A tablet is a pharmaceutical dosage form. Tablets may be defined as the solid unit dosage form of medicament or medicaments with or without suitable excipients and it comprises a mixture of active substances and excipients, usually in powder form, pressed or compacted from a powder into a solid dose. The compressed tablet is the most popular form in use today. About two-thirds of all prescriptions are dispensed as solid dosage forms, a tablet can be formulated to deliver an accurate dosage to a specific site, it is usually taken orally, but can be administered sublingually, buccally, rectally or intravaginally. The tablet is just one of the forms that an oral drug can take such as syrups, elixirs, suspensions. Medicinal tablets were made in the shape of a disk of whatever color their components determined. Tablets are often stamped with symbols, letters, and numbers, sizes of tablets to be swallowed range from a few millimeters to about a centimeter. Pills are thought to date back to around 1500 BC, earlier medical recipes, such as those from 4000 BC, were for liquid preparations rather than solids. The first references to pills were found on papyruses in ancient Egypt, medicinal ingredients, such as plant powders or spices, were mixed in and formed by hand to make little balls, or pills. In ancient Greece, such medicines were known as katapotia, and the Roman scholar Pliny, Pills have always been difficult to swallow and efforts long have been made to make them go down easier. In medieval times, people coated pills with slippery plant substances, another approach, used as recently as the 19th century, was to gild them in gold and silver, although this often meant that they would pass through the digestive tract with no effect. In the 1800s sugar-coating and gelatin-coating was invented, as were gelatin capsules, in 1843, the British painter and inventor William Brockedon was granted a patent for a machine capable of Shaping Pills, Lozenges and Black Lead by Pressure in Dies. The device was capable of compressing powder into a tablet without use of an adhesive, today, pills include tablets, capsules, and variants thereof like caplets—essentially anything with medication that can be digested, minus the liquid forms, colloquially falls into the pill category. A caplet is a smooth, coated, oval-shaped medicinal tablet in the shape of a capsule. Many caplets have a running down the middle so they may be split in half easier. An orally disintegrating tablet or orodispersible tablet, is a dosage form available for a limited range of over-the-counter. In the tablet-pressing process, it is important that all ingredients be fairly dry, powdered or granular, somewhat uniform in particle size, content uniformity ensures that the same API dose is delivered with each tablet. Some APIs may be tableted as pure substances, but this is rarely the case, normally, a pharmacologically inactive ingredient termed a binder is added to help hold the tablet together and give it strength
Common disk-shaped tablets
Variations on a common tablet design, which can be distinguished by both color and shape
Olanzapine ODT blister pack with "wafer" tablets that rapidly dissolve in saliva.
Tablets that failed due to capping and lamination compared to a normal tablet