A firefighter is a rescuer extensively trained in firefighting to extinguish hazardous fires that threaten life and the environment as well as to rescue people and animals from dangerous situations. The complexity of modern, industrialized life has created an increase in the skills needed in firefighting technology; the fire service known in some countries as the fire brigade or fire department, is one of the three main emergency services. From urban areas to aboard ships, firefighters have become ubiquitous around the world; the skills required for safe operations are practiced during training evaluations throughout a firefighter's career. Initial firefighting skills are taught through local, regional or state-approved fire academies or training courses. Depending on the requirements of a department, additional skills and certifications such as technical rescue and pre-hospital medicine may be acquired at this time. Firefighters work with other emergency response agencies such as the police and emergency medical service.
A firefighter's role may overlap with both. Fire investigators or fire marshals investigate the cause of a fire. If the fire was caused by arson or negligence, their work will overlap with law enforcement. Firefighters frequently provide some degree of emergency medical service, in addition to working with full-time paramedics; the basic tasks of firefighters include: fire suppression, fire prevention, basic first aid, investigations. Firefighting is further broken down into skills which include: size-up, ventilation and rescue, containment, mop up and overhaul. A fire burns due to the presence of three elements: fuel and heat — referred to as the fire triangle. Sometimes it is known as the fire tetrahedron if a fourth element is added: a chemical chain reaction which can help sustain certain types of fire; the aim of firefighting is to deprive the fire of at least one of those elements. Most this is done by dousing the fire with water, though some fires require other methods such as foam. Firefighters are equipped with a wide variety of equipment for this purpose that include: ladder trucks, pumper trucks, tanker trucks, fire hose, fire extinguishers.
While sometimes fires can be limited to small areas of a structure, wider collateral damage due to smoke and burning embers is common. Utility shutoff is an early priority for arriving fire crews. Specific procedures and equipment are needed at a property where hazardous materials are being used or stored. Structure fires may be attacked with "exterior" resources, or both. Interior crews, using the "two in, two out" rule, may extend fire hose lines inside the building, find the fire and cool it with water. Exterior crews may direct water into windows and other openings, or against any nearby fuels exposed to the initial fire. Hose streams directed into the interior through exterior wall apertures may conflict and jeopardize interior fire attack crews. See Fire suppression for other techniques. Buildings that are made of flammable materials such as wood are different from fire-resistant building materials such as concrete. A "fire-resistant" building is designed to limit fire to a small area or floor.
Other floors can be safe by preventing smoke damage. All buildings on fire must be evacuated, regardless of fire rating; some fire fighting tactics may appear to be destructive, but serve specific needs. For example, during ventilation firefighters are forced to either open holes in the roof or floors of a structure, or open windows and walls to remove smoke and heated gases from the interior of the structure; such ventilation methods are used to improve interior visibility to locate victims more quickly. Ventilation helps to preserve the life of trapped or unconscious individuals as it releases the poisonous gases from inside the structure. Vertical ventilation is vital to firefighter safety in the event of a flashover or backdraft scenario. Releasing the flammable gases through the roof eliminates the possibility of a backdraft, the removal of heat can reduce the possibility of a flashover. Flashovers, due to their intense heat and explosive temperaments, are fatal to firefighter personnel. Precautionary methods, such as smashing a window, reveal backdraft situations before the firefighter enters the structure and is met with the circumstance head-on.
Firefighter safety is the number one priority. Whenever possible, property is moved into the middle of a room and covered with a salvage cover, a heavy cloth-like tarp. Various steps such as retrieving and protecting valuables found during suppression or overhaul and boarding windows and roofs can divert or prevent post-fire runoff. Wildfires require a unique set of tactics. In many countries such as Australia and the United States, these duties are carried out by local volunteer firefighters. Wildfires have some ecological role in allowing new plants to grow, therefore in some cases they will be left to burn. Priorities in fighting wildfires include preventing the loss of life and property.. Firefighters rescue people from dangerous situations such as crashed vehicles, structural collapses, trench collapses and tunnel emergencies and ice emergencies, elevator emergencies, energized electrical line emergencies, industrial accidents. In less common circumstances, Firefighters rescue victims from hazardous materials emergencies as well as steep cliffs and high rises - The latter is referred to as High Angle Rescue, or Rope Rescue
The police are a constituted body of persons empowered by a state to enforce the law, to protect the lives and possessions of citizens, to prevent crime and civil disorder. Their powers include the legitimized use of force; the term is most associated with the police forces of a sovereign state that are authorized to exercise the police power of that state within a defined legal or territorial area of responsibility. Police forces are defined as being separate from the military and other organizations involved in the defense of the state against foreign aggressors. Police forces are public sector services, funded through taxes. Law enforcement is only part of policing activity. Policing has included an array of activities in different situations, but the predominant ones are concerned with the preservation of order. In some societies, in the late 18th and early 19th centuries, these developed within the context of maintaining the class system and the protection of private property. Police forces have become ubiquitous in modern societies.
Their role can be controversial, as some are involved to varying degrees in corruption, police brutality and the enforcement of authoritarian rule. A police force may be referred to as a police department, police service, gendarmerie, crime prevention, protective services, law enforcement agency, civil guard or civic guard. Members may be referred to as police officers, sheriffs, rangers, peace officers or civic/civil guards. Ireland differs from other English-speaking countries by using the Irish language terms Garda and Gardaí, for both the national police force and its members; the word police is the most universal and similar terms can be seen in many non-English speaking countries. Numerous slang terms exist for the police. Many slang terms for police officers are centuries old with lost etymology. One of the oldest, "cop", has lost its slang connotations and become a common colloquial term used both by the public and police officers to refer to their profession. First attested in English in the early 15th century in a range of senses encompassing' policy.
This is derived from πόλις, "city". Law enforcement in ancient China was carried out by "prefects" for thousands of years since it developed in both the Chu and Jin kingdoms of the Spring and Autumn period. In Jin, dozens of prefects were spread across the state, each having limited authority and employment period, they were appointed by local magistrates, who reported to higher authorities such as governors, who in turn were appointed by the emperor, they oversaw the civil administration of their "prefecture", or jurisdiction. Under each prefect were "subprefects" who helped collectively with law enforcement in the area; some prefects were responsible for handling investigations, much like modern police detectives. Prefects could be women; the concept of the "prefecture system" spread to other cultures such as Japan. In ancient Greece, publicly owned slaves were used by magistrates as police. In Athens, a group of 300 Scythian slaves was used to guard public meetings to keep order and for crowd control, assisted with dealing with criminals, handling prisoners, making arrests.
Other duties associated with modern policing, such as investigating crimes, were left to the citizens themselves. In the Roman empire, the army, rather than a dedicated police organization, provided security. Local watchmen were hired by cities to provide some extra security. Magistrates such as procurators fiscal and quaestors investigated crimes. There was no concept of public prosecution, so victims of crime or their families had to organize and manage the prosecution themselves. Under the reign of Augustus, when the capital had grown to one million inhabitants, 14 wards were created, their duties included capturing runaway slaves. The vigiles were supported by the Urban Cohorts who acted as a heavy-duty anti-riot force and the Praetorian Guard if necessary. In medieval Spain, Santa Hermandades, or "holy brotherhoods", peacekeeping associations of armed individuals, were a characteristic of municipal life in Castile; as medieval Spanish kings could not offer adequate protection, protective municipal leagues began to emerge in the twelfth century against banditry and other rural criminals, against the lawless nobility or to support one or another claimant to a crown.
These organizations became a long-standing fixture of Spain. The first recorded case of the formation of an hermandad occurred when the towns and the peasantry of the north united to police the pilgrim road to Santiago de Compostela in Galicia, protect the pilgrims against robber knights. Throughout the Middle Ages such alliances were formed by combinations of towns to protect the roads connecting them, were extended to political purposes. Among the most powerful was the league of North Castilian and Basque ports, the Hermandad de las marismas: Toledo and Villarreal; as one of their first acts after end of the War of the Castilian Succession in 1479, Ferdinand II of Aragon and Isabella I of Castile established the centrally-organized and efficient Holy
A military is a heavily-armed, highly-organised force intended for warfare known collectively as armed forces. It is officially authorized and maintained by a sovereign state, with its members identifiable by their distinct military uniform, it may consist of one or more military branches such as an Army, Air Force and in certain countries and Coast Guard. The main task of the military is defined as defence of the state and its interests against external armed threats. Beyond warfare, the military may be employed in additional sanctioned and non-sanctioned functions within the state, including internal security threats, population control, the promotion of a political agenda, emergency services and reconstruction, protecting corporate economic interests, social ceremonies and national honor guards. A nation's military may function as a discrete social subculture, with dedicated infrastructure such as military housing, utilities, hospitals, legal services, food production and banking services.
In broad usage, the terms "armed forces" and "military" are treated as synonymous, although in technical usage a distinction is sometimes made in which a country's armed forces may include both its military and other paramilitary forces. There are various forms of irregular military forces; the profession of soldiering as part of a military is older than recorded history itself. Some of the most enduring images of classical antiquity portray the power and feats of its military leaders; the Battle of Kadesh in 1274 BC was one of the defining points of Pharaoh Ramses II's reign, his monuments commemorate it in bas-relief. A thousand years the first emperor of unified China, Qin Shi Huang, was so determined to impress the gods with his military might that he had himself buried with an army of terracotta soldiers; the Romans paid considerable attention to military matters, leaving to posterity many treatises and writings on the subject, as well as a large number of lavishly carved triumphal arches and victory columns.
Issue: Possibly cognate with Thousand, cf. Latin and Romance language root word "mil-")The first recorded use of the word military in English, spelled militarie, was in 1582, it comes from the Latin militaris through French, but is of uncertain etymology, one suggestion being derived from *mil-it- – going in a body or mass. The word is now identified as denoting someone, skilled in use of weapons, or engaged in military service, or in warfare; as a noun, the military refers to a country's armed forces, or sometimes, more to the senior officers who command them. In general, it refers to the physicality of armed forces, their personnel and the physical area which they occupy; as an adjective, military referred only to soldiers and soldiering, but it soon broadened to apply to land forces in general, anything to do with their profession. The names of both the Royal Military Academy and United States Military Academy reflect this. However, at about the time of the Napoleonic Wars,'military' began to be used in reference to armed forces as a whole, in the 21st century expressions like'military service','military intelligence', and'military history' encompass naval and air force aspects.
As such, it now connotes any activity performed by armed force personnel. Military history is considered to be the history of all conflicts, not just the history of the state militaries, it differs somewhat from the history of war, with military history focusing on the people and institutions of war-making, while the history of war focuses on the evolution of war itself in the face of changing technology and geography. Military history has a number of facets. One main facet is to learn from past accomplishments and mistakes, so as to more wage war in the future. Another is to create a sense of military tradition, used to create cohesive military forces. Still, another may be to learn to prevent wars more effectively. Human knowledge about the military is based on both recorded and oral history of military conflicts, their participating armies and navies and, more air forces. There are two types of military history, although all texts have elements of both: descriptive history, that serves to chronicle conflicts without offering any statements about the causes, nature of conduct, the ending, effects of a conflict.
Despite the growing importance of military technology, military activity depends above all on people. For example, in 2000 the British Army declared: "Man is still the first weapon of war." The military organization is characterized by a strict hierarchy divided by military rank, with ranks grouped as officers, non-commissioned officers, personnel at the lowest rank. While senior officers make strategic decisions, subordinated military personnel fulfil them. Although rank titles vary by military branch and country, the rank hierarchy is common to all state armed forces worldwide. In addition to their rank, personnel occupy one of many trade roles, which are grouped according to
Firefighting is the act of attempting to prevent the spread of and extinguish significant unwanted fires in buildings, woodlands, etc. A firefighter suppresses fires to protect lives and the environment. Firefighters undergo a high degree of technical training; this involves wildland firefighting. Specialized training includes aircraft firefighting, shipboard firefighting, aerial firefighting, maritime firefighting, proximity firefighting. One of the major hazards associated with firefighting operations is the toxic environment created by combustible materials; the four major risks are smoke, oxygen deficiency, elevated temperatures, poisonous atmospheres. Additional hazards include falls and structural collapse that can exacerbate the problems entailed in a toxic environment. To combat some of these risks, firefighters carry self-contained breathing equipment; the first step in a firefighting operation is reconnaissance to search for the origin of the fire and to identify the specific risks. Fires can be extinguished by fuel or oxidant removal, or chemical flame inhibition.
The earliest known firefighters were in the city of Rome. In 60 A. D. emperor Nero established a Corps of Vigils to protect Rome after a disastrous fire. It consisted of 7,000 people equipped with buckets and axes, they fought fires and served as police. In the 4th century B. C. an Alexandrian Greek named Ctesibius made a double force pump called a siphona. As water rose in the chamber, it compressed the air inside, which forced the water to eject in a steady stream through a pipe and nozzle. In the 16th century, syringes were used as firefighting tools, the larger ones being mounted on wheels. Another traditional method that survived was the bucket brigade, involving two lines of people formed between the water source and the fire. Men in one of the lines would pass along the full buckets of water toward the fire while in the other line women and children would pass back the empty buckets to be refilled. In the 17th century,'fire engines' were made, notably in Amsterdam. In 1721, the English inventor Richard Newsham made a popular fire engine, a rectangular box on wheels filled using a bucket brigade to provide a reservoir while hand-powered pumps supplied sufficient water pressure to douse fires at a distance.
Ancient Rome did not have municipal firefighters. Instead, private individuals relied on their supporters to take action, they would not only form bucket brigades or attempt to smother smaller fires, but would demolish or raze nearby buildings to slow the spread of the fire. However, there is no mention of fires being extinguished, rather they were contained and burned themselves out. Ancient Rome did not have an organized firefighting force until the Vigiles were formed in the reign of Augustus. Prior to the Great Fire of London in 1666, some parishes in the UK had begun to organize rudimentary firefighting. After the Great Fire, Nicholas Barbon introduced the first fire insurance. In order to reduce insurance costs, Barbon formed his own fire brigade, other companies followed suit. By the start of the 1800s, insured buildings were identified with a badge or mark indicating that they were eligible for a company's firefighting services. Buildings not insured with a particular company were left by its firefighters to burn, unless they happened to be adjacent to an insured building, in which case it was in the company's interest to prevent the fire from spreading.
In 1833 fire insurance companies in London merged to form The London Fire Company Establishment. Steam-powered apparatuses were first introduced in the 1850s, allowing a greater quantity of water to be directed onto a fire. In World War II the Auxiliary Fire Service, the National Fire Service, were established to supplement local fire services. At that time, there was no countrywide standard for firefighting terms, ranks, or equipment; these were standardized after the war. In January 1608, a fire destroyed many of the colonists' provisions and lodgings in Jamestown, Virginia. Boston, New York City, Philadelphia were all plagued by fires, volunteer fire brigades formed soon after such disasters. In 1736, Benjamin Franklin founded the Union Fire Company in Philadelphia, which became the standard for volunteer fire organizations; these firefighters had two critical tools: so-called bed keys. Salvage bags were used to collect and save valuables, bed keys were used to separate the wooden frame of a bed into pieces for safe and rapid removal from the fire.
The first American attempt at fire insurance failed after a large fire in Charlestown, Massachusetts in 1736. In 1740, Benjamin Franklin organized the Philadelphia Contributionship to provide fire insurance, more successful; the Contributionship adopted "fire marks" to identify insured buildings. Firefighting started to become formalized with rules for providing buckets and hooks, with the formation of volunteer companies. A chain of command was established. A firefighter's goals are to save lives and the environment. A fire can spread and endanger many lives, but with modern firefighting techniques, catastrophe can be avoided. To prevent fires from starting, a firefighter's duties may include public education about fire safety and conducting fire inspections of locations to verify their adherence to local fire codes. Firefighting requires skills in fire suppression and hazardous materials mitigation. Firefighters must have, or be able to acquire, kno
International trade is the exchange of capital and services across international borders or territories. In most countries, such trade represents a significant share of gross domestic product. While international trade has existed throughout history, its economic and political importance has been on the rise in recent centuries. Carrying out trade at an international level is a complex process when compared to domestic trade; when trade takes place between two or more nations factors like currency, government policies, judicial system and markets influence the trade. International economic and trade organizations address the process of trade as the political relations between two countries influences the trade between them and the obstacles of trading affect the mutual relationship adversely. To smoothen and justify the process of trade between countries of different economic standing, some international economic organisations were formed; these organisations work towards the growth of international trade.
A product, transferred or sold from a party in one country to a party in another country is an export from the originating country, an import to the country receiving that product. Imports and exports are accounted for in a country's current account in the balance of payments. Trading globally gives consumers and countries the opportunity to be exposed to new markets and products; every kind of product can be found in the international market: food, spare parts, jewellery, stocks and water. Services are traded: tourism, banking and transportation Advanced technology, industrialisation and multinational corporations have major impact on the international trade system. Increasing international trade is crucial to the continuance of globalisation. Nations would be limited to the goods and services produced within their own borders without international trade. International trade is, in principle, not different from domestic trade as the motivation and the behavior of parties involved in a trade do not change fundamentally regardless of whether trade is across a border or not.
Carrying out trade at an international level is a more complex process than domestic trade. The main difference is that international trade is more costly than domestic trade; this is due to the fact that a border imposes additional costs such as tariffs, time costs due to border delays, costs associated with country differences such as language, the legal system, or culture. Another difference between domestic and international trade is that factors of production such as capital and labor are more mobile within a country than across countries. Thus, international trade is restricted to trade in goods and services, only to a lesser extent to trade in capital, labour, or other factors of production. Trade in goods and services can serve as a substitute for trade in factors of production. Instead of importing a factor of production, a country can import goods that make intensive use of that factor of production and thus embody it. An example of this is the import of labor-intensive goods by the United States from China.
Instead of importing Chinese labor, the United States imports goods that were produced with Chinese labor. One report in 2010 suggested that international trade was increased when a country hosted a network of immigrants, but the trade effect was weakened when the immigrants became assimilated into their new country; the history of international trade chronicles notable events that have affected trading among various economies. There are several models which seek to explain the factors behind international trade, the welfare consequences of trade and the pattern of trade; the following table is a list of the 21 largest trading nations according to the World Trade Organization. Source: International Trade Centre President George W. Bush observed World Trade Week on May 18, 2001, May 17, 2002. On May 13, 2016, President Barack Obama proclaimed May 15 through May 21, 2016, World Trade Week, 2016. On May 19, 2017, President Donald Trump proclaimed May 21 through May 27, 2017, World Trade Week, 2017.
World Trade Week is the third week of May. Every year the President declares that week to be World Trade Week. Lists List of countries by current account balance List of countries by imports List of countries by exports List of international trade topics Jones, Ronald W.. "Comparative Advantage and the Theory of Tariffs". The Review of Economic Studies. 28: 161–175. Doi:10.2307/2295945. McKenzie, Lionel W.. "Specialization and Efficiency in World Production". The Review of Economic Studies. 21: 165–180. Doi:10.2307/2295770. Samuelson, Paul. "A Ricardo-Sraffa Paradigm Comparing the Gains from Trade in Inputs and Finished Goods". Journal of Economic Literature. 39: 1204–1214. Doi:10.1257/jel.39.4.1204. Data on the value of exports and imports and their quantities broken down by detailed lists of products are available in statistical collections on international trade published by the statistical services of intergovernmental and supranational organisations and national statistical institutes; the definitions and methodological concepts applied for the various statistical collections on international trade differ in terms of definition and coverage.
Metadata providing information on definitions and methods are published along with the data. United Nations Commodi