Greenville, South Carolina
Greenville is the largest city in and the seat of Greenville County, South Carolina, United States. The city's mayor is Knox H. White, in that position since December 1995. With an estimated population of 68,219 as of 2017, it is the sixth-largest city in the state; the population of the surrounding area was 400,492 as of 2010, making it the third-largest urban area in South Carolina as well as the fastest growing. Greenville is the largest city in the Greenville-Anderson-Mauldin Metropolitan Statistical Area; the MSA had a population of 895,923 in 2017, making it the largest in South Carolina and the third largest in the Carolinas. Greenville is the largest city in the Greenville-Spartanburg-Anderson Combined Statistical Area, a 10-county region of northwestern South Carolina known as "The Upstate". According to United States Census Bureau, the CSA had a population of 1,459,766 as of 2017, making it the largest CSA in the state. Greenville is located halfway between Atlanta and Charlotte, North Carolina, along Interstate 85, its metropolitan area includes Interstates 185 and 385.
Greenville has gained recognition in various national publications such as CNN Money, which ranked Greenville as one of the "Top 10 Fastest Growing Cities in the U. S." Bloomberg named Greenville the Third Strongest Job Market for 2010. Greenville earned the No. 3 slot by Condé Nast Traveler's "Best Small Cities in the U. S." in 2017. Greenville was the fourth fastest-growing city in the United States between 2015 and 2016, according to the U. S. Census Bureau; the land of present-day Greenville was once the hunting ground of the Cherokee, forbidden to colonists. A wealthy settler from Virginia named Richard Pearis arrived in South Carolina around 1754 and established relations with the Cherokee. Pearis had a child with a Cherokee woman and received about 100,000 acres from the Cherokee around 1770. Pearis established a plantation on the Reedy River called the Great Plains in present-day downtown Greenville; the American Revolution divided the South Carolina country between the Patriots. Pearis supported the Loyalists and together with their allies.
The Patriots retaliated by jailing him in Charleston. Pearis never returned to his plantation but Paris Mountain is named after him; the Treaty of Dewitt's Corner in 1777 ceded all Cherokee land, including present-day Greenville, to South Carolina. Greenville County was named for its physical appearance. However, other sources say Greenville is named after General Nathanael Greene in honor of his service in the American Revolutionary War. Lemuel J. Alston came to Greenville County in 1788 and bought 400 acres and a portion of Pearis' former plantation. In 1797 Alston used his land holdings to establish a village called Pleasantburg where he built a stately mansion. In 1816, Alston's land was purchased by Vardry McBee, who leased the Alston mansion for a summer resort, before making mansion his home from 1835 until his death in 1864. Considered to be the father of Greenville, McBee donated land for many structures such as churches, a cotton mill. Furman University was funded by McBee who helped bring the university to Pleasantburg from Winnsboro, South Carolina in 1851.
In 1853 McBee and other Greenville County leaders funded a new railroad called the Greenville and Columbia Railroad. Pleasantburg boomed to around 1,000 in the 1850s due to the growth of McBee's donations and the attraction of the town as a summer resort for visitors. In 1831 Pleasantburg was incorporated as Greenville. In December 1860 Greenville supported a convention to debate the issue of secession for South Carolina; the Greenville District sent James Furman, William K. Easley, Perry E. Duncan, William H. Campbell, James P. Harrison as delegates for the convention. On December 20, 1860 the South Carolina state convention, along with the Greenville delegation, voted to secede from the Union. Greenville County provided over 2,000 soldiers to the Confederate States Army; the town supplied food and firearms to the Confederacy. Greenville saw no action from the war until 1865 when Union troops came through the town looking for President Jefferson Davis of the Confederacy who had fled south from Richmond, Virginia.
In June 1865 Andrew Johnson appointed Greenville County native Benjamin Franklin Perry as Governor of South Carolina. In February 1869, Greenville's town charter was amended by the S. C. General Assembly establishing Greenville, the town, as a city. Construction boomed in the 1870s such as the establishment of a bridge over the Reedy River, new mills on the river and new railroads; the Greenville News was established in 1874 as Greenville's first daily newspaper. Southern Bell installed the first telephone lines in the city; the most important infrastructure that came to the city were cotton mills. Prominent cotton mill businesses operated near Greenville making it a cotton mill town. By 1915 Greenville became known as the "Textile Center of the South." During World War I, Greenville served as a training camp center for Army recruits. After World War I commercial activity expanded with new movie theaters and department stores; the Mansion House was demolished and replaced with the Poinsett Hotel in 1925.
The Great Depression hurt the economy of Greenville forcing mills to lay off workers. Furman University and the Greenville Women's College struggled in the crippling economy forcing them to merge in 1933; the Textile Workers Strike of 1934 caused such an uproar in the city and surrounding mill towns that the National Guard had to subdue the chaos. The New Deal established Sirrine S
The Foothills Trail is a 76-mile National Recreation Trail in South and North Carolina, United States, for recreational hiking and backpacking. It extends from Table Rock State Park to Oconee State Park, it passes through the Andrew Pickens Ranger District of the Sumter National Forest, Ellicott Rock Wilderness, Whitewater Falls, Lake Jocassee. The U. S. Forest Service built the section in the Sumter National Forest starting in 1968. Duke Power Company built the middle portion of the trail as a recreational resource in conjunction with its Bad Creek pumped storage hydroelectric project; the trail is maintained by the Foothills Trail Conference. Table Rock State Park to Sassafras Mountain is an 8.8-mile section of the trail that ascends over 2,300 feet. It ends near the peak of Sassafras Mountain. There is a spur trail at Sassafras Mountain to Caesar's Head State Park described below. Sassafras Mountain to Chimneytop Gap is a 2.7-mile section of the trail. It goes over the peak of Sassafras Mountain, descends about 1,000 feet, ends at Chimneytop Gap.
Chimneytop Gap to Laurel Valley is a 2.1-mile section of the trail that descends about 800 feet and ends near U. S. Highway 178. There is a spur trail to the Eastatoe Gorge Natural Area, described below. Laurel Valley to Laurel Fork Falls is an 8.1-mile section of the trail that ascends about 800 feet descends about 1,200 feet, ends at Lower Fork Falls. There are a number of bridges on the trail. At Laurel Fork Falls, there is a boat access to Lake Jocassee. Laurel Fork Falls to Canebrake is a 5.8-mile section of the trail that has steep ascents and descents. It crosses into North Carolina. There is a boat access to Lake Jocassee at Canebrake. Canebrake to Bad Creek Access is a 16.4-mile section of the trail that has steep ascents and descents. There are foot bridges crossing the Toxaway River, the Thompson River, Bearcat Creek, it crosses back into South Carolina. At the Bad Creek Access, there are two short spur trails to Lower Whitewater Falls Overlook and the Bad Creek Visitors Center. Bad Creek Access to Upper Whitewater Falls is a 2.3-mile section of the trail.
Much of it parallels the Whitewater River. It crosses back into North Carolina. There is net ascent of about 800 feet. Upper Whitewater Falls to Sloan Bridge is a 5.5-mile section of the trail that crosses into North Carolina and back into South Carolina. It ends at SC Highway 107. Sloan Bridge to Fish Hatchery Road is a 3.3-mile section of the trail that starts at SC Highway 107 and ends at Fish Hatchery Road. There is an alternate trail, described below, from Sloan Bridge to rejoin the Foothills Trail at the Chattooga Trail intersection. Fish Hatchery Road to Burrell's Ford Road is a 3.9-mile section of the trail descends into the Chattooga River gorge. The last portion of this trail intersects the Chattooga Trail, it end at Burrell's Ford campground. There is a net descent of about 800 feet. Burrell's Ford Road to Cheohee Road is a 10.4-mile section of the trail that parallels the Chattooga River. It intersects the Bartram Trail; the trail ascends from the Chattooga River back to SC Highway 107.
Cheohee Road to Jumping Branch Trailhead is a short 1.4-mile section of the trail that travels east of SC Highway 107 and bends back to this highway. Jumping Branch Trailhead to Oconee State Park is a 4.6-mile section of the trail travels from SC Highway 107 to the trail's terminus at Oconee State Park. Sassafras Mountain to Caesar's Head State Park is a 14.2 miles trail that end at U. S. Highway 276. There is another trail connecting to Jones Gap State Park. Eastatoe Gorge Spur is a 2.3 miles dead-end spur. Fork Mountain Trail is a 12.2 miles long, alternate route from Sloan Bridge that rejoins the Foothills Trail above Burrell's Ford. A section of the trail parallels the Chattooga River in the Ellicott Rock Wilderness; the trail passes by Ellicott's Rock, on the Chattooga River. Jocasse Gorges Passage of the Palmetto Trail. At Table Rock State Park, there is a 12.5 miles long section of the Palmetto Trail and goes west into Jocassee Gorges. Oconee Passage of the Palmetto Trail. At Oconee State Park, there is a 3.2 miles long section of the Palmetto Trail that goes east toward Oconee Station State Historic Site. de Hart, South Carolina Trails, 2nd ed.
Globe Pequot Press,Chester, CT, 1989 ISBN 0-87106-647-5. Edgar, Walter, ed; the South Carolina Encyclopedia, University of South Carolina Press, 2006 ISBN 1-57003-598-9 Foothills Trail Conference, Guide to the Foothills Trail, 1998, 110 pp. Foothills Trail Conference, Foothills Trail, 2001. Foothills Trail Conference Photos and information on thru hiking the Foothills Trail U. S. Geological Survey Geographic Names Information System: Foothills Trail
Aiken State Park
Aiken State Park is a state park located near the town of Windsor in Aiken County, South Carolina. Aiken State Park was one of the 16 original parks in South Carolina, built by an African American detachment of the Civilian Conservation Corps. Many of the original buildings are still in use. Activities available at the park include picnicking, bird watching, swimming, geocaching and camping. There are a few nature trails in the park as well. Amenities include a playground, picnic shelters, horseshoe pits, a boat ramp on the Edisto River, a 1.7 mile canoe trail and a park store. Visitors can rent fishing rods and reels, non-motorized fishing boats and canoes from the park office. Official website
Oconee Station State Historic Site
Oconee Station was established in 1792 as a blockhouse on the South Carolina frontier. Troops were removed in 1799; the site has the Williams Richards House, built in the early 19th century as residence and trading post. The site is listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1971 as Oconee Station and Richards House. There is a short spur trail to Station Cove Falls, a 60 ft waterfall, the Oconee Passage of the Palmetto Trail; the Oconee Station and the William Richards House were photographed by Jack Boucher of the Historic American Buildings Survey in 1960. Both structures are open by appointment. Admission is free. Official website Photos and more info on Oconee Station U. S. Geological Survey Geographic Names Information System: Oconee Station Historic American Buildings Survey No. SC-348, "Oconee Station, Oconee County, SC", 3 photos, 1 data page, 1 photo caption page HABS No. SC-349, "William Richards House, Walhalla vicinity, Oconee County, SC", 7 photos, 1 data page, 1 photo caption page
Table Rock Civilian Conservation Corps Camp Site
Table Rock Civilian Conservation Corps Camp Site is a historic Civilian Conservation Corps camp site located near Pickens, Pickens County, South Carolina. The site is associated with the CCC construction of Table Rock State Park between 1935 and 1941. Remnants of the CCC Camps SP-5 and SP-6 include the recreation hall chimney, bulletin board with adjacent benches, grotto fountain, basin, it was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1989
Historic districts in the United States
Historic districts in the United States are designated historic districts recognizing a group of buildings, properties, or sites by one of several entities on different levels as or architecturally significant. Buildings, structures and sites within a historic district are divided into two categories and non-contributing. Districts vary in size: some have hundreds of structures, while others have just a few; the U. S. federal government designates historic districts through the United States Department of Interior under the auspices of the National Park Service. Federally designated historic districts are listed on the National Register of Historic Places, but listing imposes no restrictions on what property owners may do with a designated property. State-level historic districts may follow similar criteria or may require adherence to certain historic rehabilitation standards. Local historic district designation offers, by far, the most legal protection for historic properties because most land use decisions are made at the local level.
Local districts are administered by the county or municipal government. The first U. S. historic district was established in Charleston, South Carolina in 1931, predating the U. S. federal government designation by more than three decades. Charleston city government designated an "Old and Historic District" by local ordinance and created a board of architectural review to oversee it. New Orleans followed in 1937, establishing the Vieux Carré Commission and authorizing it to act to maintain the historic character of the city's French Quarter. Other localities picked up on the concept, with the city of Philadelphia enacting its historic preservation ordinance in 1955; the regulatory authority of local commissions and historic districts has been upheld as a legitimate use of government police power, most notably in Penn Central Transportation Co. v. City of New York; the Supreme Court case validated the protection of historic resources as "an permissible governmental goal." In 1966 the federal government created the National Register of Historic Places, soon after a report from the U.
S. Conference of Mayors had stated Americans suffered from "rootlessness." By the 1980s there were thousands of federally designated historic districts. Some states, such as Arizona, have passed referendums defending property rights that have stopped private property being designated historic without the property owner's consent or compensation for the historic overlay. Historic districts are two types of properties and non-contributing. Broadly defined, a contributing property is any property, structure or object which adds to the historical integrity or architectural qualities that make a historic district, listed locally or federally, significant. Different entities governmental, at both the state and national level in the United States, have differing definitions of contributing property but they all retain the same basic characteristics. In general, contributing properties are integral parts of the historic context and character of a historic district. In addition to the two types of classification within historic districts, properties listed on the National Register of Historic Places are classified into five broad categories.
They are, structure, site and object. All but the eponymous district category are applied to historic districts listed on the National Register. A listing on the National Register of Historic Places is governmental acknowledgment of a historic district. However, the Register is "an honorary status with some federal financial incentives." The National Register of Historic Places defines a historic district per U. S. federal law, last revised in 2004. According to the Register definition a historic district is: a geographically definable area, urban or rural, possessing a significant concentration, linkage, or continuity of sites, structures, or objects united by past events or aesthetically by plan or physical development. A district may comprise individual elements separated geographically but linked by association or history. Districts established under U. S. federal guidelines begin the process of designation through a nomination to the National Register of Historic Places. The National Register is the official recognition by the U.
S. government of cultural resources worthy of preservation. While designation through the National Register does offer a district or property some protections, it is only in cases where the threatening action involves the federal government. If the federal government is not involved the listing on the National Register provides the site, property or district no protections. For example, if company A wants to tear down the hypothetical Smith House and company A is under contract with the state government of Illinois the federal designation would offer no protections. If, company A was under federal contract the Smith House would be protected. A federal designation is little more than recognition by the government that the resource is worthy of preservation. In general, the criteria for acceptance to the National Register are applied but there are considerations for exceptions to the criteria and historic districts have influence on some of those exceptions; the National Register does not list religious structures, moved structures, reconstructed structures, or properties that have achieved significance within the last 50 years.
However, if a property falls into one of those categories and are "integral parts of districts that do meet the criteria" an exception allowing their listing will be made. Historic dis
Civilian Conservation Corps
The Civilian Conservation Corps was a public work relief program that operated from 1933 to 1942 in the United States for unemployed, unmarried men. For young men ages 18–25, it was expanded to ages 17–28. Robert Fechner was the first director of the agency, succeeded by James McEntee following Fechner's death; the CCC was a major part of President Franklin D. Roosevelt's New Deal that provided unskilled manual labor jobs related to the conservation and development of natural resources in rural lands owned by federal and local governments; the CCC was designed to provide jobs for young men and to relieve families who had difficulty finding jobs during the Great Depression in the United States. Maximum enrollment at any one time was 300,000. Through the course of its nine years in operation, 3 million young men participated in the CCC, which provided them with shelter and food, together with a wage of $30 per month; the American public made the CCC the most popular of all the New Deal programs.
Sources written at the time claimed an individual's enrollment in the CCC led to improved physical condition, heightened morale, increased employability. The CCC led to a greater public awareness and appreciation of the outdoors and the nation's natural resources, the continued need for a planned, comprehensive national program for the protection and development of natural resources; the CCC operated separate programs for Native Americans. 15,000 Native Americans participated in the program, helping them weather the Great Depression. By 1942, with World War II and the draft in operation, the need for work relief declined, Congress voted to close the program; as governor of New York, Franklin Delano Roosevelt had run a similar program on a much smaller scale. Long interested in conservation, as president, he proposed to Congress a full-scale national program on March 21, 1933: I propose to create to be used in complex work, not interfering with normal employment and confining itself to forestry, the prevention of soil erosion, flood control, similar projects.
I call your attention to the fact that this type of work is of definite, practical value, not only through the prevention of great present financial loss but as a means of creating future national wealth. He promised this law would provide 250,000 young men with meals, housing and medical care for working in the national forests and other government properties; the Emergency Conservation Work Act was introduced to Congress the same day and enacted by voice vote on March 31. Roosevelt issued Executive Order 6101 on April 5, 1933, which established the CCC organization and appointed a director, Robert Fechner, a former labor union official who served until 1939; the organization and administration of the CCC was a new experiment in operations for a federal government agency. The order indicated that the program was to be supervised jointly by four government departments: Labor, which recruited the young men, which operated the camps, Agriculture and Interior, which organized and supervised the work projects.
A CCC Advisory Council was composed of a representative from each of the supervising departments. In addition, the Office of Education and Veterans Administration participated in the program. To end the opposition from labor unions Roosevelt chose Robert Fechner, vice president of the International Association of Machinists and Aerospace Workers, as director of the corps. William Green, head of the American Federation of Labor, was taken to the first camp to demonstrate that there would be no job training involved beyond simple manual labor. Reserve officers from the U. S. Army were in charge of the camps. General Douglas MacArthur was placed in charge of the program but said that the number of Army officers and soldiers assigned to the camps was affecting the readiness of the Regular Army, but the Army found numerous benefits in the program. When the draft began in 1940, the policy was to make CCC alumni sergeants. CCC provided command experience to Organized Reserve Corps officers. Through the CCC, the Regular Army could assess the leadership performance of both Regular and Reserve Officers.
The CCC provided lessons which the Army used in developing its wartime and mobilization plans for training camps. The legislation and mobilization of the program occurred quite rapidly. Roosevelt made his request to Congress on March 21, 1933; the first CCC enrollee was selected April 8, subsequent lists of unemployed men were supplied by state and local welfare and relief agencies for immediate enrollment. On April 17, the first camp, NF-1, Camp Roosevelt, was established at George Washington National Forest near Luray, Virginia. On June 18, the first of 161 soil erosion control camps was opened, in Alabama. By July 1, 1933 there were 1,463 working camps with 250,000 junior enrollees; the typical CCC enrollee was a U. S. citizen, unemployed male, 18–25 years of age. His family was on local relief; each enrollee volunteered and, upon passing a physical exam and/or a period of conditioning, was required to serve a minimum six-month period, with the