The Muras are an indigenous people who live in the central and eastern parts of Amazonas, along the Amazon river from the Madeira to the Purus. They played an important part in Brazilian history during colonial times and were known for their quiet determination and subsequent resistance to the encroaching Portuguese culture. A powerful people, they were defeated by their neighbors, the Munduruku, in 1788. Of the original diversity of Muran languages, only Pirahán survives today. According to Adélia Engrácia de Oliveira in Autos da devassa contra os índios Mura do Rio Madeira e nações do Rio Tocantins: "It is known that they, who used their canoes as homes, nomadic indians, controlled a wide area of land from the border of Peru to River Trombetas, that they stood out for their great effort to repel the encroaching of the Portuguese, that they were valiant and fearless warriors, using special attack tactics, that their incursions and raids frightened 18th century Amazonas." The Mura were attacked by three successive and bloody "punitive expeditions", suffering many losses due to epidemics like measles and smallpox.
An inquiry was attempted against them, asking for "just war" around 1737 and 1738, but this was not granted. Under intense pressure, they sought a peace agreement in 1786, but never stopped their raids against the Portuguese. In 1835, they formed an alliance with the Cabanos, seeking to make Cabanagem an opportunity for the reconstruction of their lost freedom and of empowerment. According to Moreira Neto, the culmination of the conflicts between the Mura and the regional society was its participation in Cabanagem alongside the rebels, he adds: "probably no other major indigenous group in the Amazon paid more dearly than the Mura in their fight against the continuous efforts to decimate and expel them from their traditional beaches and lakes". From 1863, the Mura were no longer mentioned in official reports, but this does not mean that they were no longer involved in conflicts, as can be deduced from what the author further states: "a Mura subtribe, the Mura-pirarrã, which were considered in the nineteenth century the most secretive and aggressive Mura group, remains today and isolated".
The Mura are described as having never given up their resistance, but that it is now expressed by maintaining the language barrier between them and "whites". Each village has a chief whose office is hereditary. There are about 15,713 Mura people in Brazil. About 587 of them occupy the Cunhã-Sapucaia Indigenous Territory along the Igapó-Açu River, which runs through the territory from west to east; the lower part of the Matupiri River enters the territory. The Matupi provides the main way to access the Matupiri State Park. In an unusual arrangement, the Mura people have an "indigenous special use zone" in the state park that allows them to continue to fish and extract forest products, as they have for many generations
The Matsés or Mayoruna are an indigenous people of the Peruvian and Brazilian Amazon. The tribe's ancestral lands are being encroached by illegal logging practices and poaching; these homelands are located between the Galvez rivers. The Matsés have guarded their lands from outsider colonials; the 3,200 Matsés people speak the Matsés language which belongs to the Panoan language family. In the last thirty years, they have become a settled people living in permanent forest settlements. However, they still rely on gathering for most of their subsistence, their main source of income comes from selling peccary hides and meat. The word Matsés comes from the word for "people" in the Matsés language, they are known as the Mayoruna. The name Mayoruna comes from the Quechua language and means "river people." In Brazil the Matsés people are referred to as Mayorunas, while in Peru they are called Matsés. The Matsés have an elaborate knowledge of the animal life of the surrounding rainforest. Little is imported into the Matsés communities and most of what they need for survival comes from the rainforest.
Traditionally, they hunted with arrows. Their cuisine includes the sweet plaintain beverage chapo. In the animist Matsés worldview, there is no distinction between the physical and spiritual worlds and spirits are present throughout the world; the Matsés believe that animal spirits determine success in hunting. They are careful not to offend animal spirits and have many taboos for hunting different animal species. Plants trees, hold a complex and important interest for the Matsés; each plant is associated with an animal spirit. When a plant product is used as a medicine, it is applied externally and the shaman talks to the animal spirit associated with that plant. Bows and Arrows are the main weapons of the Matsés culture, although they are rarely used in personal conflict, they are only used for hunting animals. The Matsés were never known to use war clubs, they used blowguns, similar to the Matis tribe of Brazil. Matsés families practice polygamy. Cross-cousin marriages are most common. Marriages are between cousins, with a man marrying the daughter of his father’s sister.
The Matsés made their first permanent contact with the outside world in 1969 when they accepted SIL missionaries into their communities. Before that date, they were at-war with the Peruvian government, which had bombed their villages with napalm and sent the Peruvian army to invade their communities. At present, relations between the Matsés and the Peruvian government are peaceful. Dan James Pantone and Bjorn Svensson describe the Matsés first peaceful contact with the outside world in an article in Native Planet; the Matsés are divided and politically unorganized. Each village has its own chief and there is little centralized authority for the tribe. Lack of political organization has made it difficult for the Matsés people to obtain medical assistance from the outside world; the Matsés have title to the Matsés Indigenous Reserve, established in 1998. The reserve measures 457000 ha. Despite having title to their own reserve, living conditions for the Matsés have deteriorated. According to a recent article in Cultural Survival Quarterly by Dan James Pantone, living conditions have become much worse, to the point that the survival of the Matsés people is in jeopardy.
At present, there is a proposal to expand the Matsés Communal Reserve to give the Matsés people control over their traditional hunting grounds. In September 2013, the Matsés chief announced plans to start logging the Matsés Native Community lands and rejected environmental organisations that he claims are manipulating Matsés students. In response, Matsés students said that the chief is being manipulated by loggers and demanded that the Matsés chief be sacked for not knowing how to defend the interests of his people. To make matters more complex for the Matsés people, in September 2013 the Matsés mayor of the Yaquerana District was publicly accused of corruption by the municipal regulators who blocked his ability to use the municipal checking account; the municipality where the Matsés live has had a history of fraud and the ex-mayor, Helen Ruiz Torres, was sentenced to six years in jail for embezzling municipal funds. Acaté Amazon Conservation is a non-profit, founded in 2013, but existed since 2006 as a loose organization of its founders, Christopher Herndon, MD, William Park.
Acaté operates projects in the Peruvian Amazon rainforest, integrates culture and ecology into all of its projects. Its current projects include documenting and preserving the indigenous medicinal knowledge of the Matsés by completing the first traditional medicine encyclopedia written in the Matsés language, resiliency projects / programs utilizing permaculture techniques, providing the Matsés economic opportunities with renewable non-timber natural products. Nu-nu, a snuff used by Matsés men Romanov S. D. M. Huanan, F. S. Uaqui, D. W. Fleck; the Traditional Life of the Matsés. CAAAP Press: Lima, Peru. 148 pp. Acaté Amazon Conservation. Herbermann, Charles, ed.. "Mayoruna Indians". Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company. New Amazonian reserve saves over a million acres in Peru Mayoruna art, National Museum of the American Indian Matsés Indigenous Traditions
The Kalina known as the Caribs, mainland Caribs and several other names, are an indigenous people native to the northern coastal areas of South America. Today, the Kalina live in villages on the rivers and coasts of Venezuela, Suriname, French Guiana, Brazil, they speak a Cariban language known as Carib. They may be related to the Island Caribs of the Caribbean. Traditionally, Westerners have called the Kalina people variants of the Spanish name Caribe, including "Caribs" in English, Galina in French, Karaïeb in Dutch. However, the speakers call themselves Karìna, spelled variously. Variants include Kali'na, Cariña, Kariña, Kalinya. Kalina may distinguish themselves as Kali'na tilewuyu to differentiate themselves from the mixed Maroon-Kalina inhabitants of Suriname. Use of "Kalina" and related variants has become common practice only in publications. Lacking a written form of language before the arrival of Europeans, Kali'na history was passed down orally from one generation to the next through tales of myth and legend.
For a long time, the few Europeans studying the history of the Amerindian people of this area did not distinguish between the various Caribbean tribes. Once the period of exploration was over, interest in the study of these people diminished and did not re-emerge until the end of the 20th century, when a few French expatriates, notably Gérard Collomb, became interested in the Kali'na, the Kali'na themselves began to relate their history, in particular Félix Tiouka, president of the Association of Amerindians of French Guiana, his son Alexis. For the reasons given, historical information regarding the Kali ` na is incomplete. Making up for lack of written records, archaeologists have to date uncovered 273 Amerindian archeological sites on only 310 km² of the land recovered from the Sinnamary River by the Petit-Saut Dam; some date back as far as two thousand years, establishing the antiquity of the Amerindian presence in this area. The weak historical clues available indicate that before 1492, the Kali'na inhabited the coast, dividing their territory with the Arawak, against whom they fought during their expansion toward the east and the Amazon River.
In their first contact with Europeans, the Kali'na thought they were dealing with the spirits of the sea, Palanakiłi, a name they use to this day when referring to whites. One of the first consequences of the arrival of Europeans, as in the case of many other Native American peoples, was a decrease in population due to violence inflicted by European soldiers genocide, diseases brought over by the Europeans; the Kali'na succumbed in large numbers, because their immune systems were not adapted to the viruses and bacteria of the Old World. The second half of the nineteenth century saw the heyday of World's Fairs, in which European countries were displaying their wealth with colonial "villages" representing the colonized cultures. Although the World's Fairs of Paris did not have "Amerindian villages," public curiosity was such that Kali'na were sent to the capital twice - once in 1882 and again in 1892 - to be exhibited as oddities at the Jardin d'Acclimatation. Fifteen Kali’na, all members of one family living in Sinnamary and Iracoubo, were sent to Pau:wa in July 1882.
Nothing is known about them, except their names and the fact that they were housed in huts on the lawn of the Jardin d'Acclimatation. The trip lasted four months, including a month's journey by boat, they were accompanied by a Creole who acted as intermediary and interpreter. There are several portraits of them, taken by photographer Pierre Petit; the part of South America where the Kali'na live is sparsely populated. However, the people of this ethnic group are such an extreme minority in all of the countries in which they are well established that locally they are a majority only in certain secluded areas, their current geographic distribution covers only a small fraction of their Pre-Columbian territory. In Brazil, they are localized in São José dos Galibi, a village founded in 1950 on the right bank of the Oyapock River opposite Saint-Georges in French Guiana by several families who came from the region of the Mana River, they are in the capital of Amapá, Macapá, in Pará, in Belém. In French Guiana, they are still present in significant numbers in their original territory, the region between the Maroni and the Mana rivers, the Amerindian village of Kourou as well as, in fewer numbers, the island of Cayenne.
In Suriname, they are a strong presence on the left bank of the Maroni River and on the banks of the Coppename River. In Venezuela, the country where their numbers are the greatest, they can be found in two distinct zones: in the llanos of the Orinoco river valley and on the Cuyuni River valley part of, in Guyana, they use percussion instruments. Their sanpula is a large drum with two skins stretched over either end of the shell by hoops pulled together with cord and is played with a mallet, they have two kinds of maracas, called a kalawasi and a malaka. Their flute, the kuwama, is still made but is more and more replaced by the European flute. There is a terra cotta horn called a kuti, they speak Kali'na, belonging to the family of Cariban languages, is today still spoken by above 10,000 people in the coastal str
Brazil the Federative Republic of Brazil, is the largest country in both South America and Latin America. At 8.5 million square kilometers and with over 208 million people, Brazil is the world's fifth-largest country by area and the fifth most populous. Its capital is Brasília, its most populated city is São Paulo; the federation is composed of the union of the 26 states, the Federal District, the 5,570 municipalities. It is the largest country to have Portuguese as an official language and the only one in the Americas. Bounded by the Atlantic Ocean on the east, Brazil has a coastline of 7,491 kilometers, it borders all other South American countries except Ecuador and Chile and covers 47.3% of the continent's land area. Its Amazon River basin includes a vast tropical forest, home to diverse wildlife, a variety of ecological systems, extensive natural resources spanning numerous protected habitats; this unique environmental heritage makes Brazil one of 17 megadiverse countries, is the subject of significant global interest and debate regarding deforestation and environmental protection.
Brazil was inhabited by numerous tribal nations prior to the landing in 1500 of explorer Pedro Álvares Cabral, who claimed the area for the Portuguese Empire. Brazil remained a Portuguese colony until 1808, when the capital of the empire was transferred from Lisbon to Rio de Janeiro. In 1815, the colony was elevated to the rank of kingdom upon the formation of the United Kingdom of Portugal and the Algarves. Independence was achieved in 1822 with the creation of the Empire of Brazil, a unitary state governed under a constitutional monarchy and a parliamentary system; the ratification of the first constitution in 1824 led to the formation of a bicameral legislature, now called the National Congress. The country became a presidential republic in 1889 following a military coup d'état. An authoritarian military junta came to power in 1964 and ruled until 1985, after which civilian governance resumed. Brazil's current constitution, formulated in 1988, defines it as a democratic federal republic. Due to its rich culture and history, the country ranks thirteenth in the world by number of UNESCO World Heritage Sites.
Brazil is considered an advanced emerging economy. It has the ninth largest GDP in the world by nominal, eight and PPP measures, it is one of the world's major breadbaskets, being the largest producer of coffee for the last 150 years. It is classified as an upper-middle income economy by the World Bank and a newly industrialized country, with the largest share of global wealth in Latin America. Brazil is a regional power and sometimes considered a great or a middle power in international affairs. On account of its international recognition and influence, the country is subsequently classified as an emerging power and a potential superpower by several analysts. Brazil is a founding member of the United Nations, the G20, BRICS, Union of South American Nations, Organization of American States, Organization of Ibero-American States and the Community of Portuguese Language Countries, it is that the word "Brazil" comes from the Portuguese word for brazilwood, a tree that once grew plentifully along the Brazilian coast.
In Portuguese, brazilwood is called pau-brasil, with the word brasil given the etymology "red like an ember", formed from brasa and the suffix -il. As brazilwood produces a deep red dye, it was valued by the European textile industry and was the earliest commercially exploited product from Brazil. Throughout the 16th century, massive amounts of brazilwood were harvested by indigenous peoples along the Brazilian coast, who sold the timber to European traders in return for assorted European consumer goods; the official Portuguese name of the land, in original Portuguese records, was the "Land of the Holy Cross", but European sailors and merchants called it the "Land of Brazil" because of the brazilwood trade. The popular appellation eclipsed and supplanted the official Portuguese name; some early sailors called it the "Land of Parrots". In the Guarani language, an official language of Paraguay, Brazil is called "Pindorama"; this was the name the indigenous population gave to the region, meaning "land of the palm trees".
Some of the earliest human remains found in the Americas, Luzia Woman, were found in the area of Pedro Leopoldo, Minas Gerais and provide evidence of human habitation going back at least 11,000 years. The earliest pottery found in the Western Hemisphere was excavated in the Amazon basin of Brazil and radiocarbon dated to 8,000 years ago; the pottery was found near Santarém and provides evidence that the tropical forest region supported a complex prehistoric culture. The Marajoara culture flourished on Marajó in the Amazon delta from 800 CE to 1400 CE, developing sophisticated pottery, social stratification, large populations, mound building, complex social formations such as chiefdoms. Around the time of the Portuguese arrival, the territory of current day Brazil had an estimated indigenous population of 7 million people semi-nomadic who subsisted on hunting, fishing and migrant agriculture; the indigenous population of Brazil comprised several large indigenous ethnic groups. The Tupí people were subdivided into the Tupiniquins and Tupinambás, there were many subdivisions of the other gro
Indigenous peoples in Brazil
Indigenous peoples in Brazil or Indigenous Brazilians, comprise a large number of distinct ethnic groups who have inhabited what is now the country of Brazil since prior to the European contact around 1500. Unlike Christopher Columbus, who thought he had reached the East Indies, the Portuguese, most notably Vasco da Gama, had reached India via the Indian Ocean route when they reached Brazil; the word índios was by established to designate the people of the New World and continues to be used today in the Portuguese language to designate these people, while a person from India is called indiano in order to distinguish the two. At the time of European contact, some of the indigenous people were traditionally semi-nomadic tribes who subsisted on hunting, fishing and migrant agriculture. Many of the estimated 2,000 nations and tribes which existed in the 16th century suffered extinction as a consequence of the European settlement and many were assimilated into the Brazilian population; the indigenous population was killed by European diseases, declining from a pre-Columbian high of millions to some 300,000, grouped into 200 tribes.
However, the number could be much higher if the urban indigenous populations are counted in all the Brazilian cities today. A somewhat dated linguistic survey found 188 living indigenous languages with 155,000 total speakers. On January 18, 2007, FUNAI reported that it had confirmed the presence of 67 different uncontacted tribes in Brazil, up from 40 in 2005. With this addition, Brazil has now surpassed New Guinea as the country having the largest number of uncontacted peoples in the world. Brazilian indigenous people have made substantial and pervasive contributions to the world's medicine with knowledge used today by pharmaceutical corporations and cultural development—such as the domestication of tobacco and cassava. In the last IBGE census, 817,000 Brazilians classified themselves as indigenous. Questions about the original settlement of the Americas has produced a number of hypothetical models; the origins of these indigenous people are still a matter of dispute among archaeologists. Anthropological and genetic evidence indicates that most Amerindian people descended from migrant people from North Asia who entered the Americas across the Bering Strait or along the western coast of North America in at least three separate waves.
In Brazil most native tribes who were living in the land by 1500 are thought to be descended from the first Siberian wave of migrants, who are believed to have crossed the Bering Land Bridge at the end of the last Ice Age, between 13,000 and 17,000 years before the present. A migrant wave would have taken some time after initial entry to reach present-day Brazil entering the Amazon River basin from the Northwest.. An analysis of Amerindian Y-chromosome DNA indicates specific clustering of much of the South American population; the micro-satellite diversity and distributions of the Y lineage specific to South America indicates that certain Amerindian populations have been isolated since the initial colonization of the region. According to an autosomal genetic study from 2012, Native Americans descend from at least three main migrant waves from East Asia. Most of it is traced back to a single ancestral population, called'First Americans'. However, those who speak Inuit languages from the Arctic inherited half of their ancestry from a second East Asian migrant wave.
And those who speak Na-dene, on the other hand, inherited a tenth of their ancestry from a third migrant wave. The initial settling of the Americas was followed by a rapid expansion southwards, by the coast, with little gene flow especially in South America. One exception to this are the Chibcha speakers, whose ancestry comes from both North and South America. Another study, focused on the mtDNA, revealed that the indigenous people of the Americas have their maternal ancestry traced back to a few founding lineages from East Asia, which would have arrived via the Bering strait. According to this study, it is probable that the ancestors of the Native Americans would have remained for a time in the region of the Bering Strait, after which there would have been a rapid movement of settling of the Americas, taking the founding lineages to South America. Linguistic studies have backed up genetic studies, with ancient patterns having been found between the languages spoken in Siberia and those spoken in the Americas.
Two 2015 autosomal DNA genetic studies confirmed the Siberian origins of the Natives of the Americas. However an ancient signal of shared ancestry with the Natives of Australia and Melanesia was detected among the Natives of the Amazon region; the migration coming out of Siberia would have happened 23,000 years ago. According to a 2016 study, focused on mtDNA lineages, "a small population entered the Americas via a coastal route around 16.0 ka, following previous isolation in eastern Beringia for ~2.4 to 9 thousand years after separation from eastern Siberian populations. Following a rapid movement throughout the Americas, limited gene flow in South America resulted in a marked phylogeographic structure of populations, which persisted through time. All of the ancient mitochondrial lineages detected in this study were absent from modern data sets, suggesting a high extinction rate. To investigate this further, we applied a novel principal components multiple logistic regression test to
The Bora are an indigenous tribe of the Peruvian and Brazilian Amazon, located between the Putumayo and Napo rivers. The Bora speak a Witotan language and comprise 2,000 people. In the last forty years, they have become a settled people living in permanent forest settlements. In the animist Bora worldview, there is no distinction between the physical and spiritual worlds and spirits are present throughout the world. Bora families practice exogamy; the Bora have an elaborate knowledge of the plant life of the surrounding rainforest. Like other indigenous peoples of the Peruvian Amazon, such as the Urarina plants trees, hold a complex and important interest for the Bora. Bows and arrows are the main weapons of the Bora culture used in person to person conflict; the Bora are divided and politically unorganized. The Bora have guarded their lands from both indigenous foes and outsider colonials. Around the time of the 20th century, the rubber boom had a devastating impact on the Boras. A book which recorded the mistreatment of the Boras during that time period is "The Putumayo.
E. Hardenburg; the tribe's ancestral lands are threatened by illegal logging practices. The Bora have no indigenous reserves; the Bora People Putumayo, The Devil's Paradise, by W. E. Hardenburg, 1912. Via Wikisource. Harrison, Theresa. Basic Beliefs of the Bora Indians Classroom Synonym Aces. Feb. 2015
The Tariana or Taliaseri are an indigenous people of the Vaupés or Uaupés River in the Amazon region of Brazil and Colombia. Starting in the 19th century missionaries tried to persuade them to abandon their traditional beliefs and practices, with some level of success; the government made efforts to convert them to a "colony" system in exchange for health and economic benefits starting in the 1980s. They are now autonomous within several indigenous territories; the Tariana language belongs to the Arawakan linguistic family. The Tariana language related to the Baniwa language, is only spoken by individuals from sibs of low rank; the reason given by the Tariana is that once they settled along the Uaupés the men of most families married Wanano and Tucano women, their children grew up speaking their mothers' tongues. All Tariana can speak Tucano, the lingua franca of the Uaupés. In 1996 there were no speakers of just 100 in Brazil; as of 2010 DAI/AMTB reported a population of 1,914 in 205 in Colombia.
As of 2014 Siasi/Sesai reported. Indigenous territories in Brazil with Tariana populations include the Alto Rio Negro, Médio Rio Negro I, Médio Rio Negro II, Balaio and Cué-Cué/Marabitanas. In Colombia there are Tariana people on the lower Papurí River; the largest numbers of Tariana live along upper reaches of the Uaupés River. The largest concentration is that of the communities in and around the village of Iauaretê, with an estimated population of about 1,300 Tariana in 2004; these include the old neighborhoods of São Miguel, Don Bosco, Santa Maria and São Pedro in the village, Campo Alto below Iauaretê on the Uaupés, Itaiaçu and Miriti above Iauaretê on the Uaupés, Japurá, Aracapá and Sabiá on the right bank of the Papurí River near its mouth. There are communities of Tucano and Pira-Tapuia between this main Tariana concentration and two other concentrations, that of Santa Rosa and Periquito further upstream on the Uaupés, that of Ipanoré, Piu-Pinu and Nova Esperança further downstream. There are unknown numbers of Tariana living in other communities or urban centers of the Rio Negro such as the towns of São Gabriel da Cachoeira, Santa Isabel and Barcelos.
The Tariana are traditionally patrilineal and patrilocal. That is, lineage is traced in the line of the father, they marry women from different ethnic groups, the wife comes to live in the husband's community. Women of the Tariana may marry men of the Piratapuyo groups. There is an inherited status in the social hierarchy, including leaders, specialists in dances and ornaments and serfs; the ethnic groups of the Uaupés River accept the Tariana's view of themselves as "bipó diroá masí". Tariana tradition says they originated around the Uapuí waterfall on the upper Aiari River, a tributary of the Içana River from which the upper Uaupés can be reached by land; the mythology describes various places where they halted, where the hierarchy was established between the ancestors of the different sibs of the exogamic "Tariana ethnicity". Shards of Tariana ceramics found in Jurupari date back 600 years. Franciscan missionaries on the Uaupés River found large numbers of Tariana in the town of Ipanoré; the upper Rio Negro region was devastated by smallpox in 1740 and by measles in 1749 and 1763.
The Indians of the region were exploited by the regatões. In the mid-19th century the governor of the newly formed Province of Amazonas initiated a program of "civilization and catechization" of the Indians in the upper Rio Negro valley. A Capuchin built chapels in 24 villages on the Uaupés and Içana rivers. Helped by five Tucano and Tariana chiefs the Capuchins established ten settlements on the riverside, used force and the promise of tools to induce the Indians to move to them and work for the government; some were taken to work in Manaus, children were placed in orphanages. In 1857 a military force attacked several Tariana villages. Prophetic movements in the second half of the 19th century promised to liquidate the debts of the people and absolve their sins. Three Franciscan missionaries were expelled by the Tariana in 1883 after they exhibited a mask of Jurupari on the church pulpit, which women were not allowed to see since it was used in male initiation rites. In the first decades of the 20th century Salesian missions were established on the Uaupés, the missionaries became the local representatives of the state.
They were given ample funds to convert and "civilize" the indigenous people, were able to reduce abuses by the Brazilian and Colombian traders on the river. When Curt Nimuendajú visited the river in 1927 he found that Iauaretê was the main center of Tariana people, with 479 inhabitants of a 2 kilometres stretch of the river, he noted. There was a nearby Colombian customs post at the confluence of the Papuri and Uaupés rivers, which led to abuse by Colombian traders in the absence of Brazilian authority. At Nimuendajú's recommendation an SPI station was established on the right bank of the Uaupés opposite the Salesian mission on the left bank below the point where the Papuri enters the Uaupés; the first mission boarding school was established in May 1930, starting with three resident missionaries and 15 students. Work began on construction of housing for boys and girls, the church, lodgings, a sawmill and a pottery, using local labor. By the end of the 1930s there was a much larger staff of missionaries and lo