamboanga Sibugay. Zamboanga del Sur covers a total area of 4,499.46 square kilometres occupying the southern section of the Zamboanga peninsula in western Mindanao. It is located at longitude 122° 30"" and latitude 7° 15"" north; when Zamboanga City is included for statistical purposes, the province's land area is 591,416 hectares. The province is bordered on the north by Zamboanga del Norte, west by Zamboanga Sibugay, northeast by Misamis Occidental, east by Lanao del Norte, southeast by the Illana Bay, south by the Moro Gulf. Stretching northward from Sibugay in the southwest and running along the northern boundary to Salug Valley in the east is the province’s mountainous countryside; the coastal plains extend from south to west spread into wide flat lands when reaching the coastal plains of the Baganian peninsula in the southeast.
The longest river in Region IX, the Sibugay River gets its water from the mountains of Zamboanga del Sur most in Bayog and Lakewood, from where it flows into Sibuguey Bay, now part of Zamboanga Sibugay. Other notable rivers are the Kumalarang River, the Dinas River with its headwaters in the Mount Timolan Protected Landscape, Salug River in Molave; the province has a high mean annual rainfall: 1,599 to 3,500 millimetres. Temperature is warm and constant throughout the year: 22 to 35 °C. Zamboanga del Sur comprises 26 municipalities and 1 component city, organized into three congressional districts and further subdivided into 681 barangays. Traditionally grouped with Zamboanga del Sur is the urbanized city of Zamboanga, administratively independent from the province; the population of Zamboanga del Sur in the 2015 census was 1,010,674 people, with a density of 220 inhabitants per square kilometre or 570 inhabitants per square mile. When Zamboanga City is included for geographical purposes, the province's population is 1,872,473 people, with a density of 317/km2.
Most of the inhabitants in Zamboanga del Sur are Roman Catholics. Other Christian groups are Baptists, Aglipayans, Church of Christ of Latter Day Saints, Iglesia Ni Cristo, Jehovah's Witnesses, Seventh-day Adventist and other Evangelical Christians. There is a large Muslim minority; the most spoken language is Cebuano. Spoken, although in small percentage, are Chavacano, Tausug, Maranao and English; the economy is predominantly agricultural. Products include coco oil, livestock feed milling, rice/corn milling, including the processing of fruits and housewares made from indigenous materials like handmade paper, rattan and bamboo. There are mining areas in the province, such as those found in the municipality of Bayog man
Agusan del Sur
Agusan del Sur is a landlocked province of the Philippines located in the Caraga region in Mindanao. Its capital is Prosperidad and borders, from the north clockwise, Agusan del Norte, Surigao del Sur, Davao Oriental, Compostela Valley, Davao del Norte and Bukidnon. Agusan derived its name from the Agusan word agasan, meaning "where the water flows", referring to the Agusan River that splits the land and meanders south to north in a 250-kilometre rush to Butuan Bay, it is third largest river in the country and served as highway for the Spanish colonizers in gaining access to inner northeastern Mindanao. The Agusan Valley was settled by a variety of cultural communities like the Manobos and Higaonons. Archeological excavations in the lower Agusan valley plains have uncovered evidence of strong relationships between the region and the Southeast Asian states. A golden image of Javan-Indian design unearthed in the 1920s and molten jars uncovered in Prosperidad are indications that the region had commercial and cultural ties with the coast.
The Augustinian Recollects established a mission in Linao, in the vicinity of present-day Bunawan, in 1614. However, mission work was hampered by the hostility of the surrounding Manobo tribes. At the height of the power of the Sultanate of Maguindanao in the mid-17th century, the Manobos of the Agusan Valley were in alliance with Sultan Kudarat. Linao was attacked several times during the 1649 Sumuroy Revolt; the Recollects were able to establish themselves in their mission work, remained there until the middle of the 19th century. In the late 19th century, the Recollects turned over many of their mission territories, including those in the upper Agusan region, to the reconstituted Jesuit order. Missionary work was interrupted by the Philippine Revolution when the Jesuits either fled or were arrested by revolutionaries. During the American occupation, lumbering became an important activity in Agusan del Sur. Visayan migrants settled in the cleared plains, pushing indigenous communities farther into the mountainous slopes.
The territory of Agusan del Sur was governed as part of the province of Caraga during most of the Spanish period. In 1860, it was placed under the comandancia of a district of the province of Surigao. In 1914, the province of Agusan was created by the American government. In the Second World War, Japanese troops landed in the province of Agusan in 1942 and occupied the province until their defeat by combined U. S. and Philippine Commonwealth troops as well as recognized guerilla units in 1945 at the Battle of Agusan. The general headquarters and military camp and base of the Philippine Commonwealth Army was active from January 3, 1942, to June 30, 1946, the 10th Infantry Regiment of the Philippine Constabulary was active again from October 28, 1944, to June 30, 1946, are military stationed in the province of Surigao was composed to engaging operations against the Japanese Occupation. In 1945, Filipino soldiers of the 6th, 10th, 101st, 102nd, 103rd, 107th and 110th Infantry Division of the Philippine Commonwealth Army and the 10th Infantry Regiment of the Philippine Constabulary together with the recognized Agusan guerrilla fighter units against the Japanese forces beginning the liberation in Northern Agusan during World War II.
During World War II, a unit of the joint Philippine-American defense force were located at Manot, Talacogon, in the interior of the Agusan Valley. The province of Agusan del Sur was established on June 17, 1967, under Republic Act No. 4969 providing for the division of the province of Agusan into Agusan del Norte and Agusan del Sur. In January 1970, the first set of provincial officials assumed office after the provincial election of November, 1969; the same law provided. The Government Center has been set up in Barangay Patin-ay; the history of Agusan del Sur is linked with that of its sister province, Agusan del Norte. Agusans pre-Hispanic cultural history is traced back to the great influence of the Majapahit Empire through the discovery of an 8-inch tall image of a woman in pure gold at Maasam, Esperanza in 1917 and molten jars unearthed at Bah-bah, Prosperidad; the aborigines of Agusan del Sur are the ancestors of the present day Mamanwas, who were driven to the hinterlands by waves of Malay immigrants.
These immigrants, in turn, sought the protection of the interior jungles because of the forays and the constant raids of "moro" pirates. The "moros" being seafaring people confined themselves to the coastal areas, where they started their settlements. In 1976, the province's land area was 8,568 square kilometres, making it the seventh largest province in the country. After claiming the disputed boundary between Davao del Norte, Butuan City and with the creation of Sibagat, Agusan del Sur now has an area of 8,966 square kilometres; the municipalities of Loreto, La Paz and San Luis are the four largest municipalities in land area comprising 60% of the province's total land area. Santa Josefa and Talacogon river towns, have the smallest land area. Forestland constitutes 76% of the total land area or 6,827.5 square kilometres while the alienable and disposable constitutes about 24% or 2,137.5 square kilometres. Present land use, however showed that settlements and commercial areas occupy some of the forestlands.
Through the years, the province has lost much of its forest resources because existing industries are extractive in nature. Agusan del Sur is an elongated basin formation wi
Stereophonic sound or, more stereo, is a method of sound reproduction that creates an illusion of multi-directional audible perspective. This is achieved by using two or more independent audio channels through a configuration of two or more loudspeakers in such a way as to create the impression of sound heard from various directions, as in natural hearing, thus the term "stereophonic" applies to so-called "quadraphonic" and "surround-sound" systems as well as the more common two-channel, two-speaker systems. It is contrasted with monophonic, or "mono" sound, where audio is heard as coming from one position ahead in the sound field. Stereo sound has been in common use since the 1970s in entertainment systems such as broadcast radio, TV, recorded music, computer audio, cinema; the word stereophonic derives from the Greek στερεός + φωνή and it was coined in 1927 by Western Electric, by analogy with the word "stereoscopic". Stereo sound systems can be divided into two forms: the first is "true" or "natural" stereo in which a live sound is captured, with any natural reverberation or ambience present, by an array of microphones.
The signal is reproduced over multiple loudspeakers to recreate, as as possible, the live sound. Secondly "artificial" or "pan-pot" stereo, in which a single-channel sound is reproduced over multiple loudspeakers. By varying the relative amplitude of the signal sent to each speaker an artificial direction can be suggested; the control, used to vary this relative amplitude of the signal is known as a "pan-pot". By combining multiple "pan-potted" mono signals together, a complete, yet artificial, sound field can be created. In technical usage, true stereo means sound recording and sound reproduction that uses stereographic projection to encode the relative positions of objects and events recorded. During two-channel stereo recording, two microphones are placed in strategically chosen locations relative to the sound source, with both recording simultaneously; the two recorded channels will be similar, but each will have distinct time-of-arrival and sound-pressure-level information. During playback, the listener's brain uses those subtle differences in timing and sound level to triangulate the positions of the recorded objects.
Stereo recordings cannot be played on monaural systems without a significant loss of fidelity. Since each microphone records each wavefront at a different time, the wavefronts are out of phase; this phenomenon is known as phase cancellation. Clément Ader demonstrated the first two-channel audio system in Paris in 1881, with a series of telephone transmitters connected from the stage of the Paris Opera to a suite of rooms at the Paris Electrical Exhibition, where listeners could hear a live transmission of performances through receivers for each ear. Scientific American reported: "Every one, fortunate enough to hear the telephones at the Palais de l'Industrie has remarked that, in listening with both ears at the two telephones, the sound takes a special character of relief and localization which a single receiver cannot produce.... This phenomenon is curious, it approximates to the theory of binauricular audition, has never been applied, we believe, before to produce this remarkable illusion to which may be given the name of auditive perspective."This two-channel telephonic process was commercialized in France from 1890 to 1932 as the Théâtrophone, in England from 1895 to 1925 as the Electrophone.
Both were services available by coin-operated receivers at hotels and cafés, or by subscription to private homes. Modern stereophonic technology was invented in the 1930s by British engineer Alan Blumlein at EMI, who patented stereo records, stereo films, surround sound. In early 1931, Blumlein and his wife were at a local cinema; the sound reproduction systems of the early "talkies" invariably only had a single set of speakers - which could lead to the somewhat disconcerting effect of the actor being on one side of the screen whilst his voice appeared to come from the other. Blumlein declared to his wife that he had found a way to make the sound follow the actor across the screen; the genesis of these ideas is uncertain, but he explained them to Isaac Shoenberg in the late summer of 1931. His earliest notes on the subject are dated 25 September 1931, his patent had the title "Improvements in and relating to Sound-transmission, Sound-recording and Sound-reproducing Systems"; the application was dated 14 December 1931, was accepted on 14 June 1933 as UK patent number 394,325.
The patent covered many ideas in some not. Some 70 claims include: A "shuffling" circuit, which aimed to preserve the directional effect when sound from a spaced pair of microphones was reproduced via stereo headphones instead of a pair of loudspeakers; these discs used the two walls of the groove at right angles in order to carry th
The multiple-camera setup, multiple-camera mode of production, multi-camera or multicam is a method of filmmaking and video production. Several cameras—either film or professional video cameras—are employed on the set and record or broadcast a scene, it is contrasted with single-camera setup, which uses one camera. The two outer cameras shoot close-up shots or "crosses" of the two most active characters on the set at any given time, while the central camera or cameras shoot a wider master shot to capture the overall action and establish the geography of the room. In this way, multiple shots are obtained in a single take without having to start and stop the action; this is more efficient for programs that are to be shown a short time after being shot as it reduces the time spent in film or video editing. It is a virtual necessity for regular, high-output shows like daily soap operas. Apart from saving editing time, scenes may be shot far more as there is no need for re-lighting and the set-up of alternative camera angles for the scene to be shot again from the different angle.
It reduces the complexity of tracking continuity issues that crop up when the scene is reshot from the different angles. It is an essential part of live television. Drawbacks include a less optimized lighting which needs to provide a compromise for all camera angles and less flexibility in putting the necessary equipment on scene, such as microphone booms and lighting rigs; these can be efficiently hidden from just one camera but can be more complicated to set up and their placement may be inferior in a multiple-camera setup. Another drawback is in film usage—a four-camera setup may use up to four times as much film per take, compared with a single-camera setup. While shooting, the director and assistant director create a line cut by instructing the technical director to switch between the feeds from the individual cameras. In the case of sitcoms with studio audiences, this line cut is displayed to them on studio monitors; the line cut might be refined in editing, as the output from all cameras is recorded, both separately and as a combined reference display called the q split.
The camera being recorded to the line cut is indicated by a tally light controlled by a camera control unit on the camera as a reference both for the actors and the camera operators. The use of multiple film cameras dates back to the development of narrative silent films, with the earliest example being the first Russian feature film Defence of Sevastopol and directed by Vasily Goncharov and Aleksandr Khanzhonkov; when sound came into the picture multiple cameras were used to film multiple sets at a single time. Early sound was recorded onto wax discs; the use of multiple video cameras to cover a scene goes back to the earliest days of television. The BBC used multiple cameras for their live television shows from 1936 onward. Although it is claimed that the multiple-camera setup was pioneered for television by Desi Arnaz and cinematographer Karl Freund on I Love Lucy in 1951, other filmed television shows had used it, including the CBS comedy The Amos'n Andy Show, filmed at the Hal Roach Studios and was on the air four months earlier.
The technique was developed for television by Hollywood short-subject veteran Jerry Fairbanks, assisted by producer-director Frank Telford, first seen on the anthology series The Silver Theater, another CBS program, in February 1950. Desilu's innovation was to use 35mm film instead of 16mm and to film with a multiple-camera setup before a live studio audience. In the late 1970s, Garry Marshall was credited with adding the fourth camera to the multi-camera set-up for his series Mork & Mindy. Actor Robin Williams could not stay on his marks due to his physically active improvisations during shooting, so Marshall had them add the fourth camera just to stay on Williams so they would have more than just the master shot of the actor. Soon after, many productions followed suit and now having four cameras is the norm for multi-camera situation comedies; the multiple-camera method gives the director less control over each shot but is faster and less expensive than a single-camera setup. In television, multiple-camera is used for sports programs, news programs, soap operas, talk shows, game shows, some sitcoms.
Before the pre-filmed continuing series became the dominant dramatic form on American television, the earliest anthology programs utilized multiple camera methods. Multiple cameras can take different shots of a live situation as the action unfolds chronologically and is suitable for shows which require a live audience. For this reason, multiple camera productions can be taped much faster than single camera. Single camera productions are shot in takes and various setups with components of the action repeated several times and out of sequence. Sitcoms shot with the multiple camera setup include nearly all of Lucille Ball's TV series, as well as Mary Kay and Johnny, The Dick Van Dyke Show, The Mary Tyler Moore Show, All in the Family, Three's Company, The Cosby Show, Friends, Will & Grace, Everybody Loves Raymond, The King of Queens, Two and a Half Men, The Big Bang Theory, Mike & Molly, Mom, 2 Broke Girls, One Day at a Time. Many American sitcom
The Dinagat Islands are a group of islands constituting a province in the Caraga region in the Philippines, located on the south side of Leyte Gulf. The island of Leyte is to its west, across Surigao Strait, Mindanao is to its south, its main island, Dinagat, is about 60 kilometres from north to south. Declared a province in 2006, the Dinagat Islands comprise the second newest province of the Philippines, with Davao Occidental being the newest; the province is known as one of the archipelago's holiest sites in the Pre-Christian native religion. It is here where the God of Hurricanes was persuaded to relent his attacks on the islands by Da, the God of Peace; the province in pre-colonial times was much influenced by the Rajahnate of Butuan, nestled in present-day Agusan del Norte. It was used as the entry point of the Rahajnate of Ternate, present-day Moluccas of Indonesia, to attack the Rajahnate of Butuan, Rajahnate of Cebu, the indigenous settlements in the Anda Peninsula of Bohol, the Kingdom of Dapitan, which moved in northern Zamboanga after the Kingdom of Dapitan was destroyed.
Although one of the newest provinces of the country, settlements in the Dinagat Islands were present during the Spanish regime as a result of migration of people from nearby provinces of Bohol and Leyte. The so-called mystical province played an important role in the country's history during World War II; the municipality of Dinagat is the oldest community in the province. In the early days, a story was told, he asked what the inhabitants do for a living. The natives said that they fish to live; the stranger's interest in fishing prompted him to inquire where they fish, the native replied and pointed to a place saying dinhi niini na dagat. Since the place was called "Dinagat"; the municipality was formally established in 1855. It occupies the territorial boundaries of the whole island. From 1890 to 1990 its boundaries were reduced giving rise to six municipalities, Cagdianao, Basilisa and San Jose. Loreto became a Spanish pueblo on September 4, 1890 under the supervision of Governor General Manuel Sanchez by the virtue of Direccion General No. 30.
It was called Mabua due to the ever-foaming river that runs right into the center of the community. It was named Loreto in 1881 by the Spanish priest who frequents the town, in honor of the wife of the Alcalde Mayor of the Province of Surigao; the province was the site of the historic Battle of Surigao Strait during the Second World War. The Municipality of Loreto became the entry point of the American Liberation Forces on October 17, 1944, it was on this shore that the 6th Ranger Battalion of the 6th U. S. Army under Col. Mucci landed at Sitio Campinta of Barangay Panamaon in Loreto, it was during this landing that the first American flag flew on Philippine soil since the Japanese invasion in 1941. The Americans named the place "Black Beach No. 2." The northern part of the island served as a refuge for the American soldiers, while the western border was held by Japanese forces. Capsized vessel structures are still found today in the waters of Basilisa. On December 23, 1959, Cagdianao was created into a municipality under Executive Order No. 367.
Its name came from the Spanish word Cada dia linao meaning "everyday peaceful and calm". However some scholars say that its name came from the Visayan word Taga Danaw meaning "the lake people". Libjo was created into a municipality and named Albor on February 29, 1960 under Executive Order No. 381. It was taken from the municipalities of Loreto. Albor came from the surname of the mayors of Loreto and Dinagat -- Borja, it was renamed as Libjo on June 17, 1967. The name came from a kind of mussel clam. In 1965, Ruben Edera Ecleo Sr. founded the Philippine Benevolent Missionaries Association at Sitio Puyange, now Poblacion in San Jose. PBMA is a non-sectarian organization bounded by a strong spirit of brotherhood. Not long after that, members from all over the Philippines migrated to the island to be in constant association with their founder. Meanwhile, Basilisa became a municipality on June 17, 1967 under Republic Act No. 4986. It was named as Rizal, after the country's national hero; the municipality was renamed as Basilisa on June 1969 under Republic Act.
No. 5775. Tubajon, once a barangay of Loreto, became a municipality on June 21, 1969 under Republic Act No. 5643. According to local folklore, during the Spanish regime, a banca boarded with Guardia Civils landed in the shores of Tubajon in search of a criminal. One of them saw a man pounding leaves. Curious, he asked the man, "What will you do with it?" The man answered "Akong Tubajon ang suba aron sayon dakpon ang mga isda". When the man returned to the group, he narrated everything he saw and heard from the native to his companions. From on, the place was called Tubajon; the newest municipality is San Jose, created on November 15, 1989, under Republic Act No. 6769. The town was named in honor of Jose Ecleo, its pioneer and father of mayor of the municipality of Dinagat, Ruben Edera Ecleo Sr; the town is the seat of the PBMA. The Dinagat Islands was part of the First District of Surigao del Norte Province until it became a province on December 2, 2006, with the approval of Republic Act No. 9355, the Charter of the Province of the Dinagat Islands, in a plebiscite.
President Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo appointed