Iman in Islamic theology denotes a believer's faith in the metaphysical aspects of Islam. Its most simple definition is the belief in the six axioms of faith, known as arkān al-īmān; the term iman has been delineated in both the hadith. According to the Quran, iman must be accompanied by righteous deeds and the two together are necessary for entry into Paradise. In the hadith, iman in addition to Islam and ihsan form the three dimensions of the Islamic religion. There exists a debate both within and outside Islam on the link between faith and reason in religion, the relative importance of either. Several scholars contend that faith and reason spring from the same source and hence must be harmonious. In Arabic, pronounced means "faith", it is the verbal noun of آمَنَ "to believe." In a hadith, Muhammad defined iman as "a knowledge in the heart, a voicing with the tongue, an activity with the limbs." Faith is confidence in a truth, real. When people have confidence, they submit themselves to that truth.
It is not sufficient just to know the truth, but the recognition of the heart should be expressed by the tongue, the manifestation of the intelligence and at last to reflect this confidence in their activities. Hamiduddin Farahi, while explaining the meaning of imān in his exegesis, wrote: The root of imān is amn, it is used in various shades of meaning. One of its derivatives is mu'min, among the noble names of Allah because He gives peace to those who seek His refuge; this word is an ancient religious term. Hence the certitude which exists with humility and all the conditions and corollaries of adherence to a view is called imān and he who professes faith in Allah, in His signs and in His directives and submits himself to Him and is pleased with all His decisions is a mu'min. Faith breaks down into six axioms: Belief in the unicity of God. Belief in the existence of Angels. Belief in the existence of the books of which God is the author: The Quran being the last of them revealed to Muhammad, the Gospel is revealed to Jesus and the Torah to Moses.
Belief in the existence of Prophets: Muhammad being the last of them, Jesus the penultimate, Moses sent before them. Belief in the existence of the Day of Judgment Day: in that day, humanity will be divided into two groups: that of paradise and that of hell; these groups are themselves composed of subgroups. Belief in the existence of God's predestination, whether it involves good or bad. Of these, the first five are mentioned together in the Qur'an and by Muhammad, while including a corollary of belief in Allah – the good and evil of fate ordained by God – has referred to all six together in the following manner in the Hadith of Gabriel: "Iman is that you believe in God and His Angels and His Books and His Messengers and the Hereafter and the good and evil fate." Another similar narration ascribed to Muhammad is: Ibn Abbas narrates that the Angel Jibril once asked the Prophet: "Tell me what is Iman?" The Prophet replied: "Iman is to believe in Allah, the Day of Judgment, His Angels and Prophets and to believe in life after death.
Jibril asked him: "If I do all this will I be with Iman?" The Prophet said: "When you have done all of this, you will be having Iman." It is assumed that the essential iman consists of the first 3 items. In the Quran, iman is one of the 10 qualities which cause one to be the recipient of God's mercy and reward; the Quran states. The Qur'an states that nothing in this world should be dearer to a true believer than faith. Muhammad is reported to have said that he gained sweetness of faith, pleased to accept God as Lord, Islam as religion and Muhammad as prophet, he said that no one can be a true believer unless he loves the Prophet more than his children and relatives. At another instance, he has remarked that it is this love with God and Muhammad after which a person can be aware of the real taste of faith. Amin Ahsan Islahi, a notable exegete of the Qur'an has clarified the nature of this love:... it does not imply the passionate love one has for one's wife and other relatives, but it refers to the love on the basis of intellect and principles for some viewpoint and stance.
It is because of this love that a person, in every sphere of life, gives priority to this viewpoint and principle... So much so, if the demands of his wife and relatives clash with the demands of this viewpoint, he adheres to it and without any hesitation turns down the desires of his wife and children and the demands of his family and clan. Islahi and Maududi both have inferred that the Quranic comparison of a good word and a bad word in Chapter 14 is a comparison of faith and disbelief. Thus, the Qur'an is comparing faith to a tree whose roots are deep in the soil and branches spread in the vastness of the sky. Iman is the subject of a supplication uttered by Muhammad to God: O God! I have resigned myself to You and I have consigned my matter to you and have taken support from You fearing Your grandeur and moving towards You in anticipation. There is no refuge and shelter after running away from You, if there is, it is with You. Lord! I have professed faith in your Book which You have revealed and have professed faith in the Prophet you have sent as a Messenger.
The 77 Branches of Faith is a collection compiled by Imam Al-Bayhaqi in his work Shu`ab al-Iman. In it, he explains t
Sunni Islam is the largest denomination of Islam, followed by nearly 90% of the world's Muslims. Its name comes from the word sunnah; the differences between Sunni and Shia Muslims arose from a disagreement over the succession to Muhammad and subsequently acquired broader political significance, as well as theological and juridical dimensions. According to Sunni traditions, Muhammad did not designate a successor and the Muslim community acted according to his sunnah in electing his father-in-law Abu Bakr as the first caliph; this contrasts with the Shia view, which holds that Muhammad announced at the event of Ghadir Khumm his son-in-law and cousin Ali ibn Abi Talib as his successor. Political tensions between Sunnis and Shias continued with varying intensity throughout Islamic history and they have been exacerbated in recent times by ethnic conflicts and the rise of Wahhabism; as of 2009, Sunni Muslims constituted 87–90% of the world's Muslim population. Sunni Islam is the world's largest religious denomination, followed by Catholicism.
Its adherents are referred to in Arabic as ahl as-sunnah wa ahl as-sunnah for short. In English, its doctrines and practices are sometimes called Sunnism, while adherents are known as Sunni Muslims, Sunnis and Ahlus Sunnah. Sunni Islam is sometimes referred to as "orthodox Islam". However, other scholars of Islam, such as John Burton believe that there is no such thing as "orthodox Islam"; the Quran, together with hadith and binding juristic consensus form the basis of all traditional jurisprudence within Sunni Islam. Sharia rulings are derived from these basic sources, in conjunction with analogical reasoning, consideration of public welfare and juristic discretion, using the principles of jurisprudence developed by the traditional legal schools. In matters of creed, the Sunni tradition upholds the six pillars of iman and comprises the Ash'ari and Maturidi schools of rationalistic theology as well as the textualist school known as traditionalist theology. Sunnī commonly referred to as Sunnīism, is a term derived from sunnah meaning "habit", "usual practice", "custom", "tradition".
The Muslim use of this term refers to living habits of the prophet Muhammad. In Arabic, this branch of Islam is referred to as ahl as-sunnah wa l-jamāʻah, "the people of the sunnah and the community", shortened to ahl as-sunnah. One common mistake is to assume that Sunni Islam represents a normative Islam that emerged during the period after Muhammad's death, that Sufism and Shi'ism developed out of Sunni Islam; this perception is due to the reliance on ideological sources that have been accepted as reliable historical works, because the vast majority of the population is Sunni. Both Sunnism and Shiaism are the end products of several centuries of competition between ideologies. Both sects used each other to further cement their own doctrines; the first four caliphs are known among Sunnis as the Rashidun or "Rightly-Guided Ones". Sunni recognition includes the aforementioned Abu Bakr as the first, Umar as the second, Uthman as the third, Ali as the fourth. Sunnis recognised different rulers as the caliph, though they did not include anyone in the list of the rightly guided ones or Rashidun after the murder of Ali, until the caliphate was constitutionally abolished in Turkey on 3 March 1924.
The seeds of metamorphosis of caliphate into kingship were sown, as the second caliph Umar had feared, as early as the regime of the third caliph Uthman, who appointed many of his kinsmen from his clan Banu Umayya, including Marwan and Walid bin Uqba on important government positions, becoming the main cause of turmoil resulting in his murder and the ensuing infighting during Ali's time and rebellion by Muawiya, another of Uthman's kinsman. This resulted in the establishment of firm dynastic rule of Banu Umayya after Husain, the younger son of Ali from Fatima, was killed at the Battle of Karbala; the rise to power of Banu Umayya, the Meccan tribe of elites who had vehemently opposed Muhammad under the leadership of Abu Sufyan, Muawiya's father, right up to the conquest of Mecca by Muhammad, as his successors with the accession of Uthman to caliphate, replaced the egalitarian society formed as a result of Muhammad's revolution to a society stratified between haves and have-nots as a result of nepotism, in the words of El-Hibri through "the use of religious charity revenues to subsidise family interests, which Uthman justified as "al-sila"."
Ali, during his rather brief regime after Uthman maintained austere life style and tried hard to bring back the egalitarian system and supremacy of law over the ruler idealised in Muhammad's message, but faced continued opposition, wars one after another by Aisha-Talhah-Zubair, by Muawiya and by the Kharjites. After he was murdered his followers elected Hasan ibn Ali his elder son from Fatima to succeed him. Hasan, shortly afterwards signed a treaty with Muawiaya relinquishing power in favour of the latter, with a condition inter alia, that one of the two who will outlive the other will be the caliph, that this caliph will not appoint a successor but will leave the matter of selection of the caliph to the public. Subsequently, Hasan was poisoned to death and Muawiya enjoyed unchallenged power. Not honouring his treaty with Hasan he however nominated his son Yazid to succeed him. Upon Muawiya's death, Yazid asked Husain the younger brother of Hasan, Ali's son and Muh
Aqidah is an Islamic term meaning "creed". Many schools of Islamic theology expressing different views on aqidah exist. Any religious belief system, or creed, can be considered an example of aqidah. However, this term has taken a significant technical usage in Muslim history and theology, denoting those matters over which Muslims hold conviction, it is a branch of Islamic studies describing the beliefs of Islam. According to Muslim scholar Cyril Glasse, "systematic statements of belief became necessary, from early Islam on to refute heresies, to distinguish points of view and to present them, as the divergences of schools of theology or opinion increased."The "first" creed written as "a short answer to the pressing heresies of the time" is known as Fiqh Akbar and ascribed to Abu Hanifa. Two well known creeds were the Fiqh Akbar II "representative" of the Ash'ari, Fiqh Akbar III, "representative" of the Shafi'i. Al-Ghazali had an aqidah; these creeds were more detailed. The six articles of faith or belief, derived from the Quran and Sunnah, are accepted by all Muslims.
While there are differences between Shia and Sunni Islam and other different schools or sects concerning issues such as the attributes of God or about the purpose of angels, the six articles are not disputed. The six Sunni articles of belief are: Belief in God and tawhid Belief in the angels Belief in the Islamic holy books Belief in the prophets and messengers Belief in the Last Judgment and Resurrection Belief in predestination; the first five are based on several Qurʾanic creeds: Whoever disbelieveth in God and His angels and His scriptures and His messengers and the Last Day, he verily wandered far stray Who is an enemy of God, His Angels, His Messengers and Michael! Lo! God is an enemy to the disbelievers...righteous is he who believeth in God and the Last Day and the angels and the scripture and the prophets...believer believe in God and His angels and His scriptures and His messengers The sixth point made it into the creed because of the first theological controversy in Islam. Although not connected with the Sunni-Shiʿi controversy about the succession, the majority of Twelfer Shiʿites do not stress God's limitless power, but rather His boundless justice as the sixth point of belief – this does not mean that Sunnis deny His justice, or Shiʿites negate His power, just that the emphasis is different.
In Sunni and Shia view, having Iman means having belief in the six articles. Tawhid is the concept of monotheism in Islam, it is the religion's most fundamental concept and holds that God is one and unique, the Only One worthy of Worship, what Jews and Christians believe that only the Uncreated can be worshiped. A creature cannot be worshiped; this is idolatry. According to Islamic belief, Allah is the proper name of God, humble submission to his will, divine ordinances and commandments is the pivot of the Muslim faith. "He is the only God, creator of the universe, the judge of humankind." "He is unique and inherently one, all-merciful and omnipotent." The Qur'an declares "the reality of Allah, His inaccessible mystery, His 99 descriptive names expressing a quality characteristic, His actions on behalf of His creatures. Iman, in Islamic theology denotes a believer's faith in the metaphysical aspects of Islam, its most simple definition is the belief in the six articles of faith, known as arkān al-īmān.
The Hadith of Gabriel includes the Five Pillars of Islam in answer to the question, "O messenger of God, what is Islam?" This hadith is sometimes called the "truly first and most fundamental creed." Salat is the practice of formal worship in Islam. Its importance for Muslims is indicated by its status as one of the Five Pillars of Islam, with a few dispensations for those for whom it would be difficult. People who find it physically difficult can perform Salat in a way suitable for them. To perform valid Salat, Muslims must be in a state of ritual purity, achieved by ritual ablution, according to prescribed procedures. In the terminology of Islamic law, sawm means to abstain from eating and sexual intercourse from dawn until dusk; the observance of sawm during the holy month of Ramadan is one of the Five Pillars of Islam, but is not confined to that month. Zakat is the practice of charitable giving by Muslims based on accumulated wealth and is obligatory for all who are able to do so, it is considered to be a personal responsibility for Muslims to ease economic hardship for others and eliminate inequality.
The Hajj is an Islamic pilgrimage to Mecca and the largest gathering of Muslims in the world every year. It is one of the five pillars of Islam, a religious duty which must be carried out by every able-bodied Muslim who can afford to do so at least once in his or her lifetime. In addition, some Muslims include Jihad and Dawah as part of aqidah Jihad and means to endeavor, labor to apply oneself, to concentrate, to work hard, to accomplish, it could be used to refer to those who mentally or economically serve in the way of God. Da‘wah means the proselytizing or preaching of Islam. Da‘wah means "issuing a summon" or "making an invitation," being an active participle of a verb meaning variously "to summon" or "to invite." A Muslim who practices da‘wah, either as a religious worker or in a volunteer community effort, is called a dā‘ī. A dā‘ī
The Shahada is an Islamic creed, one of the Five Pillars of Islam, declaring belief in the oneness of God and the acceptance of Muhammad as God's prophet. The declaration, in its shortest form, reads: لَا إِلٰهَ إِلَّا ٱلله مُحَمَّدٌ رَسُولُ ٱلله lā ʾilāha ʾillā llāh muḥammadun rasūlu llāh IPA: There is no god but God. Muhammad is the messenger of God. Audio audio In the English translation—"There is no god but God. Muhammad is the messenger of God."—the first, lower-case occurrence of "god" is a translation of the Arabic word ilah, while the capitalized second and third occurrences of "God" are translations of the Arabic word Allah. The noun šahāda, from the verbal root šahida meaning "to observe, testify", translates as "testimony" in both the everyday and the legal senses; the Islamic creed is called, in the dual form, šahādatān. The expression al-šahāda is used in Quran as one of the "titles of God". In Sunni Islam, the Shahada has two parts: la ilaha illa'llah, Muhammadun rasul Allah, which are sometimes referred to as the first Shahada and the second Shahada.
The first statement of the Shahada is known as the tahlīl. In Shia Islam, the Shahada has a third part, a phrase concerning Ali, the first Shia Imam and the fourth Rashid caliph of Sunni Islam: وعليٌ وليُّ الله, which translates to "Ali is the wali of God". In the Quran, the first statement of the Shahadah takes the form la ilaha illa'llah twice, allahu la ilaha illa hu much more often, it appears in the shorter form la ilaha illa Hu in many places. It appears in these forms about 30 times in the Quran, never attached with the other parts of the Shahadah in Sunni or Shia Islam or "in conjunction with another name". Islam's monotheistic nature is reflected in the first sentence of the Shahada, which declares belief in the oneness of God and that he is the only entity worthy of worship; the second sentence of the Shahada indicates the means by which God has offered guidance to human beings. The verse reminds Muslims that they accept not only the prophecy of Muhammad but the long line of prophets who preceded him.
While the first part is seen as a cosmic truth, the second is specific to Islam, as it is understood that members of the older Abrahamic religions do not view Muhammad as one of their prophets. The Shahada is a statement of both worship. In a well-known hadith, Muhammad defines Islam as witnessing that there is no god but God and that Muhammad is God's messenger, giving of alms, performing the ritual prayer, fasting during the month of Ramadan, making a pilgrimage to the Kaaba: the Five Pillars of Islam are inherent in this declaration of faith. Recitation of the Shahādah is the most common statement of faith for Muslims. In Sunni Islam, it is counted as the first of the Five Pillars of Islam, while the Shi'i Twelvers and Isma'ilis have the Shahada as among their pillars of faith, it is whispered by the father into the ear of a newborn child, it is whispered into the ear of a dying person. The five canonical daily prayers each include a recitation of the Shahada. Recitation of the Shahada in front of witnesses is the first and only formal step in conversion to Islam.
This occasion attracts more than the two required witnesses and sometimes includes a celebration to welcome the convert into their new faith. In accordance with the central importance played by the notion of intention in Islamic doctrine, the recitation of the Shahada must reflect understanding of its import and heartfelt sincerity. Intention is what differentiates acts of devotion from mundane acts and a simple reading of the Shahada from invoking it as a ritual activity. Though the two statements of the Shahada are both present in the Quran, they are not found there side by side as in the Shahada formula. Versions of both phrases began to appear in coins and monumental architecture in the late seventh century, which suggests that it had not been established as a ritual statement of faith until then. An inscription in the Dome of the Rock in Jerusalem reads: "There is no god but God alone. Another variant appears in coins minted after the reign of Abd al-Malik ibn Marwan, the fifth Umayyad caliph: "Muhammad is the servant of God and His messenger".
Although it is not clear when the Shahada first came into common use among Muslims, it is clear that the sentiments it expresses were part of the Quran and Islamic doctrine from the earliest period. The Shahada has been traditionally recited in the Sufi ceremony of dhikr, a ritual that resembles mantras found in many other religious traditions. During the ceremony, the Shahada may be repeated thousands of times, sometimes in the shortened form of the first phrase where the word Allah is replaced by huwa; the chanting of the Shahada sometimes provides a rhythmic background for singing. The Shahada appears as an architectural element in Islamic buildings around the world, such as those in Jerusalem and Istanbul. Late-medieval and Renaissance European art displays a fascination with Middle Eastern motifs in general and the Arabic script in particular, as indicated by its use, without concern f
Schools of Islamic theology
See Islamic schools and branches for different schools of thought. Schools of Islamic theology are various Islamic schools and branches in different schools of thought regarding aqidah. According to Muhammad Abu Zahra, Jahmis, Murji'ah, Muʿtazila, Ash'ari, Athari are the ancient schools of aqidah; the main split between Sunni and Shia Islam was more political than theological, but over time theological differences have developed. Still, differences in aqidah occur as divisions orthogonal to the main divisions in Islam along political or fiqh lines, such that a Muʿtazili might, for example, belong to Ja'fari, Zaidi or Hanafi school of jurisprudence. Aqidah is an Islamic term meaning "creed" or "belief". Any religious belief system, or creed, can be considered an example of aqidah; however this term has taken a significant technical usage in Muslim history and theology, denoting those matters over which Muslims hold conviction. The term is translated as "theology"; such traditions are divisions orthogonal to sectarian divisions of Islam, a Mu'tazili may for example, belong to Jafari, Zaidi or Hanafi school of jurisprudence.
One of the earliest systematic theological school to develop, in the mid 8th-century, was Mu'tazila. It emphasized reason and rational thought, positing that the injunctions of God are accessible to rational thought and inquiry and that the Qur'an, albeit the word of God, was created rather than uncreated, which would develop into one of the most contentious questions in Islamic theology. In the 10th century, the Ash'ari school developed as a response to Mu'tazila, leading to the latter's decline. Ash'ari still taught the use of reason in understanding the Qur'an, but denied the possibility to deduce moral truths by reasoning; this was opposed by the school of Maturidi, which taught that certain moral truths may be found by the use of reason without the aid of revelation. Another point of contention was the relative position of iman vs. taqwa. Such schools of theology are summarized under Ilm al-Kalam, or "science of discourse", as opposed to mystical schools who deny that any theological truth may be discovered by means of discourse or reason.
Sunni Muslims are the largest denomination of Islam and are known as Ahl as-Sunnah wa’l-Jamā‘h or as Ahl as-Sunnah. The word Sunni comes from the word sunnah, which means the teachings and actions or examples of the Islamic prophet Muhammad. Therefore, the term "Sunni" refers to those who follow or maintain the sunnah of the prophet Muhammad; the Sunnis believe that Muhammad did not appoint a successor to lead the Muslim ummah before his death, after an initial period of confusion, a group of his most prominent companions gathered and elected Abu Bakr Siddique, Muhammad's close friend and a father-in-law, as the first caliph of Islam. Sunni Muslims regard the first four caliphs as "al-Khulafā’ur-Rāshidūn" or "The Rightly Guided Caliphs." After the Rashidun, the position turned into a hereditary right and the caliph's role was limited to being a political symbol of Muslim strength and unity. Atharism is a movement of Islamic scholars who reject rationalistic Islamic theology in favor of strict textualism in interpreting the Quran.
The name is derived from the Arabic word athar meaning "remnant" and referring to a "narrative". Their disciples Atharis. For followers of the Athari movement, the "clear" meaning of the Qur'an, the prophetic traditions, has sole authority in matters of belief, to engage in rational disputation if one arrives at the truth, is forbidden. Atharis engage in an amodal reading of the Qur'an, as opposed to one engaged in Ta'wil, they do not attempt to conceptualize the meanings of the Qur'an rationally, believe that the "real" meaning should be consigned to God alone. In essence, the meaning has been accepted without asking "how" or "Bi-la kaifa". On the other hand, the famous Hanbali scholar Ibn al-Jawzi states, in Kitab Akhbar as-Sifat, that Ahmad ibn Hanbal would have been opposed to anthropomorphic interpretations of Qur'anic texts such as those of al-Qadi Abu Ya'la, Ibn Hamid and Ibn az-Zaghuni. Based on Abu'l-Faraj ibn al-Jawzi's criticism of Athari-Hanbalis, Muhammad Abu Zahra, a Professor of Islamic law at Cairo University deduced that Salafi aqidah is located somewhere between ta'tili and anthropopathy in Islam.
Absolute Ẓāhirīsm and total rejection of ta'wil are amongst the fundamental characteristics of this "new" Islamic school of theology. ʿIlm al-Kalām foreshortened to kalam and sometimes called "Islamic scholastic theology", is an rational undertaking born out of the need to establish and defend the tenets of Islamic faith against doubters and detractors.'Ilm al-Kalam incorporates Aristotelian reasoning and logic into Islamic theology. A scholar of kalam is referred to as a mutakallim as distinguished from philosophers and scientists. There are many possible interpretations as to why this discipline was called "kalam"; the Mu'tazila were challenged by Abu al-Hasan Al-Ash'ari, who famously de
Islamic eschatology is the pillar of Islamic theology concerning the day of judgement, the "Day of Judgement " after that, known as Yawm al-Qiyāmah or Yawm ad-Dīn. It is characterized by the annihilation of all life, which will be followed by its resurrection and judgment by God; when al-Qiyamah will happen is not specified, but according to prophecy elaborated by hadith-literature, there are major and minor signs that will foretell its coming. Many verses in the Quran mention the Last Judgment; the main subject of Surat al-Qiyama is the resurrection. The Great Tribulation is described in the hadith and commentaries of the ulama, including al-Ghazali, Ibn Kathir, Ibn Majah, Muhammad al-Bukhari, Ibn Khuzaymah; the Day of Judgment is known as the Day of Reckoning, the Last Day, the Hour. Unlike the Quran, the hadith contain several events, happening before the Day of Judgment, which are described as several minor signs and twelve major signs. During this period, terrible corruption and chaos would rule the earth, caused by the Masih ad-Dajjal Jesus will appear, defeating the Dajjal and establish a period of peace, liberating Islam from cruelty.
These events will be followed by a time of serenity. Like other Abrahamic religions, Islam teaches that there will be a resurrection of the dead followed by a final tribulation and eternal division of the righteous and wicked. Islamic apocalyptic literature describing Armageddon is known as fitna, Al-Malhama Al-Kubra or ghaybah in Shī'a Islam; the righteous are rewarded with the pleasures of Jannah, while the unrighteous are punished in Jahannam. Two main sources in Islamic scripture discuss the Last Judgment and the tribulation associated with it: the Quran, viewed in Islam as infallible, the hadith, or sayings of the prophet. Hadith are viewed with more flexibility due to the late compilation of the sayings in written form, two hundred years after the death of Muhammad; the Last Judgment and the tribulation have been discussed in the commentaries of ulama such as al-Ghazali, Ibn Kathir, Muhammad al-Bukhari. In Islam, a number of major and minor signs foretell the end of days. There is debate over whether they could occur concurrently or must be at different points in time, although Islamic scholars divide them into three major periods.
Sexual immorality appears among people to such an extent that they commit it except that they will be afflicted by plagues and diseases unknown to their forefathers. The coming of fitna and removal of khushoo' The coming of Dajjal, presuming himself as an apostle of God. A person passing by a grave might say to another: I wish it were my abode; the loss of honesty, authority put in the hands of those who do not deserve it. The loss of knowledge and the prevalence of religious ignorance. Frequent and unexpected deaths. Increase in pointless killings. Acceleration of time. Rejection of Hadith; the spread of riba and the drinking of alcohol. Widespread acceptance of music. Pride and competition in the decoration of mosques. Women will increase in number and men will decrease in number so much so that fifty women will be looked after by one man. Abundance of earthquakes. Frequent occurrences of disgrace and defamation; when people wish to die because of the severe trials and tribulations that they are suffering.
Jews fighting Muslims. When paying charity becomes a burden. Nomads will compete in the construction of tall buildings. Women will appear naked despite their being dressed. People will seek knowledge from straying scholars. Liars will be believed, honest people disbelieved, faithful people called traitors; the death of righteous, knowledgeable people. The emergence of indecency and enmity among relatives and neighbours; the rise of idolatry and polytheists in the community. The Euphrates will uncover a mountain of gold; the land of the Arabs will return to being a land of fields. People will earn money by unlawful ways. There will be little vegetation. Evil people will be expelled from Al-Madinah. Wild animals will communicate with humans, humans will communicate with objects. Lightning and thunder will become more prevalent. There will be a special greeting for people of distinction. Trade will become so widespread. No honest man will remain and no one will be trusted. Only the worst people will be left.
Nations will call each other to destroy Islam by every means. Islamic knowledge will be passed on. Muslim rulers will come who do not follow the tradition of the Sunnah; some of their men will have the hearts of devils in a human body. Stinginess will become more widespread and honorable people will perish. A man will obey his wife and disobey his mother, treat his friend
Twelver or Imamiyyah is the largest branch of Shia Islam. The term Twelver refers to its adherents' belief in twelve divinely ordained leaders, known as the Twelve Imams, their belief that the last Imam, Muhammad al-Mahdi, lives in occultation and will reappear as the promised Mahdi. According to Shia tradition, the Mahdi's tenure will coincide with the Second Coming of Jesus Christ, to assist the Mahdi against the Masih ad-Dajjal. Twelvers believe that the Twelve Imams are the spiritual and political successors to the Islamic prophet Muhammad. According to the theology of Twelvers, the Twelve Imams are exemplary human individuals who not only rule over the community with justice, but are able to preserve and interpret sharia and the esoteric meaning of the Quran; the words and deeds of Muhammad and the Imams are a model for the community to follow. Twelver Shiism is the largest branch of Shia Islam, with about 85% of all Shias, or 150 to 200 million Twelver Shias. Twelvers make majorities among Muslims in Iran, Iraq, Bahrain.
They make significant minorities in India, Afghanistan, Saudi Arabia, Bangladesh, Oman, UAE, Nigeria and Tanzania. Iran is the only country with state religion as Shia Islam. Twelvers share many tenets of Shia with related sects, such as the belief in Imams, but the Ismaili Shias believe in a different number of Imams and, for the most part, a different path of succession regarding the Imamate, they differ in the role and overall definition of an Imam. Twelvers are distinguished from Ismailis by their belief in Muhammad's status as the "Seal of the Prophets", in rejecting the possibility of abrogation of Sharia laws, in considering both esoteric and exoteric aspects of the Quran. Alevis in Turkey and Albania, Alawites in Syria and Lebanon, share belief in the Twelve Imams with Twelvers, but their theological doctrines are markedly different; the term'Twelver' is based on the belief that twelve male descendants from the family of Muhammad, starting with Ali ibn Abi-Talib and ending with Muhammad al-Mahdi, are Imams who have religious and political authority.
The Twelvers are known by other names: The Shi'ah is used as a synonym for "Twelvers" since this branch comprises the majority group in Shia Islam. Shia refers to a group of Muslims who believe that the succession to Muhammad must remain in his family for specific members who are designated by a divine appointment. Tabataba'ei states. Ja'fari refers to the Twelver Juridical school, followed by the majority of Shias, it refers to the minority Akhbaris who advocate a distinct juridical approach within Ja'fari jurisprudence. The term is derived from the name of Ja'far al-Sadiq, considered by the Twelvers to be their Sixth Imām. Ja'far al-Sadiq is respected and referenced by the founders of the Sunni Hanafi and Maliki schools of jurisprudence. Imami or Imamiyyah or Imamite is a reference to the Twelver belief in the infallibility of the Imāms. Although the Ismā'īlīs share the generic concept of Imams, this term is used for the Twelvers who believe that the leadership of the community after Muhammad belongs to Ali and eleven subsequent successors that together comprise the Fourteen Infallibles.
Twelver theology, which consists of five principles, has formed over the course of history on the basis of the teachings of Quran, hadiths from Muhammad and the Twelve Imams, in response to the intellectual movements in the Muslim world and major events of the Twelver history, such as the Battle of Karbala and the occultation of the twelfth Imam, Muhammad al-Mahdi. It should be noted that mystics and traditional scholars all have diverse opinions about the unity of God, free will, judgment day, as stated by Jafaar Seedaan.". Care has been taken to mention the tradition view first mention other views objectively. According to Hossein Nasr, Ali ibn Abi Talib, the first Shia Imam is credited with having established Islamic theology and among Muslims his sermons contain the first rational proofs of the God's unity. Ali is quoted as arguing that unity of God means that he has no like, he is not subject to numeration and is not divisible either in reality or imagination. On another occasion, he is quoted saying: The first step of religion is to accept and realize him as the Lord...
The correct form of belief in his unity is to realize that he is so pure and above nature that nothing can be added to or subtracted from his being. That is, one should realize that there is no difference between his person and his attributes, his attributes should not be differentiated or distinguished from his person. Traditional Twelvers believe that God is different from his creation, that both are separate entities. However, Sayyid Haydar Amuli a prominent Shia mystic and philosopher defines God as alone in being, along with his names, his attributes, his actions, his theophanies; the totality of being, therefore, is he, through him, comes from him, returns to him. God is not a being next to or above his creatures; the divine unitude does not have the meaning of an arithme