Adana is a major city in southern Turkey. The city is situated on the Seyhan river,35 km inland from the Mediterranean Sea and it is the administrative seat of the Adana Province and has a population of 1.7 million, making it the fifth most populous city in Turkey. Adana-Mersin polycentric metropolitan area, with a population of 3 million, stretches over 70 km east-west and 25 km north-south, encompassing the cities of Mersin, Adana lies in the heart of Çukurova, a geo-cultural region alternatively known as Cilicia. Home to six people, Çukurova is one of the largest population concentrations in Turkey, as well as the most agriculturally productive area, owing to its large stretch of flat. Region covers the provinces of Mersin, Osmaniye, the earlier Egyptian texts for a country Danaja are inscriptions from Thutmosis II and Amenophis III. After the collapse of the Mycenaean civilization some refugees from the Aegean area went to the coast of Cilicia, the inhabitants Dananayim or Danuna are identified as one group of the Sea Peoples who attacked Egypt in 1191 BC during the reign of Ramesses III.
Denyen are identified as inhabitants of the city Adana and it is possible that the name is connected with the PIE da-nu Da-na-vo, Scythian nomad people, water demons in Rigveda. In Hellenistic times, it was known as Antiochia in Cilicia or Antiochia ad Sarum, the editors of The Helsinki Atlas tentatively identify Adana as Quwê, the Neo-Assyrian capital of Quwê province. The name appears as Coa, and may be the place referred to in the Bible, the Armenian name of the city is Ատանա Atana or Ադանա Adana. According to an ancient Greco-Roman legend, the name has its origins in Adanus and Sarus, the Hittites names and writings have been found in the area, evidencing this possibility. Adanas name has had different versions over the centuries, Adanos, Ta Adana, Uru Adaniya, Edene, Batana, Azana. Adana is located at the edge of the Mediterranean, where it serves as the gateway to the Çukurova plain. This large stretch of flat, fertile land lies southeast of the Taurus Mountains, from Adana, crossing the Çukurova westwards, the road from Tarsus enters the foothills of the Taurus Mountains.
The temperature decreases with every foot of ascent, as the road reaches an altitude of nearly 4,000 feet and it goes through the famous Cilician Gates, the rocky pass through which armies have coursed since the dawn of history, and continues to the Anatolian plain. The north of the city is surrounded by the Seyhan reservoir and HEP, the dam was constructed for hydroelectric power and to irrigate the lower Çukurova plain. Two irrigation channels in the city flow to the plain, passing through the city center from east to west, there is another canal for irrigating the Yüreğir plain to the southeast of the city. The 37th parallel north passes through the city, Adana has a hot-summer Mediterranean climate under both the Köppen classification, and a dry-hot summer subtropical climate under the Trewartha classification. Winters are mild and wet and summers are long, the highest recorded temperature was on 8 July 1978 with 45.6 °C
Tell Tayinat is a low-lying ancient tell on the east bank at the bend of the ancient Orontes river, in the Hatay province of southeastern Turkey about 25 kilometers south east of Antakya. It is located along the edge of the Amuq valley. The site lies some 800 meters from Tell Atchana, the site of the ancient city of Alalakh and it is a possible site of the city of Calneh mentioned in the Hebrew Scriptures. The site was an urban centre in two separate phases, during the Early Bronze Age and Early Iron Age. The red-black burnished ware is recovered in large quantities from the Early Bronze Age II and it is among the most commonly used pottery on the site. This type of pottery diminishes through the end of the last phase of EBA and this pottery is believed to be influenced by the Kura-Araxes culture, arriving into this area around 3000 BCE. During the Early Iron Age, this is likely to be the site of ancient Kinalua. Among the culturally diverse Syro-Hittite states in the north Syrian river-plain the rulers of Kinalua continued to bear royal Hittite names in the 8th century BCE, at a campaign the Assyrians forced its king Tutammu to submit.
Archaeological excavations were conducted at the site by the University of Chicagos Oriental Institute from 1935 to 1938, one of the key finds made at the site was a temple reminiscent in plan to the descriptions of King Solomons Temple in the Old Testament. Several large palaces in the known as Bit-hilani were excavated. In 1999, the Oriental Institute returned to the site to conduct a survey, continued excavations in the summer of 2005 exposed more of the Iron Age temple as well as part of one of the early Iron Age II bit-hilanis. A significant amount of earlier Iron Age I material was uncovered as well as small amounts of Early Bronze Age material. Excavations have continued now for a total of 6 seasons, through 2009, findings have included a significant Iron Age temple, a number of 1st millennium BC cuneiform tablets, and initial structures from the earlier Bronze Age settlement. In August 2012, a team from the University of Toronto announced they had uncovered the head and torso of a human figure, the remains of the figure stand approximately 1.5 meters in height, suggesting a total height of 3.5 to 4 meters.
The figure is bearded with eyes made of black and white stone, the figures hair has been styled in an elaborate series of curls arranged in rows. The arms of the figure extend forward from the elbow, each arm has two arm bracelets adorned with lion heads. The figure’s left hand holds a shaft of wheat and its right hand holds a spear, the figures chest is adorned with a crescent-shaped pectoral. A lengthy carved, raised relief inscription in Hieroglyphic Luwian runs across the figures back, the inscription records the accomplishments and campaigns of King Suppiluliuma
International Standard Book Number
The International Standard Book Number is a unique numeric commercial book identifier. An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation of a book, for example, an e-book, a paperback and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, the method of assigning an ISBN is nation-based and varies from country to country, often depending on how large the publishing industry is within a country. The initial ISBN configuration of recognition was generated in 1967 based upon the 9-digit Standard Book Numbering created in 1966, the 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO2108. Occasionally, a book may appear without a printed ISBN if it is printed privately or the author does not follow the usual ISBN procedure, this can be rectified later. Another identifier, the International Standard Serial Number, identifies periodical publications such as magazines, the ISBN configuration of recognition was generated in 1967 in the United Kingdom by David Whitaker and in 1968 in the US by Emery Koltay.
The 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO2108, the United Kingdom continued to use the 9-digit SBN code until 1974. The ISO on-line facility only refers back to 1978, an SBN may be converted to an ISBN by prefixing the digit 0. For example, the edition of Mr. J. G. Reeder Returns, published by Hodder in 1965, has SBN340013818 -340 indicating the publisher,01381 their serial number. This can be converted to ISBN 0-340-01381-8, the check digit does not need to be re-calculated, since 1 January 2007, ISBNs have contained 13 digits, a format that is compatible with Bookland European Article Number EAN-13s. An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation of a book, for example, an ebook, a paperback, and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, a 13-digit ISBN can be separated into its parts, and when this is done it is customary to separate the parts with hyphens or spaces.
Separating the parts of a 10-digit ISBN is done with either hyphens or spaces, figuring out how to correctly separate a given ISBN number is complicated, because most of the parts do not use a fixed number of digits. ISBN issuance is country-specific, in that ISBNs are issued by the ISBN registration agency that is responsible for country or territory regardless of the publication language. Some ISBN registration agencies are based in national libraries or within ministries of culture, in other cases, the ISBN registration service is provided by organisations such as bibliographic data providers that are not government funded. In Canada, ISBNs are issued at no cost with the purpose of encouraging Canadian culture. In the United Kingdom, United States, and some countries, where the service is provided by non-government-funded organisations. Australia, ISBNs are issued by the library services agency Thorpe-Bowker
Melid was an ancient city on the Tohma River, a tributary of the upper Euphrates rising in the Taurus Mountains. It has been identified with archaeological site Arslantepe near Malatya. The site has been inhabited since the development of agriculture in the fertile crescent dating to the Uruk period, around 3000 BCE, there was widespread burning and destruction, after which Kura-Araxes culture pottery appeared in the area. This was a mainly pastoralist culture connected with Caucasus mountains, numerous similarities have been found between these early layers at Arslantepe, and the somewhat site of Birecik, in Turkey, to the southwest of Melid. From the Bronze Age the site became a center of a larger region in the kingdom of Isuwa. The city was fortified, probably due to the Hittite threat from the west. The Hittites conquered the city in the fourteenth century BC, in the mid 14th century BC, Melid was the base of the Hittite king Suppiluliuma I on his campaign to sack the Mitanni capital Wassukanni.
After the end of the Hittite empire, from the 12th to 7th century BC, a palace was built and monumental stone sculptures of lions and the ruler erected. The encounter with the Assyrian king of Tiglath-Pileser I resulted in the kingdom of Melid being forced to pay tribute to Assyria, Melid remained able to prosper until the Assyrian king Sargon II sacked the city in 712 BC. At the same time, the Cimmerians and Scythians invaded Anatolia, Arslantepe was first investigated by the French archaeologist Louis Delaporte from 1932 to 1939. From 1946 to 1951 Claude F. A. Schaeffer carried out some soundings, the first Italian excavations at the site of Arslantepe started in 1961, and were conducted under the direction of Professors Piero Meriggi and Salvatore M. Puglisi until 1968. Majestic remains of this period were known from Arslantepe since the 30s, alba Palmieri took over the supervision of the excavation during the 1970s. Today the archaeological investigation is led by Marcella Frangipane, the first swords were claimed for the Early Bronze Age, based on finds at Arslantepe by Marcella Frangipane of Rome University. A cache of nine swords and daggers was found, they are composed of arsenic-copper alloy, among them, three swords were beautifully inlaid with silver.
These are the weapons of a length of 45 to 60 cm which could be described as either short swords or long daggers. These discoveries were made back in the 1980s and they belong to the local phase VI A. Also,12 spearheads were found. Phase VI A at Arslantepe ended in destruction - the city was burned, and on, some new occupants left some bronze weapons, including swords. They were found in the tomb of Signori Arslantepe or Signor Arslantepe
The Black Sea is a body of water between Eastern Europe and Western Asia, bounded by Bulgaria, Romania, Russia and Ukraine. It is supplied by a number of rivers, such as the Danube, Rioni, Southern Bug. The Black Sea has an area of 436,400 km2, a depth of 2,212 m. It is constrained by the Pontic Mountains to the south and by the Caucasus Mountains to the east, the longest east-west extent is about 1,175 km. The Black Sea has a water balance, that is, a net outflow of water 300 km3 per year through the Bosphorus. Mediterranean water flows into the Black Sea as part of a two-way hydrological exchange, the Black Sea drains into the Mediterranean Sea and the Atlantic Ocean, via the Aegean Sea and various straits. The Bosphorus Strait connects it to the Sea of Marmara, and these waters separate Eastern Europe and Western Asia. The Black Sea is connected to the Sea of Azov by the Strait of Kerch, the water level has varied significantly. Due to these variations in the level in the basin. At certain critical water levels it is possible for connections with surrounding water bodies to become established and it is through the most active of these connective routes, the Turkish Straits, that the Black Sea joins the world ocean.
When this hydrological link is not present, the Black Sea is a basin, operating independently of the global ocean system. Currently the Black Sea water level is high, thus water is being exchanged with the Mediterranean. The Turkish Straits connect the Black Sea with the Aegean Sea, and comprise the Bosphorus, the Sea of Marmara, the International Hydrographic Organization defines the limits of the Black Sea as follows, On the Southwest. The Northeastern limit of the Sea of Marmara, a line joining Cape Takil and Cape Panaghia. Strabos Geographica reports that in antiquity, the Black Sea was often just called the Sea, for the most part, Graeco-Roman tradition refers to the Black Sea as the Hospitable sea, Εὔξεινος Πόντος Eúxeinos Póntos. This is a euphemism replacing an earlier Inhospitable Sea, Πόντος Ἄξεινος Póntos Áxeinos, strabo thinks that the Black Sea was called inhospitable before Greek colonization because it was difficult to navigate, and because its shores were inhabited by savage tribes.
The name was changed to hospitable after the Milesians had colonized the southern shoreline and it is possible that the epithet Áxeinos arose by popular etymology from a Scythian word axšaina- unlit, the designation Black Sea may thus date from antiquity. A map of Asia dating to 1570, entitled Asiae Nova Descriptio, from Abraham Orteliuss Theatrum Orbis Terrarum, english-language writers of the 18th century often used the name Euxine Sea to refer to the Black Sea
They proceeded to destroy almost all Hittite sites but were finally defeated by the Assyrians beyond the southern borders near the Tigris. Hatti, Alashiya and Alalakh were destroyed, the Hittite capital, was completely destroyed. Syro-Hittite states emerged in the process of major landscape transformation, in the form of regional states with new political structures. The Syro–Hittite states may be divided into two groups, a group where Hittite rulers remained in power, and a southern group where Aramaeans came to rule from about 1000 BC. These states were highly decentralised structures, some appear to have been only loose confederations of sub-kingdoms, the Early Iron Age in Northern Mesopotamia saw a gradual spread of alphabetic writing in Aramaic and Phoenician. Assyria Aramaeans Aram Damascus Bronze Age collapse Stele of Zakkur Sakçagözü Neo-Hittite Monuments
The Iron Age is an archaeological era, referring to a period of time in the prehistory and protohistory of the Old World when the dominant toolmaking material was iron. It is commonly preceded by the Bronze Age in Europe and Asia with exceptions, meteoric iron has been used by humans since at least 3200 BC. Ancient iron production did not become widespread until the ability to smelt ore, remove impurities. The start of the Iron Age proper is considered by many to fall between around 1200 BC and 600 BC, depending on the region, the earliest known iron artifacts are nine small beads dated to 3200 BC, which were found in burials at Gerzeh, Lower Egypt. They have been identified as meteoric iron shaped by careful hammering, meteoric iron, a characteristic iron–nickel alloy, was used by various ancient peoples thousands of years before the Iron Age. Such iron, being in its metallic state, required no smelting of ores. Smelted iron appears sporadically in the record from the middle Bronze Age. While terrestrial iron is abundant, its high melting point of 1,538 °C placed it out of reach of common use until the end of the second millennium BC.
Tins low melting point of 231, recent archaeological remains of iron working in the Ganges Valley in India have been tentatively dated to 1800 BC. By the Middle Bronze Age, increasing numbers of smelted iron objects appeared in the Middle East, Southeast Asia, African sites are turning up dates as early as 1200 BC. Modern archaeological evidence identifies the start of iron production in around 1200 BC. Between 1200 BC and 1000 BC, diffusion in the understanding of iron metallurgy and use of objects was fast. As evidence, many bronze implements were recycled into weapons during this time, more widespread use of iron led to improved steel-making technology at lower cost. Thus, even when tin became available again, iron was cheaper and lighter, and forged iron implements superseded cast bronze tools permanently. Increasingly, the Iron Age in Europe is being seen as a part of the Bronze Age collapse in the ancient Near East, in ancient India, ancient Iran, and ancient Greece. In other regions of Europe, the Iron Age began in the 8th century BC in Central Europe, the Near Eastern Iron Age is divided into two subsections, Iron I and Iron II.
Iron I illustrates both continuity and discontinuity with the previous Late Bronze Age, during the Iron Age, the best tools and weapons were made from steel, particularly alloys which were produced with a carbon content between approximately 0. 30% and 1. 2% by weight. Steel weapons and tools were nearly the same weight as those of bronze, steel was difficult to produce with the methods available, and alloys that were easier to make, such as wrought iron, were more common in lower-priced goods
Luwian is an ancient language or group of languages of the Anatolian branch of the Indo-European language family. The two varieties of Luwian are named for the scripts that they were written in, Cuneiform Luwian, as to whether these were one language or two, there is no consensus. Several other languages in Anatolia have been identified as being most similar to Luwian, some linguists name the branch the Luwian Group or just Luwian and, in that sense, Luwian means all of the Luwian languages. Other linguists, following Melchert, prefer to use Luwic for the branch, the name Luwian comes from the name of the land, where the speakers lived. It is mentioned in the Hittite laws, the region was called Lydia. Luwian is closely related to Hittite, Luwian has been deduced as one of the likely candidates for the language spoken by the Trojans. Some fringe hypotheses rejected by historical linguistics are a relationship with Lemnian, a Thracian connection. According to James Mellaart, the earliest Indo-Europeans in northwest Anatolia were the horse-riders who came to this region from the north and they were ancestors of the Luwians who inhabited Troy II, and spread widely in the Anatolian peninsula.
He cited the distribution of a new type of pottery, Red Slip Wares. According to Mellaart, the migrations to Anatolia came in several distinct waves over many centuries. The current trend is to see such migrations as mostly peaceful, Luwian was among the languages spoken during the 2nd and 1st millennia BC by groups in central and western Anatolia and northern Syria. In the Old Hittite version of the Hittite Code, some, if not all, widmer has argued that the Mycenaean term ru-wa-ni-jo, attested in Linear B, refers to the same area. In the post-Hittite era, the region of Arzawa came to be known as Lydia, the name Lydia has been derived from the name Luwiya, which further argues in favour of the location of Luwiya in the west. Beginning in the 14th century BC, Luwian-speakers came to constitute the majority in the Hittite capital Hattusa and it appears that by the time of the collapse of the Hittite Empire ca.1180 BC, the Hittite king and royal family were fully bilingual in Luwian. Cuneiform Luwian is a term refers to the corpus of Luwian texts attested in the tablet archives of Hattusa.
In Laroches Catalog of Hittite Texts, the corpus of Hittite cuneiform texts with Luwian insertions runs from CTH 757–773, Cuneiform Luwian texts are written in several dialects, of which the most easily identifiable are Kizzuwatna Luwian, Istanuwa Luwian, and Empire Luwian. The last dialect represents the vernacular of Hattusan scribes of the 14th–13th centuries BC and is attested through Glossenkeil words in Hittite texts. Hieroglyphic Luwian is a term refers to the corpus of Luwian texts written in a native script