The Tacoma Dome is an indoor arena located in Tacoma, United States, located 30 miles south of Seattle. Upon winning an international design competition, local architects McGranahan and Messenger completed the Tacoma Dome for $44 million; the arena seats 20,722 for basketball. The wood used to make the roof came from trees that were downed in the Mt. St Helens eruption of 1980. Unlike most other arenas of its size, the arena contains little in the way of fixed seating, so as to maximize the flexibility of the seating arrangements and of the shape of the playing field, it can host American football, albeit with seating reduced to 10,000. The dome's first event was a concert by British musician David Bowie as part of his Serious Moonlight Tour on August 11, 1983; the arena hosted the Seattle SuperSonics from 1994 to 1995 while the Seattle Center Coliseum was being renovated into the venue now known as KeyArena, as well as various regular-season Sonics games during other seasons. It hosted the Tacoma Rockets Western Hockey League team from 1991 to 1995, the Tacoma Sabercats of the West Coast Hockey League from 1997 to 2002, the Tacoma Stars indoor soccer team of the MISL from 1983 to 1992, gymnastics and figure skating events during the 1990 Goodwill Games, numerous other minor-league ice hockey and indoor soccer teams.
The dome hosted the NCAA Division I Women's Basketball Championship in back-to-back years. The Tacoma Dome hosted National Hockey League preseason exhibition games in 1983, 1984, 1988, 1992, 1996. Michael Jackson was scheduled to perform three concerts on October 31 and November 1 and 2, 1988, during his Bad Tour. Although all the shows sold out, the concerts were cancelled because of the performer's serious health problems. In the dome's first year, Billy Graham hosted one of his crusades, he returned to the Tacoma Dome in 1991. In both crusades, Graham averaged 30,000 spectators every night; the Professional Bull Riders hosted a Built Ford Tough Series bull-riding event at the dome annually between 2003 and 2009. World Championship Wrestling held their Spring Stampede pay-per-view at the dome on April 11, 1999. Diamond Dallas Page defeated WCW World Heavyweight Champion Ric Flair, Hollywood Hogan and Sting in a Four Corners match to win the title. During a Monster Jam event at the Tacoma Dome in January 2009, a piece of debris from a truck flew into the stands during a freestyle performance, killing a six-year-old spectator and injuring another spectator.
This is so far the only fatality to occur at a Monster Jam event. On February 2, 2016, the Tacoma Dome started new security procedures for entering the venue at the sold-out AC/DC concert; the new enhancements included metal detector wands at each entrance, a bag size restriction, the prohibition of backpacks, the search of all bags before entry. In November 2016, the City of Tacoma approved a two-year, $21.3 million renovation project. The renovations took place with the cost rising to $30 million; the renovations were completed on October 8, 2018. The Tacoma Dome is known for its controversial neon art. In 1984, the Stephen Antonakos piece displayed inside the dome was the subject of intense debate over public funding of artworks for public works projects. Tacoma Dome Shanaman Sports Museum of Tacoma-Pierce County
Tacoma Narrows Bridge
The Tacoma Narrows Bridge is a pair of twin suspension bridges that span the Tacoma Narrows strait of Puget Sound in Pierce County, Washington. The bridges connect the city of Tacoma with the Kitsap Peninsula and carry State Route 16 over the strait; the name "Tacoma Narrows Bridge" has applied to the original bridge nicknamed "Galloping Gertie", which opened in July 1940, but collapsed because of aeroelastic flutter four months as well as the replacement of the original bridge which opened in 1950 and still stands today as the westbound lanes of the present-day twin bridge complex. The original Tacoma Narrows Bridge opened on July 1, 1940; the original bridge received its nickname "Galloping Gertie" because of the vertical movement of the deck observed by construction workers during windy conditions. The bridge became known for its pitching deck, collapsed into Puget Sound the morning of November 7, 1940, under high wind conditions. Engineering issues, as well as the United States' involvement in World War II, postponed plans to replace the bridge for several years.
By 1990, population growth and development on the Kitsap Peninsula caused traffic on the bridge to exceed its design capacity. After a series of protests and court battles, construction began in 2002 and the new bridge opened to carry eastbound traffic on July 16, 2007, while the 1950 bridge was reconfigured to carry westbound traffic. At the time of their construction, both the 1940 and 1950 bridges were the third-longest suspension bridges in the world in terms of main span length, behind the Golden Gate Bridge and George Washington Bridge; the 1950 and 2007 bridges are as of 2017 the fifth-longest suspension bridge spans in the United States and the 43rd-longest in the world. Tolls were charged on the bridge for the entire four-month service life of the original span, as well as the first 15 years of the 1950 bridge. In 1965, the bridge's construction bonds plus interest were paid off, the state ceased toll collection on the bridge. Over 40 years tolls were reinstated as part of the financing of the twin span, are presently collected only from vehicles traveling eastbound.
The desire for the construction of a bridge in this location dates back to 1889 with a Northern Pacific Railway proposal for a trestle, but concerted efforts began in the mid-1920s. In 1937, the Washington State legislature created the Washington State Toll Bridge Authority and appropriated $5,000 to study the request by Tacoma and Pierce County for a bridge over the Narrows; the bridge was designed by Leon Moisseiff. The first Tacoma Narrows Bridge opened to traffic on July 1, 1940, its main span collapsed into the Tacoma Narrows four months on November 7, 1940, at 11:00 a.m. as a result of aeroelastic flutter caused by a 42 mph wind. The bridge collapse had lasting effects on engineering. In many undergraduate physics texts, the event is presented as an example of elementary forced resonance, with the wind providing an external periodic frequency that matched the natural structural frequency though the real cause of the bridge's failure was aeroelastic flutter, not resonance. A contributing factor was its solid sides, not allowing wind to pass through the bridge's deck.
Thus, its design allowed the bridge to catch the wind and sway, which took it down. Its failure boosted research in the field of bridge aerodynamics and aeroelastic, fields which have influenced the designs of all the world's great long-span bridges built since 1940. No human life was lost in the collapse of the bridge; the only fatality was a Cocker Spaniel named Tubby, who perished after he was abandoned in a car on the bridge by his owner, Leonard Coatsworth. Professor Frederick Burt Farquharson, an engineer from the University of Washington, involved in the design of the bridge, tried to rescue Tubby but was bitten by the terrified dog when he attempted to remove him; the collapse of the bridge was recorded on 16 mm film by Barney Elliott, owner of a local camera shop, shows Farquharson leaving the bridge after trying to rescue Tubby and making observations in the middle of the bridge. In 1998, The Tacoma Narrows Bridge Collapse was selected for preservation in the United States National Film Registry by the Library of Congress as being "culturally or aesthetically significant".
This footage is shown to engineering and physics students as a means to teach about engineering disaster. The dismantling of the towers and side spans—having survived the collapse of the main span, but being damaged beyond repair—began shortly after the collapse and continued into May 1943; the United States' participation in World War II, as well as engineering and finance issues, delayed plans to replace the bridge. The current westbound bridge was designed and rebuilt with open trusses, stiffening struts and openings in the roadway to let wind through, it opened on October 14, 1950, is 5,979 feet long — 40 feet longer than the first bridge, Galloping Gertie. Local residents nicknamed the new bridge Sturdy Gertie, as the oscillations that plagued the previous design had been eliminated; this bridge along with its new parallel eastbound bridge is the fifth-longest suspension bridges in the United States. When built, the westbound bridge was the third longest suspension bridge span in the world.
Like other modern suspension bridges, the westbound bridge was built with steel plates that feature sharp entry edges rather than the flat plate sides used in the original Tacoma Narrows Bridge (see the suspension bridge article f
The Toyota Tacoma is a pickup truck manufactured in the U. S. by the Japanese automobile manufacturer Toyota since 1995. The first generation Tacoma, model years 1995½ through 2004, was classified as a compact pickup; the second generation, model years 2005 through 2015, third generation, in production since 2015, are classified as mid-size pickups and are produced in the U. S. and Mexico. The Tacoma was Motor Trend Magazine's Truck of the Year for 2005; as of 2015, the Toyota Tacoma is sold in the U. S. Canada, Panama, Bolivia and the French territory of New Caledonia; the Tacoma was introduced in the US in February 1995 as a replacement for the Hilux, which prior to this was marketed in the US under the name Toyota Pickup. Compared with the Hilux, the Tacoma is engineered with a greater priority on ride quality, handling and safety over ruggedness and payload capacity; the design is intended to better suit the needs of the US and Canadian pickup truck market, where pickup trucks compact and mid-sized models, are used as personal vehicles, less for commercial and off road use.
The name was derived from the Coast Salish peoples' name for Mt. Rainier in Washington state. Development began in 1989, following launch of the fifth generation Toyota Pickup in late 1988 and concluded in 1994. Design work was done at Calty Design Research in California from 1990 to 1992, when Kevin Hunter's exterior design proposal was chosen in the autumn of 1991 and in final form, frozen for production in 1992. Patents for the production design were filed in Japan in April 1993 and October 28, 1993 in the United States. There were a total of three engines available for the Toyota Tacoma: 2.4 L four-cylinder rated at 142 hp and 160 lb⋅ft of torque 2.7 L four-cylinder rated at 150 hp and 177 lb⋅ft of torque 3.4 L V6 rated at 190 hp and 220 lb⋅ft of torque. The 2.4 L gave 29 miles per US gallon, the 2.7 L gave 26 miles per US gallon, the 3.4 L delivered 22 miles per US gallon. Two-wheel drive Tacomas had 5-stud wheel lug patterns and available with the 2.4L or 3.4L. Automatic and manual transmissions were available.
Four-wheel drive and PreRunner Tacomas had six-stud wheel lug patterns and were available with the 2.7L and 3.4L engines. All PreRunner and all Double Cab models were only available with an automatic transmission for the first generation while the regular cab and Xtracab four-wheel drive was available with either a manual transmission or automatic transmission; the truck's frame is boxed until after the rear leaf spring mount bracket where it transitions into a c-frame section. The 3.4 V6's manual transmission was an R150F while the automatic transmission was an A340F. The aftermarket TRD supercharged 3.4L V6 produced 254 bhp and 270 lb⋅ft. From 1997 on, the regular cabs was only available with a 2.4L or a 2.7L 4-cylinder. The TRD Off-Road package was introduced in 1998; this package added a locking rear differential and was only available to PreRunner and four-wheel drive models that were equipped with a V6. In its first couple years of production the Tacoma sold well, attracting many young buyers.
The first generation Tacoma underwent a minor headlight upgrade from recessed to flush headlights in October 1996 on 2WD models and a total of two cosmetic facelifts: the first in July 1997, the second in October 2000. The facelifts entailed grilles and tailgate badging and emblems. Mechanical changes included a switch to distributorless ignitions in 1996 and in 1997 longer rear leaf springs. A passenger-side air bag was added in July 1997, the driver's side air bag was "depowered". Most 4x4 models came with Toyota's Automatic Differential Disconnect system after the 2000 model year; the PreRunner model was introduced for the 1998 model year. The PreRunner is a two-wheel drive that shares the same taller suspension and lug pattern as the four-wheel drive. Along with the four-wheel drive model, it was available with the TRD Off-Road Package that included a locking rear differential introduced in 1998. Designed through 1998 as part of the MY2001 facelift was a new crew cab model added to the lineup in October 2000.
The crew cab dubbed as the Double Cab model, featured four doors and Tokico gas shocks, while the extended cabs still opened with two doors and used Bilstein shocks. The extended cab featured a 6 ft bed. Many customers were upset with small crew cab beds. In October 2000, along with the front facelift, Toyota had unveiled an S-Runner trim package which included the 3.4-liter V6 engine. It came with 16-inch alloy wheels, a 5-speed manual transmission with Tokico gas shocks. There were only 800 produced each month from September 2000 to August 2004. By 2003 the Tacoma had gained 16.5 percent sales from its previous years. The Tacoma's popularity only increased in the next few years. By 2004 it was ahead of the Nissan Frontier, Dodge Dakota, but still 2.2 percent behind in sales to the Ford Ranger. In 2008, Toyota proactively announced a 15-year, unlimited mileage corrosion warranty for 1995-2000 model years due to inadequate rustproofing and frame corrosion issues affecting over 800,000 Tacomas. Toyota will either repair the frame or buyback the truck for 1.5 times its KBB retai
Actrix nyssaecolella, the tupelo leaffolder moth, is a species of moth of the family Pyralidae described by Harrison Gray Dyar Jr. in 1904. It is found from New York to Florida and west to Texas; the wingspan is 15–18 mm. They have light gray forewings with a dark gray hourglass-shaped marking; the hindwings are brownish gray with a pale fringe. Adults are on wing from April to July; the larvae feed on Nyssa species
Tacoma is a mid-sized urban port city and the county seat of Pierce County, United States. The city is on Washington's Puget Sound, 32 miles southwest of Seattle, 31 miles northeast of the state capital, 58 miles northwest of Mount Rainier National Park; the population was 198,397, according to the 2010 census. Tacoma is the third largest in the state. Tacoma serves as the center of business activity for the South Sound region, which has a population of around 1 million. Tacoma adopted its name after the nearby Mount Rainier called Takhoma or Tahoma, it is locally known as the "City of Destiny" because the area was chosen to be the western terminus of the Northern Pacific Railroad in the late 19th century. The decision of the railroad was influenced by Tacoma's neighboring deep-water harbor, Commencement Bay. By connecting the bay with the railroad, Tacoma's motto became "When rails meet sails". Commencement Bay serves the Port of Tacoma, a center of international trade on the Pacific Coast and Washington State's largest port.
Like most central cities, Tacoma suffered a prolonged decline in the mid-20th century as a result of suburbanization and divestment. Since the 1990s, developments in the downtown core include the University of Washington Tacoma. Neighborhoods such as the 6th Avenue District have been revitalized. With over $1 billion having been invested in downtown Tacoma alone, private investment has surpassed public investment by a ratio of 4:1. Tacoma has been named one of the most livable areas in the United States. In 2006, Tacoma was listed as one of the "most walkable" cities in the country; that same year, the women's magazine Self named Tacoma the "Most Sexually Healthy City" in the United States. Tacoma gained notoriety in 1940 for the collapse of the Tacoma Narrows Bridge, which earned the nickname "Galloping Gertie"; the area was inhabited for thousands of years by American Indians, predominantly the Puyallup people, who lived in settlements on the delta. In 1852, a Swede named Nicolas Delin built a water-powered sawmill on a creek near the head of Commencement Bay, but the small settlement that grew around it was abandoned during the Indian War of 1855–56.
In 1864, pioneer and postmaster Job Carr, a Civil War veteran and land speculator, built a cabin. Carr hoped to profit from the selection of Commencement Bay as the terminus of the Transcontinental Railroad, sold most of his claim to developer Morton M. McCarver, who named his project Tacoma City, derived from the indigenous name for the mountain. Tacoma was incorporated on November 12, 1875, following its selection in 1873 as the western terminus of the Northern Pacific Railroad due to lobbying by McCarver, future mayor John Wilson Sprague, others. However, the railroad built its depot on New Tacoma, two miles south of the Carr–McCarver development; the two communities grew together and joined, merging on January 7, 1884. The transcontinental link was effected in 1887, the population grew from 1,098 in 1880 to 36,006 in 1890. Rudyard Kipling visited Tacoma in 1889 and said it was "literally staggering under a boom of the boomiest". George Francis Train was a resident for a few years in the late 19th century.
In 1890, he staged a global circumnavigation ending in Tacoma to promote the city. A plaque in downtown Tacoma marks the finish line. In November 1885, white citizens led by then-mayor Jacob Weisbach expelled several hundred Chinese residents peacefully living in the city; as described by the account prepared by the Chinese Reconciliation Project Foundation, on the morning of November 3, "several hundred men, led by the mayor and other city officials, evicted the Chinese from their homes, corralled them at 7th Street and Pacific Avenue, marched them to the railway station at Lakeview and forced them aboard the morning train to Portland, Oregon. The next day two Chinese settlements were burned to the ground." The discovery of gold in the Klondike in 1898 led to Tacoma's prominence in the region being eclipsed by the development of Seattle. A major tragedy marred the end of the 19th century, when a streetcar accident resulted in significant loss of life on July 4, 1900. From May to August 1907, the city was the site of a smelter workers' strike organized by Local 545 of the Industrial Workers of the World, with the goal of a fifty-cent per day pay raise.
The strike was opposed by the local business community, the smelter owners threatened to blacklist organizers and union officials. The IWW opposed this move by trying to persuade inbound workers to avoid Tacoma during the strike. By August, the strike had ended without meeting its demands. Tacoma was a major destination for big-time automobile racing, with one of the nation's top-rated racing venues just outside the city limits, at the site of today's Clover Park Technical College. In 1924, Tacoma's first movie studio, H. C. Weaver Studio, was sited at present-day Titlow Beach. At the time, it was the third-largest freestanding film production space in America, with the two larger facilities being located in Hollywood; the studio's importance has undergone a revival with the discovery of one of its most famous lost films, Eyes of the Totem. The 1929 crash of the stock market, resulting in the Great Depression, was only the first event in a series of misfortunes to hit Tacoma in the winter of 1929–3
The MV Tacoma is a Jumbo Mark II Class ferry operated by Washington State Ferries. Launched in 1997, it was the first in its class in the Washington State Ferries fleet. Since delivery, the Tacoma has exclusively been assigned to the Seattle-Bainbridge Island route; the Tacoma and its sister ship, the MV Wenatchee, suffered from excessive vibration during their early period of operation, until it was repaired during routine maintenance in 1999. The issue was addressed in the Jumbo Mark II ferry, the MV Puyallup, before it launched. On July 29, 2014, the vessel suffered a catastrophic electrical failure, in which most of the ship's electrical system was destroyed; the Tacoma came to a stop in Eagle Harbor and dropped anchor to prevent her from beaching making it the "second time in 40 years that a state ferry was forced to drop anchor.". The MV Sealth, serving the Seattle-Bremerton route at the time, made a detour up to Eagle Harbor to tow the Tacoma away from shore until tugboats could guide her back to the slip.
The Tacoma remained out of service for nearly nine months. After four weeks of sea trials and approval from the Coast Guard, the Tacoma returned to service on the Seattle-Bainbridge route on March 28, 2015. MV Tacoma vessel info from WSDOT Media related to Tacoma at Wikimedia Commons
The Tacoma class of patrol frigates served in the United States Navy during World War II and the Korean War. Classified as a gunboat, they were reclassified as a patrol frigate on 15 April 1943; the class is named for its lead ship, Tacoma, a Maritime Commission S2-S2-AQ1 design, which in turn was named for the city of Tacoma, Washington. Twenty-one ships were transferred to the British Royal Navy, in which they were known as Colony-class frigates, twenty-eight ships were transferred under Lend-Lease to the Soviet Navy, where they were designated as a storozhevoi korabl, during World War II. All Tacoma-class ships in US service during World War II were manned by United States Coast Guard crews. Tacoma-class ships were transferred to the United States Coast Guard and various navies post-World War II. In 1942, the success of German submarines against Allied shipping and the shortage of escorts with which to protect Allied sea lines of communication convinced US President Franklin D. Roosevelt of a need to engage mercantile shipbuilders in the construction of warships for escort duty.
The United States Maritime Commission, which oversaw the wartime merchant shipbuilding program, proposed to meet this requirement by building a version of the British River-class frigate, a Royal Navy ship type based on a mercantile design in British shipyards experienced in building commercial ships. Two River-class ships under construction in Montreal, Canada, as HMS Adur and HMCS Annan, were transferred to the US Navy in 1942, prior to completion, as prototypes for the Tacoma class and became the Asheville-class Asheville and Natchez, respectively; the naval architecture firm of Gibbs & Cox, designed the Tacoma class by modifying the River class to American requirements. The Tacoma-class units were designed and armed to serve as anti-submarine warfare ships, they were distinguished from the River class by their pole foremast and lighter main guns, 3-inch /50 caliber gun instead of the British 4-inch /40 caliber gun, they had an American rather than British powerplant and were designed to take advantage of American construction techniques employing prefabrication.
Unlike most other types of warship, the Tacomas, like the Rivers, were built to mercantile standards. With the proven effectiveness of the River class on escort duty, MARCOM hoped that the mercantile design of the Tacomas would allow the commercial shipyards to build them more cheaply and efficiently and that the US Navy, some members of which doubted that the commercial shipyard could build a sturdy enough warship, would accept them because of the proven service record of the River-class ships which inspired their design; the resulting ships had a greater range than the superficially similar destroyer escorts, but the US Navy viewed them as decidedly inferior in all other respects. The Tacoma class had a much larger turning circle than a destroyer escort, lacked sufficient ventilation for warm-weather operations – a reflection of their original British design and its emphasis on operations in the North Atlantic Ocean – and were criticized as far too hot below decks, because of the mercantile style of their hulls, had far less resistance to underwater explosions than ships built to naval standards like the destroyer escorts.
Like their predecessors Asheville and Natchez, the Tacoma-class ships built for the US Navy all were named after small cities in the United States. In November 1942, MARCOM gave its West Coast Regional Office the responsibility for coordinating the construction of the ships of the Tacoma class, which were to be split between commercial shipyards on the United States West Coast and five shipyards on the Great Lakes, the latter in particular chosen because they had building ways available for use in the Tacoma program. MARCOM tendered a contract to Kaiser Cargo, Inc. of Oakland, California, to prepare detailed specifications based on the Gibbs & Cox design and to manage the overall construction program. On 8 December 1942, MARCOM contracted for 69 Tacoma-class ships, for which the US Navy dropped the British "corvette" designation in favor of classifying the Tacomas as "patrol gunboats". Kaiser Cargo itself received an order for 12 ships. American Shipbuilding received an order for another six, bringing the total orders for the US Navy to 79 ships, while the Walsh-Kaiser Company, of Providence, Rhode Island, received an order for 21 additional ships, all of which were to be transferred to the Royal Navy, where they were known as the Colony class, bringing the total planned construction to 100 units.
Four ships scheduled for construction at Lorain, by American Shipbuilding, Macon and Milledgeville, were cancelled in December 1943 and February 1944, dropping the ultimate total of Tacoma-class ships built to 96. From the beginning, the construction program was plagued by difficulties which caused it to fall far behind s