A ta'anit is a fast in Judaism in which one abstains from all food and drink, including water. A Jewish fast may have one or more purposes, including: Atonement for sins: Fasting is not considered the primary means of acquiring atonement. Fasting is conducive to atonement, for it tends to precipitate contrition. Therefore, the Bible requires fasting on Yom Kippur. Because, according to the Hebrew Bible and calamitous circumstances can occur as a result of sin, fasting is undertaken by the community or by individuals to achieve atonement and avert catastrophe. Most of the Talmud's Tractate Ta'anit is dedicated to the protocol involved in declaring and observing fast days. Commemorative mourning: Most communal fast days that are set permanently in the Jewish calendar serve this purpose; these fasts include: Tisha B'Av, the Seventeenth of Tammuz, the Tenth of Tevet, the Fast of Gedalia. The purpose of a fast of mourning is the demonstration that those fasting are impacted by and distraught over earlier loss.

This serves to heighten appreciation of that, lost. This is in line with Isaiah, who indicates that mourning over a loss leads to increased happiness upon return of the loss:Be glad with Jerusalem, exult in her, all those who love her. Supplication, such as the Fast of Esther. Commemorative gratitude: Since food and drink are corporeal needs, abstinence from them serves to provide a unique opportunity for focus on the spiritual. Indeed, the Midrash explains that fasting can elevate one to the exalted level of the ministering angels; this dedication is considered appropriate gratitude to God for providing salvation. Additionally, by refraining from such basic physical indulgence, one can more appreciate the dependence of humanity on God, leading to appreciation of God's beneficence in sustaining His creations. Indeed, Jewish philosophy considers this appreciation one of the fundamental reasons for which God endowed mankind with such basic physical needs as food and drink; this is seen from the text of the blessing customarily recited after consuming snacks or drinks:You are the Source of all blessing, O Eternal One, our God, King of the universe, Creator of many souls, who gave needs for all that which You created, to give life through them to every living soul.

Blessed is the Life-giver to the universe. A Jewish full fast lasts from sunset to darkness the following night. There are two Jewish full fast days: Tisha B'Av Yom Kippur - the only fast day mentioned in the Torah; the two full fast days carry four restrictions in addition to eating and drinking - one may not wash his body, wear leather shoes, use colognes, oils or perfumes, or have sexual relations. Yom Kippur has all the restrictions of Shabbat, Tisha B'Av has restrictions somewhat similar to a mourner sitting shiva; the Halakha status of the two Jewish full fasts is. Minor fasts are observed from dawn to nightfall, without additional restrictions. There are four public minor fasts: Fast of Gedalia Tenth of Tevet Seventeenth of Tammuz Fast of Esther Three of the four minor fasts are mentioned in the Bible as fasts in memory of the destruction of the First Temple. However, after the Second Temple was built, these fasts ceased to be observed; the Talmud establishes general rules for observance of the fasts in periods: if the Temple stands the fasts are not observed.

Nowadays, the Jewish people are accustomed to making them obligatory. There are four Jewish fast that exist, in all or in part, in commemoration of events having to do with the destruction of the Jerusalem Temple: Ninth of Av Fast of Gedalia Tenth of Tevet Seventeenth of Tammuz Customary fasts are practiced by specific communities, or by pious individuals, or by certain classes of individuals. Fast of the Firstborn, Ta'anit Bechorot, observed on the day preceding Passover. Yom Kippur Katan - held on the day before Rosh Hodesh in most months. BaHaB - This is a custom to fast on the first Monday and the following Monday of the Jewish months of Cheshvan and Iyar—shortly following the Sukkot and Passover holidays. Shovavim Tat, 6 or 8 weeks of repentance when the first 6 or 8 liturgical readings from Exodus are read; some fast every day, some once or twice a week, either Monday and Thursday, Thursday only, or Friday only. Fast commemorating the Khmelnytsky massacres, held on 20 Sivan. Fast of Samuel: Held on 28th Iyar.

Not observed. Fast of Moses on Seventh of Adar. A custom exists for a groom to fast on the day of their wedding, it is observed by some Sephardi Jews. They fast from daybreak until after the chuppah, eating their first meal during their yichud seclusion at the end of the ceremony; this custom is not recorded in the Talmud, first appears in Sefer HaRokeach. Customarily, special prayers called selichot are added in the morning prayer services on many of these days. A break the fast is a meal. After Yom Kippur

Siege of Bangkok

The Siege of Bangkok was a key event of the Siamese revolution of 1688, in which the Kingdom of Siam ousted the French from Siam. Following a coup d'état, in which the pro-Western king Narai was replaced by Phetracha, Siamese troops besieged the French fortress in Bangkok for four months; the Siamese were able to muster about 40,000 troops, equipped with cannon, against the entrenched 200 French troops, but the military confrontation proved inconclusive. Tensions between the two belligerents progressively subsided, a negotiated settlement was reached allowing the French to leave the country; the Siege of Bangkok would mark the end of French military presence in Siam, as France was soon embroiled in the major European conflicts of the War of the League of Augsburg, the War of the Spanish Succession. With the end of the siege, a long period started during which Siam would remain suspicious of Western intervention. Only a few French missionaries were allowed to remain, while trade continued on a limited level with other European countries such as Portugal, the Dutch Republic and England.

King Narai had sought to expand relations with the French, as a counterweight to Portuguese and Dutch influence in his kingdom, at the suggestion of his Greek councilor Constantine Phaulkon. Numerous embassies were exchanged in both directions, including the embassy of Chevalier de Chaumont to Siam in 1685 and the embassy of Kosa Pan to France in 1686; this led to a major dispatch of French ambassadors and troops to Siam in 1687, organized by the Marquis de Seignelay. The embassy consisted of a French expeditionary force of 1,361 soldiers, missionaries and crews aboard five warships; the military wing was led by General Desfarges, the diplomatic mission by Simon de la Loubère and Claude Céberet du Boullay, a director of the French East India Company. Desfarges had instructions to negotiate the establishment of troops in Mergui and Bangkok rather than the southern Songkla, to take these locations if necessary by force. King Narai agreed to the proposal, a fortress was established in each of the two cities, which were commanded by French governors.

Desfarges noted in his account of the events that he was in command of the fortress of Bangkok, with 200 French officers and men, as well as a Siamese contingent provided by King Narai, Du Bruant was in command of Mergui with 90 French soldiers. Another 35 soldiers with three or four French officers were assigned to ships of the King of Siam, with a mission to fight piracy; the disembarkment of French troops in Bangkok and Mergui led to strong nationalist movements in Siam directed by the Mandarin and Commander of the Elephant Corps, Phra Phetracha. By 1688 anti-foreign sentiments directed at the French and Phaulkon, were reaching their zenith; the Siamese courtiers resented the dominance of the Greek Phaulkon in state affairs, along with his Japanese wife Maria Guyomar de Pinha and European lifestyle, whilst the Buddhist clergy were uneasy with the increasing prominence of the French Jesuits. The Siamese mandarinate under the leadership of Phetracha complained about the occupation force and opposed Phaulkon.

Matters were brought to a head when King Narai fell gravely ill in March 1688. Phetracha initiated the Siamese revolution of 1688 by seizing the Royal Palace in Lopburi and putting king Narai under house-arrest on 17–18 May, he imprisoned Constantine Phaulkon on 18 May 1688, executed the king's adopted son Mom Pi on May 20. On 2 June, General Desfarges, commander of the Bangkok fortress, was invited to Lopburi by Phetracha, according to the account of one of his officers named De la Touche received promises of significant personal gains, such as the naming of his eldest son, Marquis Desfarges, to a major position in the Siamese government, equivalent to that which Constantine Phaulkon had held. Phetracha required Desfarges to move his troops from Bangkok to Lopburi in order to contribute in an ongoing war with the Lao and the Cochin-Chinese. Desfarges managed to leave by promising that he would send the troops demanded by Phetracha, that he would remit the fortress of Bangkok, he had to leave his two sons as hostages to Phetracha.

Desfarges left Lopburi on 5 June. As Desfarges had shown no interest in the fate of Phaulkon, Phetracha ordered Phaulkon's execution the same day. Phaulkon, submitted to many tortures since his arrest, was beheaded by Phetracha's own son, Ok-Phra Sorasak. Desfarges returned to Bangkok on 6 June accompanied by two mandarins, including Kosa Pan, the former ambassador to France, to whom he was supposed to remit the fortress. According to Vollant de Verquains, on that same day, in a council of war with his officers, the decision was taken not to obey Phetracha, but rather to resist him and start an armed confrontation. Phetracha moved to besiege the French fortress in Bangkok with 40,000 men, over a hundred cannons; the Siamese troops received Dutch support in their fight against the French, the Dutch factor Johan Keyts was accused of collaborating with the Siamese. The French had 200 men, including officers. General Desfarges was commander-in-chief, Mr de Vertesalle was second in command. For food, they had about 100 cows, which Constance Phaulkon had had the foresight of providing them, which they started to slaughter.

In order to facilitate defensive work, they burnt down the small village, near the Bangkok fortress. The first act of war was the attack on a Chinese junk belonging to the king of Siam, passing by; the captain of the junk had refused to give supplies to French the salt, needed to sal

Kesari (2020)

Kesari is a 2020 Indian Marathi language film directed by Sujay Sunil Dahake and produced by Santosh Ramchandani under the banner of Bhavna Films with Manohar Ramchandani as co-producer. The film starring Virat Madke, Rupa Borgaonkar, Mahesh Manjrekar, Vikram Gokhale, Mohan Joshi follows the story of Wrestling sport, this motivating story goes around a young boy from a poor family who wants to win Maharashtra Kesari title; the music of the film is composed by AV Prafullachandra & Saket Kanetkar, The film set to theatrically release on 28 Feb 2020. Virat Madake Mahesh Manjrekar Vikram Gokhale Mohan Joshi Nandesh Umap Umesh Jagtap Chhaya Kadam Jaywant Wadkar Nachiket Purnapatre Satayappa More Dyanratna Ahiwale Rupa Borgoankar Padmanabh Bind Prasad Dhendh The film first look poster has been launched by NCP President Mr. Sharad Pawar; the official teaser was launched on YouTube channel of Rajshri Marathi & Zee Music Marathi on 13th Feb 2020. The film set to theatrically release on 28 Feb 2020. ‘केसरी’साठी विराटची खऱ्या आखाड्यात कसरत.

Loksatta. 04-Feb-2020. ‘Kesari': Sharad Pawar Unveils Poster Of Sujay Dahake's Next Starring Virat Madke, Mahesh Majarekar, And Vikram Gokhale. Spotboye. 09-Jan-2020. जिंकण्याची जिद्द उराशी बाळगणारा ‘केसरी’ Loksatta. February 14, 2020. People were unsure of investing in a film about wrestling: Sujay. Hindustan Times. Jul 24, 2017 सुजय डहाकेचा ‘केसरी’ डाव. Loksatta. January 19, 2020'रांगड्या मातीत घेऊन जाणार सुजय डहाकेचा'केसरी' Zee 24 Taas. Feb 14, 2020. Kesari on IMDb