Nicola Clare Sanders is a British former track and field sprinter. She began her career as a 400 metres hurdles specialist before concentrating on the 400 metres from 2006 onwards, her 400 metres personal best is 49.65 seconds. She holds the British indoor record with 50.02 seconds, which ranks her as the fifth fastest woman of all-time indoors. Sanders career peaked in 2007 when she won the 400 metres at the 2007 European Indoor Championships, ran a personal best to win the silver medal at the 2007 World Championships behind compatriot Christine Ohuruogu. In the 4×400 metres relay, she won a bronze medal at the 2008 Beijing Olympics and a gold medal at the 2012 World Indoor Championships, she won World Championship relay bronzes in 2005 and 2007. After two years of struggling with injury, she announced her retirement from athletics in October 2014. Sanders won a bronze medal in the 1999 European Athletics Junior Championships in Riga at 400 m hurdles; that same year she was 4th in the 400 m hurdles at the World Youth Championships.
In 2000, she was 5th in the 2000 World Junior Championships in Athletics, but won gold in the Commonwealth Youth Championships. She went to Amersham School. In 2005, she finished 6th at the World Student Games. In the 2005 Helsinki World Championships Sanders reached the semi finals. Together with Lee McConnell, Donna Fraser and Christine Ohuruogu she won a bronze medal in the 4 × 400 m relay, she was 4th in the Commonwealth Games of 2006 in the 400 m hurdles and was part of the team that won the 4 × 400 m relay, but they were subsequently disqualified. Since she has focused on 400 m and participates in hurdles races, she finished 6th in the 400 m final at the 2006 European Athletics Championships in Gothenburg. In 2007, she took gold in the 400 m competition in the 2007 European Athletics Indoor Championships in Birmingham, with a personal best and national record of 50.02 seconds. This was the 5th fastest indoor 400 m time in history, she won a bronze in the 4 × 400 m relay. In 2007, she had suffered knee and Achilles tendon problems, but on 27 August 2007 Nicola broke 50 seconds for the first time in her career, recording 49.77 seconds in the semi final of the 400 m at the World Athletics Championships in Osaka, Japan to move to #3 on the British all-time list.
She went on to finish 2nd in the final, behind fellow Briton, Christine Ohuruogu. Sanders set another personal best of 49.65, which puts her as the fourth fastest British athlete over 400 m, after Kathy Cook, Katharine Merry and Ohuruogu, who set a personal best in the World Championship final. During the final day of the championships on 2 September, Sanders anchored the British 4 × 400 m team to a bronze medal. In so doing she became the first female UK runner to break 49 seconds for a 400 metres relay leg, with a time of 48.76 seconds, beating Sally Gunnell's previous record of 49.46 seconds. Sanders went out of the 400 m at the 2008 Summer Olympics in the third semi-final in a time of 50.71 seconds. With a tough lane draw, lane 9, lacking the fitness that comes from an injury free run in to the season, Michael Johnson added,'she's got a little bit more 800 metres look to me this year than she did last year, there's just not the power, the arm drive that we saw in 2007.' She was part of the 4 × 400 m relay team which finished fifth in the final although the team was upgraded to bronze medal position following disqualification for doping offences of the teams finishing in second and fourth place.
In December 2011, Sanders was one of 12 British female sporting celebrities who posed for Clara Maidment a charity calendar in aid of Wellbeing of Women, in the lingerie of Nichole de Carle, wearing jewellery by Salima Hughes and Coster Diamonds. 400 meters - 49.65 Outdoors, 50.02 Indoors 400 meters hurdles - 55.32 Nicola Sanders at IAAF Nicola Sanders interview profile thepowerof10
Czechoslovakia, or Czecho-Slovakia, was a sovereign state in Central Europe that existed from October 1918, when it declared its independence from the Austro-Hungarian Empire, until its peaceful dissolution into the Czech Republic and Slovakia on 1 January 1993. From 1939 to 1945, following its forced division and partial incorporation into Nazi Germany, the state did not de facto exist but its government-in-exile continued to operate. From 1948 to 1990, Czechoslovakia was part of the Eastern Bloc with a command economy, its economic status was formalized in membership of Comecon from 1949 and its defense status in the Warsaw Pact of May 1955. A period of political liberalization in 1968, known as the Prague Spring, was forcibly ended when the Soviet Union, assisted by several other Warsaw Pact countries, invaded. In 1989, as Marxist–Leninist governments and communism were ending all over Europe, Czechoslovaks peacefully deposed their government in the Velvet Revolution. In 1993, Czechoslovakia split into the two sovereign states of Slovakia.
Form of state1918 – 1938: A democratic republic championed by Tomáš Masaryk. 1938 – 1939: After annexation of Sudetenland by Nazi Germany in 1938, the region turned into a state with loosened connections among the Czech and Ruthenian parts. A large strip of southern Slovakia and Carpatho-Ukraine was annexed by Hungary, the Zaolzie region was annexed by Poland. 1939 – 1945: The region was split into the Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia and the Slovak Republic. A government-in-exile continued to exist in London, supported by the United Kingdom, United States and their Allies. Czechoslovakia adhered to the Declaration by United Nations and was a founding member of the United Nations. 1946 – 1948: The country was governed by a coalition government with communist ministers, including the prime minister and the minister of interior. Carpathian Ruthenia was ceded to the Soviet Union. 1948 – 1989: The country became a socialist state under Soviet domination with a centrally planned economy. In 1960, the country became a socialist republic, the Czechoslovak Socialist Republic.
It was a satellite state of the Soviet Union. 1969 – 1990: The federal republic consisted of the Czech Socialist Republic and the Slovak Socialist Republic. 1990 – 1992: Following the Velvet Revolution, the state was renamed the Czech and Slovak Federal Republic, consisting of the Czech Republic and the Slovak Republic, reverted to a democratic republic. NeighboursAustria 1918 – 1938, 1945 – 1992 Germany Hungary Poland Romania 1918 – 1938 Soviet Union 1945 – 1991 Ukraine 1991 – 1992 TopographyThe country was of irregular terrain; the western area was part of the north-central European uplands. The eastern region was composed of the northern reaches of the Carpathian Mountains and lands of the Danube River basin. ClimateThe weather is mild summers. Influenced by the Atlantic Ocean from the west, Baltic Sea from the north, Mediterranean Sea from the south. There is no continental weather. 1918–1920: Republic of Czechoslovakia /Czecho-Slovak State, or Czecho-Slovakia/Czechoslovakia 1920–1938: Czechoslovak Republic, or Czechoslovakia 1938–1939: Czecho-Slovak Republic, or Czecho-Slovakia 1945–1960: Czechoslovak Republic, or Czechoslovakia 1960–1990: Czechoslovak Socialist Republic, or Czechoslovakia April 1990: Czechoslovak Federative Republic and Czecho-Slovak Federative Republic The country subsequently became the Czech and Slovak Federative Republic, or Československo and Česko-Slovensko.
The area was long a part of the Austro-Hungarian Empire until the empire collapsed at the end of World War I. The new state was founded by Tomáš Garrigue Masaryk, who served as its first president from 14 November 1918 to 14 December 1935, he was succeeded by his close ally, Edvard Beneš. The roots of Czech nationalism go back to the 19th century, when philologists and educators, influenced by Romanticism, promoted the Czech language and pride in the Czech people. Nationalism became a mass movement in the second half of the 19th century. Taking advantage of the limited opportunities for participation in political life under Austrian rule, Czech leaders such as historian František Palacký founded many patriotic, self-help organizations which provided a chance for many of their compatriots to participate in communal life prior to independence. Palacký supported Austro-Slavism and worked for a reorganized and federal Austrian Empire, which would protect the Slavic speaking peoples of Central Europe against Russian and German threats.
An advocate of democratic reform and Czech autonomy within Austria-Hungary, Masaryk was elected twice to the Reichsrat, first from 1891 to 1893 for the Young Czech Party, again from 1907 to 1914 for the Czech Realist Party, which he had founded in 1889 with Karel Kramář and Josef Kaizl. During World War I small numbers of Czechs, the Czechoslovak Legions, fought with the Allies in France and Italy, while large numbers deserted to Russia in exchange for its support for the independence of Czechoslovakia from the Austrian Empire. With the outbreak of World War I, Masaryk began working for Czech independence in a union with Slovakia. With Edvard Beneš and Milan Rastislav Štefánik, Masaryk visited several Western countries and won support from influential publicists. Bohemia and Moravi
Antonina Vladimirovna Krivoshapka is a Russian sprinter who specializes in the 400 metres. She competed at the 2012 Summer Olympics, where her team was awarded a silver medal in the 4 × 400 m relay. Krivoshapka and her team mates were stripped of this medal after Krivoshapka tested positive for the steroid turinabol. Krivoshapka finished sixth in the individual 400m event at the 2012 Summer Olympics. Hailing from Rostov-on-Don, Krivoshapka won the silver medal in the 400 m at the 2003 World Youth Championships in a time of 53.54 s, won bronze in the Medley Relay. However, she had little success in the following years, placing only fifth in the heats of the 2004 World Junior Championships, she did not improve on her personal best in 2005 or 2006, only competed on the national level. However, she began to improve her performances in 2007 and 2008, posting seasonal bests of 52.32 s and 51.24 s respectively. Krivoshapka's international breakthrough came in 2009, where she set a personal best of 50.55 s over 400 m indoors to win the Russian indoor championships, subsequently won the 400 m gold medal at the 2009 European Indoor Championships.
At the same championships she won a gold medal in the 4 x 400 metres relay, together with teammates Natalya Antyukh, Darya Safonova and Yelena Voynova. That year, during the semifinals at the Russian national championships in Cheboksary, she lowered her outdoor 400 m personal best by nearly a full second by running 49.29 s, the second fastest time in the world that year. She went on to win the national title in 49.71 s. With these strong performances, Krivoshapka was considered one of the favorites for a medal in the 400 m at the World Championships in Berlin. In the 400 m final, she won the bronze medal in 49.71 s, behind Sanya Richards and Shericka Williams. She won another bronze medal in the 4×400 m relay, where she anchored the Russian team, she suffered an injury in an unusual fashion in early 2010 – while doing sprint training on a track in Volgograd, a young boy walked into her path and she strained her back in the ensuing collision. She missed the 2010 IAAF World Indoor Championships as a result but had recovered in time for the outdoor season.
That year, at the 2010 European Athletics Championships she claimed the 400 m bronze medal and helped the Russian women to defend their title in the relay, as well as winning a silver medal as part of the Europe 4 × 400 m relay team at the 2010 IAAF Continental Cup. In the 2013 World Athletics Championships in Moscow, she took third in the individual 400 m race, but came back to anchor the Russian team to the gold medal in the 4 × 400 m relay. In 2016, her samples from both the 2008 and 2012 Olympics were retested and found to contain turinabol as announced on February 1, 2017. In April she was given a two year ban which disqualified her 2013 results. Antonina Krivoshapka at IAAF
Sabine Busch is a retired East German athlete, who specialised in the 400 metres and the 400 metres hurdles. In 1987, she became the World Champion at the World Indoor Champion at 400 m. At the 1982 European Championships she finished fourth in the 400 m, before winning a gold medal in the 4 × 400 metres relay, together with teammates Kirsten Siemon, Dagmar Rubsam and Marita Koch. At the 1983 World Championships she finished fifth in her 400 m semifinal and was eliminated, but won another gold medal in the relay, with teammates Gesine Walther, Koch and Rübsam, she ran her 400 m lifetime best of 49.24 in Erfurt, in June 1984, but was prevented from competing at the 1984 Olympics, due to the Eastern Bloc Boycott. Busch switched to the 400 m hurdles in 1985, with immediate success, winning the European Cup in Moscow in 54.13 secs, before breaking Margarita Ponomaryova's world record of 53.58, with 53.55 in Berlin in September. She ended the season by winning at the World Cup in Canberra in 54.44.
Busch began 1986 by winning the 400 m title at the European Indoor Championships for the second time, having won the 1985 Event. At the 1986 European Championships in Stuttgart, she won a silver medal in the 400 m hurdles, losing to Marina Stepanova, who in the process broke Busch's world record with 53.32, Busch ran 53.60. She won a gold medal in the relay with Petra Muller and Koch. In 1987, Busch won the 400 m title at the World Indoor Championships in Indianapolis; the highlight of her career came at the 1987 World Championships in Rome, where she won a clear victory in the 400 m hurdles in 53.62 secs, to become world champion. She won a second gold medal in the relay with Emmelmann and Muller. At the 1988 Olympic Games in Seoul she finished fourth in the final of the 400 m hurdles, being edged out of the bronze medal by her GDR teammate Ellen Fiedler, she did win a bronze medal in the relay alongside her teammates Neubauer and Muller. In 1991, Busch represented a United Germany at the World Championships in Tokyo, where she was eliminated in the semi-finals in 55.93 secs.
Busch's career best time at the 400 m hurdles was 53.24 seconds, achieved in August 1987 in Potsdam. As of 2013, this is still the German record, her personal best time in the 400 metres of 49.24 seconds, places her second on the German all-time list, only behind Marita Koch. On the world all-time lists, she ranks 24th at 400 m hurdles. Busch was coached by Eberhard König. Sabine Busch at IAAF Profile
Marilyn Fay Neufville is a retired sprint runner, active between 1967 and 1971. Neufville broke the world record in the 400 m and won four gold medals and one bronze in various regional championships. Born in Jamaica, she emigrated at eight years old to Great Britain. Marilyn gained three Women's AAA titles as a junior in the 100 yds and 150 yds in the under 15s category in 1967 and won the 220 yds in the under 17 category in 1968. In 1969, she was second at the Women's AAA Championships behind Dorothy Hyman in the 200 m, where she ran 24.3 seconds. Marilyn first appeared on the international scene in September 1969, when she ran the 4 × 400 m in a Great Britain vs West Germany match in Hamburg. In March 1970, she competed for Great Britain in the European Indoor Athletics Championships and won gold over 400 m in 53.01, breaking her outdoor PB of 54.2 and the world indoor record, as well as the UK National Junior Indoor Record which stood until February 2019 when Amber Anning ran 53.00 dead.
In 1970, she won the WAAA outdoor title at the same distance in 52.6. In the summer, before the 1970 British Commonwealth Games in Edinburgh Marilyn chose to represent her country of birth, Jamaica over her country of residence; this caused wide controversy with many members of the British public saying she had betrayed where she was trained and considered her switch like treason. At the Commonwealth Games Neufville established a new world record by improving the preceding mark held by the Frenchwomen Colette Besson and Nicole Duclos with 51.0 at the age of 17. This made her the so far only Jamaican female athlete to break an outdoor world record. In 1970, she gained more recognition at ISTAF athletics meet in Berlin at the AAA championships running 52.6 in front of Germany’s Christel Frese and Inge Eckhoff. In 1971, in the indoor AAA championships, Marilyn was beaten by Jannette Champion which reversed the result of the previous year; the same year, in the Pan-American Championships in Cali, she gained her third gold medal and bronze in the 4 × 400 m.
At the 1971 Central American and Caribbean Championships she won a fourth gold medal. Her successes earned her two Jamaica Sportswoman of the year awards in 1970 and 1971. In 1972, she enrolled at the University of Berkeley, she is still ranked number 3 on the school's all-time list. After battling with injuries Marilyn returned at the 1974 British Commonwealth Games but was a shadow of her former self only finishing sixth in the 400 m final. In the 1976 Summer Olympics Neufville made her Olympic debut finishing fourth in her heat but had to pull out of her round 2 heat through injury. Despite being World Record Holder and Commonwealth champion when she was 17 she did not make her Olympic debut until she was 24, she was a member of Cambridge Harriers. 1970 European Athletics Indoor Championships in Vienna, Austria Gold medal 400 m 1970 British Commonwealth Games in Edinburgh, Scotland Gold medal 400 m 5th place 4 × 100 m1974 British Commonwealth Games in Christchurch, New Zealand 6th in the 400 m 1971 Pan American Games in Cali, Colombia Gold medal 400 m Bronze medal 4 × 400 m 1971 Central American and Caribbean Championships in Athletics in Kingston, Jamaica Gold Medal 400 m The 400 m world record of 51.02 on 23 July 1970 in Edinburgh, was equalled by Monika Zehrt and Mona-Lisa Pursiainen beaten by Irena Szewińska in 1974.
400 m world indoor record in 53.01 in March 1971 in Vienna broken by Nadezhda Ilyina in 1974. Schiot, Molly. Game changers: the unsung heroines of sports history. New York: Simon and Schuster. ISBN 9781501137099. Marilyn Neufville on Sporting Heroes Commonwealth Games Results Olympic Results Video of Neufville's world record on YouTube
Colette Besson was a French athlete, the surprise winner of the 400 m at the 1968 Summer Olympics in Mexico City. Prior to the 1968 Olympics, Besson, an unknown physical education teacher, qualified for the 400 m event. In the final, Britain's Lillian Board – the favourite for the gold – was way ahead of the rest of the field with just 100 m to go. With an amazing last sprint, Besson moved up from fifth place to beat Board on the finish line by a tenth of a second, her winning time of 52.03 seconds was 1.8 seconds better than her personal best. The next year, Besson came close to winning another international title at the European Championships. In the 400 m final, she crossed the line level with her team mate Nicole Duclos, both in the world record time of 51.7. However, Duclos was awarded the victory after examination of the photo finish. Besson and Duclos set a new world record in the 4 × 400 m women's relay in the same championships. In the 4 × 400 m relay final, anchoring the French team, passed the finish line at the same moment as Lillian Board.
Again, photo finish evidence determined. After 1969, Besson would not win any more international medals, she qualified for the 1972 Summer Olympics in Munich, but was eliminated in the preliminaries, although she took fourth place in the relay. She retired from athletics in 1977. Besson died two years after being diagnosed with the disease, she is survived by her husband Jean-Pierre Muller and their two daughters, Sandrine and Stéphanie
Sport of athletics
Athletics is a collection of sporting events that involve competitive running, jumping and walking. The most common types of athletics competitions are track and field, road running, cross country running, walking race; the results of racing events are decided by finishing position, while the jumps and throws are won by the athlete that achieves the highest or furthest measurement from a series of attempts. The simplicity of the competitions, the lack of a need for expensive equipment, makes athletics one of the most competed sports in the world. Athletics is an individual sport, with the exception of relay races and competitions which combine athletes' performances for a team score, such as cross country. Organized athletics are traced back to the Ancient Olympic Games from 776 BC; the rules and format of the modern events in athletics were defined in Western Europe and North America in the 19th and early 20th century, were spread to other parts of the world. Most modern top level meetings are conducted by the International Association of Athletics Federations and its member federations.
The athletics meeting forms the backbone of the Summer Olympics. The foremost international athletics meeting is the IAAF World Championships in Athletics, which incorporates track and field, marathon running and race walking. Other top level competitions in athletics include the IAAF World Cross Country Championships and the IAAF World Half Marathon Championships. Athletes with a physical disability compete at the Summer Paralympics and the World Para Athletics Championships; the word athletics is derived from the Ancient Greek ἀθλητής from ἆθλον or ἆθλος. The term was used to describe athletic contests in general – i.e. sporting competition based on human physical feats. In the 19th century, the term athletics acquired a more narrow definition in Europe and came to describe sports involving competitive running, walking and throwing; this definition continues to be the most prominent one in the United Kingdom and most of the areas of the former British Empire. Furthermore, foreign words in many Germanic and Romance languages which are related to the term athletics have a similar meaning.
In much of North America, athletics is synonymous with sports in general, maintaining a more historical usage of the term. The word "athletics" is used to refer to the sport of athletics in this region. Track and field is preferred, is used in the United States and Canada to refer to most athletics events, including racewalking and marathon running. Athletic contests in running, walking and throwing are among the oldest of all sports and their roots are prehistoric. Athletics events were depicted in the Ancient Egyptian tombs in Saqqara, with illustrations of running at the Heb Sed festival and high jumping appearing in tombs from as early as of 2250 BC; the Tailteann Games were an ancient Celtic festival in Ireland, founded circa 1800 BC, the thirty-day meeting included running and stone-throwing among its sporting events. The original and only event at the first Olympics in 776 BC was a stadium-length running event known as the stadion; this expanded to include throwing and jumping events within the ancient pentathlon.
Athletics competitions took place at other Panhellenic Games, which were founded around 500 BC. The Cotswold Olimpick Games, a sports festival which emerged in 17th century England, featured athletics in the form of sledgehammer throwing contests. Annually, from 1796 to 1798, L'Olympiade de la République was held in revolutionary France, is an early forerunner to the Modern Summer Olympic Games; the premier event of this competition was a running event, but various ancient Greek disciplines were on display. The 1796 Olympiade marked the introduction of the metric system into the sport. Athletics competitions were held about 1812 at the Royal Military College, in 1840 in Shrewsbury, Shropshire at the Royal Shrewsbury School Hunt; the Royal Military Academy at Woolwich held an organised competition in 1849, a regular series of closed meetings open only to undergraduates, was held by Exeter College, Oxford from 1850. The annual Wenlock Olympian Games, first held in 1850 in Wenlock, incorporated athletics events into its sports programme.
The first modern-style indoor athletics meetings were recorded shortly after in the 1860s, including a meet at Ashburnham Hall in London which featured four running events and a triple jump competition. The Amateur Athletic Association was established in England on 1880 as the first national body for the sport of athletics and began holding its own annual athletics competition – the AAA Championships; the United States began holding an annual national competition – the USA Outdoor Track and Field Championships – first held in 1876 by the New York Athletic Club. Athletics became codified and standardized via the English AAA and other general sports organisations in the late 19th century, such as the Amateur Athletic Union and the Union des sociétés françaises de sports athlétiques. An athletics competition was included in the first modern Olympic Games in 1896 and it has been as one of the foremost competitions at the quadrennial multi-sport event since. For men only, the 1928 Olympics saw the introduction of women's events in the athletics programme.
Athletics is part of the Paralympic Games since the inaugural Games in 1960. Athletics has a high-profile during major championships the Olympics, but otherwise is less popular. An internation